September 16, 2019
Username:

Definition of Genocide

General Assembly: Legal Committee

Topic: Definition of Genocide

The issue of genocide has been a central aspect of the United Nation’s mission since its founding in 1948. One of the key reasons the international community felt that establishing the UN was in response to the atrocities committed leading up to and during World War II. States lacked adequate definitions for horrors such as the Holocaust, and developing legal descriptions is an important step to addressing genocides past, present, and future.

The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide officially defined genocide as “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part”. Adopted in 1948, this definition represents compromises that were made through negotiations while drafting the Genocide Convention. Also acknowledged by the International Court of Justice, the Convention’s principals are recognized as general customary international law. Thus, states which have adopted the Genocide Convention are obligated to prevent and punish it. While the formal definition of genocide is the direct result of negotiation between many states, critics say the definition is lacking in terminology that clearly defines when an act of genocide may be prosecuted, arguing that the “intent” behind an act of genocide is often difficult to prove.

Genocide is more than just the crimes themselves, and delegates should pay attention to the steps that are necessary for them to occur. The United Nations has developed frameworks to understand the risk factors that can be identified in states where genocide might occur. Understanding these is vital to developing solutions that not only punish those who have committed atrocities, but also prevent them from occurring in the first place.

The task of accurately defining genocides did not conclude after the 1948 Convention, and since that time the world has unfortunately witnessed a great number of atrocities that fall in a gray area outside of the strict definition adopted at that time. Improving upon the 1948 definition is no small task. It involves dealing with difficult histories that some states would prefer not to confront, and some may prefer their past not be categorized as genocide. Delegates will have to confront these challenges in a way that gives appropriate respect to victims and aligns with the mission of the United Nations.

Submit a postion paper

You do not have permission to view this form. You must be logged in. If you are an Advisor, please request an Advisor Account or Login. If you are a Delegate, please request Delegate login access from your Advisor or Login.

Submitted Position Papers

Gregory Poole 11/29/2023 20:21:06 64.136.227.206

Topic:
Country: Ecuador
Delegate Name: Gabe Henderson

Honorable Chairs, Distinguished Delegates,
The Republic of Ecuador approaches this esteemed assembly with a solemn
acknowledgment of the gravity surrounding the issue of genocide. The quest to define,
prevent, and address genocidal acts has been central to the mission of the United
Nations since its inception, borne from the horrors witnessed during World War II.
The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
Genocide, adopted in 1948, stands as a pivotal legal instrument defining genocide. The
Convention’s definition, recognizing genocide as a crime committed with the intent to
destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, is acknowledged as a cornerstone
of customary international law. While this definition sets a crucial standard, critics rightly
highlight the challenges in clearly delineating when an act of genocide can be
prosecuted, especially concerning the burden of proving “intent.”
Beyond defining genocide lies the imperative to understand the factors leading to such
atrocities. The United Nations has developed frameworks to identify risk factors present
in states where genocide might occur. Ecuador recognizes the significance of these
frameworks, emphasizing the necessity of preventive measures alongside punitive
actions to avert and address such catastrophic events.
However, the journey toward accurately defining genocides did not conclude with the
1948 Convention. The world has sadly witnessed numerous atrocities that fall outside
the strict confines of that definition. Enhancing the 1948 definition demands grappling
with complex histories that some states may be reluctant to confront, especially when
their past actions may fall under the category of genocide. Ecuador acknowledges the
challenges involved and stresses the need for a balanced approach that respects
victims’ narratives while aligning with the United Nations’ mission.
Ecuador underscores the importance of engaging in constructive dialogue to refine the
definition of genocide, ensuring it encapsulates contemporary complexities while
remaining faithful to its original intent. This process must be guided by a commitment to
justice, accountability, and the prevention of mass atrocities. Ecuador stands ready to
collaborate with the international community in this endeavor, prioritizing respect for
victims and the UN’s noble mission.
In conclusion, Ecuador reiterates its dedication to addressing the evolving nature of
genocidal acts through nuanced and inclusive discussions, paving the way for a more
comprehensive framework that upholds the principles of justice and humanity.

Thank you.

Read More

EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/22/2023 23:23:11 23.115.56.127

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Morocco
Delegate Name: Viola Verduzio

The definition of genocide, created by the UN after the tragedies of the Holocaust, is vague in description as its definition includes a crime committed with “intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part”. This creates confusion as to how to confront certain grey areas within the worlds and Morocco’s history. As a country we believe that there should be control of the people by the government, however we allow for freedom of religion. although the majority of people in Morocco are Muslim. We believe there should be more description as to what genocide entails and how to differentiate it from other acts of violence.

Read More

EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/22/2023 19:02:58 23.115.56.127

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Morocco
Delegate Name: Viola Verduzio

The definition of genocide, created by the UN after the tragedies of the Holocaust, is vague in description as its definition includes a crime committed with “intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part”. This creates confusion as to how to confront certain grey areas within the worlds and Morocco’s history. As a country we believe that there should be control of the people by the government, however we allow for freedom of religion. although the majority of people in Morocco are Muslim. We believe there should be more description as to what genocide entails and how to differentiate it from other acts of violence.

Read More

MattawanDelegates 11/22/2023 22:47:08 68.55.32.161

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: South Africa
Delegate Name: Fletcher Fahling

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: South Africa
Delegate Name: Fletcher Fahling
School: Mattawan High School

Genocide is one of the most despicable crimes defined by law today. Defined first by scholar Raphael Lemkin in response to the Holocaust and accepted by the UN shortly afterward, genocide is defined as specially as it is to reflect the uniqueness of this horrible crime. A strict, thoughtful, and complete definition of this crime and its consequences needs to be laid out by the international community because of the need to recognize, prevent, and punish it whenever it occurs. The Genocide Convention, adopted by the UN in 1948, built on Lemkin’s work and codified a definition of genocide, but many argue that this definition is broad and unclear, working against the goal of the UN to identify and punish cases of this crime.

South Africa ratified the Genocide Convention in 1998 (after the transition out of apartheid) just a couple years after the international community was horrified by the unconscionable genocide in Rwanda. This genocide should’ve been prevented or halted by the Genocide Convention but it wasn’t, showing a clear sign that the current legislation is not enough to ensure that crimes like this truly never happen again. Additionally, South Africa believes that the definition of genocide needs to be revisited because many questionable accusations of genocide have been arising, taking focus away from real events of crimes against humanity which deserve our attention. A more complete definition will not prevent people from misusing this incredibly weighty term, but it will allow for a clearer distinction of when this specific crime is taking place.

South Africa would support an amendment to the original Genocide Convention to clarify and specify the definition of genocide as well and strengthen the obligation of UN nations to prevent and punish genocide. Specifically, in line with Lemkin and modern scholars Abed, Chalk, and Johanssohn, clarity should be lent to how we define what groups can be victims of genocide and how we define and determine “intent.” South Africa, however, supports continuing to exclude so called cultural genocide from our definition of genocide, as this inclusion would expand the definition so much as to dilute its meaning and weight. Maintaining the furthering the significance and specificity of this term is a vital step to ensure the international community can continue its mission to prevent this devastating crime against humanity.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 21:45:36 68.61.223.11

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: India
Delegate Name: Isabella Feenstra

Legal Committee
The Definition of Genocide
The Republic of India
Isabella Feenstra
Forest Hills Eastern

Genocide equates to the institutionalized systematic extermination of a particular group based upon their race, gender, or ethnicity. The term, introduced by Raphael Lémkin in his book Axis Power in Occupied Europe during the 1940s, stems from Greek (prefix Genos – birth and race) and Latin (suffix Cide – kill or act of killing) roots. The world experienced this first-hand with the Holocaust during World War II and the surveillance, subjugation, and, finally, assassination of six million Europeans of Jewish descent. In the 1984 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (the Genocide Convention), 153 states recognized the crime of genocide as independent and mandatory under international law.

The convoluted relation of genocide within India’s borders originates from its foreign-occupied past. India ratified the 1948 Genocide Convention, pledging to take preventative and disciplinary measures against any actions of genocide with no governmental figure or tier exempt from prosecution. However, in recent years, the disruptive effects of the British Raj – British rule of India during a period of 89 years – fostered India’s firm stance on protecting its cultural heritage and identity. India’s detrimental era under British despotismic rule included the widespread angst of forced conversions, economic poverty, and political exploitation. Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the majority party leader of the Lok Sabha, the Bharatiya Janata Party, seek to establish national unity through the vessel of “Hindutva” (Hindu Nationalism). Encompassing all Hindus and tribal members within India, the Hindutva movement desires to install Hinduism as the national religion of India, which currently claims to be a secular country. The threats Kalistan (an inimical Sikh movement) and Muslim conversions pose to the establishment of Hinduism and the welfare of Indian society gravely concern India’s authorities. The Indian Penal Code constitutes genocide under section 153A, which prosecutes individuals on the basis of inciting any actions, words, or writings that promote enmity between two groups based on religion, gender, race, place of birth, language, or caste. This includes provisions against prejudice. Additionally, in section 295A, India prohibits any use of malicious acts, words, or actions with the intent to disrupt or upset a religious group’s beliefs or feelings. With these statutes in place, India believes they are adequate to prevent and contain the threat of genocide.

As such growing minorities seek to undermine the traditional Hindu values of India’s foundations. India promotes taking proactive measures to ensure the continuation of its heritage and Hindutva missions. The ambiguities within the definition of genocide under the UN provide nations with a means to protect their national identity and people from foreign degradation and manipulation.

Read More

KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 17:59:30 69.14.133.238

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Clara DeWaele

The definition of genocide originated in the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, following the tragedies of the Holocaust. The convention described it as “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part”. As this original, vague statement lacks specifics, the Republic of Korea believes change is necessary. The 1948 Genocide Convention was meant to prevent future occurrences of genocide, yet many events, which fit into the gray, vague areas of this definition, continue to be added to history books. This original terminology is ineffective in identifying, preventing, and punishing the actions of genocide. Though, it may serve as a basis for a more detailed framework to be built upon. Throughout this conference, the Republic of Korea hopes to unpack the various perspectives and histories of countries surrounding this topic as we work to articulate a more modern, specific definition for genocide.
Since its adoption at the 2005 United Nations World Summit, the Republic of Korea has been a strong supporter of the Responsibility to Protect, an international norm set in place to further prevent genocides, war crimes, ethnic cleansings, and crimes against humanity. As described in the baseline assessment of R2P (responsibility to protect) implementation, the Republic of Korea has succeeded in carrying out the concepts expressed in R2P, domestically, and throughout the Asia Pacific. First, the Republic of Korea has ensured that domestic policy reflects international standards, with laws in place, working against discrimination, protecting human rights, and ensuring a safe environment for all citizens. Furthermore, the Republic of Korea has worked to carry out R2P at an international level, through increased participation within the United Nations, and continuous efforts directed towards the DPRK. First, the Republic of Korea has worked within the framework of the United Nations, to further expand the agenda of R2P, and to better protect human rights internationally. This is evident in the work of the Republic of Korea as a cosponsor of the resolution on Threats to International Peace and Security – Prevention of Genocide. Additionally, The Republic of Korea has worked to better the situation of the DPRK- where a continuous devolution of human rights exists, along with the increased usage of political camps to detain residents. To respond to this situation, the Republic of Korea has formed the North Korean Human Rights Promotion Committee, a group that acts as an advisory council, made up of human rights experts who support the promotion of the North Korean Human Rights Act.
While steps have been made to improve the international response to genocide, and other atrocities across the world, the Republic of Korea believes that a further effort in remaking the definition of genocide is still necessary. A suggestion of improvement involves the aspect of political groups under the list of groups within the definition, as this would allow more effort focused toward the thousands of people located in the political camps of the DPRK. The Republic of Korea looks forward to working with all who share similar beliefs in improving this definition, in order to better respond to acts of genocide throughout the world, and improve international peace.

Read More

Trevor Riley 11/22/2023 16:25:31 174.162.60.153

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Saudi Arabia
Delegate Name: Ava Surdam

Saudi Arabia has made great progress over the years. For example, we introduced free universal healthcare in 2019. We have education available for both genders, including higher education in the form of 36 universities that allow women to attend or are exclusively for women. Our literacy rate for men is around ninety-seven percent. For women, it is around ninety-two percent, but for youths of both genders, the literacy rate is around ninety-nine percent. Our life expectancy is over 76 years of age. We also have much less civil unrest within our country than many others because of the beliefs we all share through our beautiful religion, Islam.

Saudi Arabia is a monarchy, but we are also and have always been a single-religion country. We publicly practice Islam and don’t allow any of our citizens to practice any non-Islamic religion. For this reason, we believe that the definition of genocide does not need anything added to it. However, any detail regarding religious prosecution must not be included in any definition used, as we can restrict religious freedom in our country. Because we are a single-religion country it is illegal to convert to any non-Islamic religion, and we should not be accused of genocide for that as that would be ridiculous.

For the safety of this country’s values, we would like the definition of genocide to exclude any details regarding religion. Currently, the formal definition of genocide seems complete, in the eyes of Saudi Arabia, and doesn’t need any editing other than clearing up the religious aspects. We believe that our ideals only affect those in our country and under our rule. For this reason, we should never be attacked or even faintly considered genocidal. In every other aspect, however, we believe that the definition of genocide does not need any further editing, but should be universalized so that there is one formal definition, and therefore no confusion.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 16:14:10 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Tanner Beavon

The word Genocide was first coined in the year 1944 by a Polish lawyer who combined the prefix genos, meaning race or tribe, and the suffix cide- or killing. In response to the targetted actions aimed at the destruction of Jewish peoples during the Holocaust, genocide was quickly stipulated as an international crime in 1946, then defined in the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, which has since been ratified by 153 states as of April 2022. In addition, the agreed upon definition was a result of deliberation and compromise has become precedent for other international and hybrid jurisdictions. The convection posed two main elements for the narrow definition of the crime which includes both a mental and physical element; intent to deliberately kill or cause serious bodily harm to members of a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. This would include imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group.

Brazil emphasizes the importance of an all-inclusive definition of genocide that encapsulates the different forms of genocide that may not entirely meet the expectations outlined by the Genocide Convention. Brazil has no history of violating this international law, however with a rapidly declining indigenous population of the Amazonian region, these tribes face external threats such as exploitative mining, logging, and cattle ranching which challenges their cultural heritage and continued existence.

It is clear that in order to ensure justice and protection in regards to genocide on the international level, it is imperative to strengthen the procedures that the UN takes in order to properly address and prosecute such atrocities. Brazil will stay committed to the collaboration among the international community to arrive at a proper framework to ensure a more just and peaceful world.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:50:13 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Sudan
Delegate Name: Rishika Kokkula

According to the United Nations Genocide Convention, there must be a proven intent to destroy a national, ethnic, or religious group in order for a crime to be classified as genocide. This definiton, adopted in 1948, is a culmination of compromises made during the convention and requires all states which have adopted it to uphold its meaning. Due to an overwhelming history of violence that encapsulates many countries around the world, it is imperative that the United Nations works to establish proper legal definitions of such atrocities in order to address them more effectively.

Even after ratifying the Genocide Convention and creating a formal definition of genocide, its meaning still remains ambiguous and, in some cases, difficult to prove as intent can be interpreted in a multitude of ways. Being a country that has and continues to experience the dangers of violence and genocide, Sudan recognizes the importance of working within the United Nations to create a more clear definition of genocide in order to ensure that it is upheld by the law and that it is preventable to begin with.

For decades, Sudan has endured violence within their own borders as well as civil and political unrest. Because the citizens of Sudan have experienced mass bloodshed and loss due to genocide and violence, Sudan urges the United Nations to establish a looser definition of genocide, making it easier to prosecute and protecting the lives of innocent citizens. We encourage the cooperation and collaboration of countries within the United Nations to re-evaluate the implications of the Genocide Convention and work to develop a definition of genocide that ensures the prevention of atrocious acts and the prosecution of appropriate criminals.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:42:43 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Muskan Rekhani

The definition of Genocide is a complex ongoing debate with many variables to consider as it is much more than just the crimes themselves, rather it is the intent behind the crimes and a country’s interpretation. The first main call to strengthen the definition of genocide was from the Nürnberg trials where the United Nations triad Nazis for their war crimes. Following, the world has unfortunately continued to witness a great number of atrocities that fall in a gray area outside of the definition at their times. Currently, genocide is officially defined as “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part.” To gather this definition, the UN had a Genocide convention: the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. As a result, 153 states ratified the genocide law which was enough for the International Court of Justice to make this definition international law. The United Kingdom has never been affected by genocide, however, they believe it is a serious issue that the international jurisdiction should be responsible for. The main issue is the apparent ambiguousness in the definition only defines indicators of genocide, but the “intent” behind the acts of genocide is often difficult to prove. In other words, genocide has two parts; the mental element is intent the physical element is causing harm and both have to be done by targeting certain groups. The part of the definition regarding the harming of specific groups adds to the obscurity of defining the crime.

As mentioned before, genocide does not affect the United Kindom heavily so they are not as involved with the definition issue. The UK government stated the UK policy “has always been that determinations of genocide should be made by competent courts, rather than by governments or non-judicial bodies [such as parliament].” In specific, decisions should be made by international courts, which is how they are currently ruled through. Currently, in the UK each state has its process for acknowledging genocide. They only recognize five international acts of genocide: the Holocaust, Rwanda, Srebrenica, Cambodia, and against Yazidi people. Yazidi was most recently recognized as genocide in the UK. Additionally, the UK refused to label the human rights abuses against the Muslim Uighur community in China’s Xinjiang region genocide because, as stated by the embassy, “The unwarranted accusation by a handful of British MPs that there is ‘genocide’ in Xinjiang is the most preposterous lie of the century, an outrageous insult and affront to the Chinese people, and a gross breach of international law and the basic norms governing international relations.” From the lack of genocide recognition in the UK, it is evident they follow the vague international law without much interpretation concluding in acceptance of genocide only with hard facts. Presently, the UK is part of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe-Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. This committee is rooted in the US government and creates supervision for the development of security to catch such severe crimes.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland compels the United Nations to revise the current definition of genocide to specifically include guidance when deciding the intent behind an offense. The UK suggests involving signs of intent or specific patterns to investigate when determining genocide. Additionally, the international court should include a background investigation into the defendant’s ties to the group he or she targeted. Last, a committee of qualified psychologists and doctors may prove helpful in determining the intent behind felonies. In conclusion, the definition of genocide is a problem for the International Court of Justice to fix, however, for countries to agree on the judgment, the official definition must be revised.

Read More

RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 15:20:15 69.230.128.252

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Algeria
Delegate Name: Grace Hatton

11/20/2023
Submitted To: Legal Committee
From: Algeria
Subject: Definition of Genocide

The very definition of genocide is a planned and deliberate attack against a group of targeted people for a specific reason. Algeria does not stand for this, and in 1963, ratified the Genocide Convention, which swears to “punish the crime of genocide” and those who commit it. In the past, Algeria has had experiences with genocide when fighting for freedom with France, and they have made it clear that Algeria does not condone genocide nor wish genocide upon any nation. When Algerian President Tebboune took to the stage to say that the nation of the world needed to prosecutes those who committed genocide in Israel.

In 1991, Algeria fought a civil war against both France and Isreal and accused France of a mass genocide of their people. Around 1,500,000 Algerians were killed in the war, and crimes such as torture, rape, and massacres of civilians occured. This begs the question of why did Algeria wait all this time for too accuse France of a genocide. Furthermore, this year Algeria conndemmed its former colonial ruler Isreal, for their systematic policy of forcefully opressing, displacing people, and commiting genocide.

Algeria stresses the importance of taking immediate action to halt the expansion of Israeli settlements and prevent acts of violence by Israeli settlers against Palestinians in the West Bank. Algeria believes it is essential to hold accountable those who are responsible for the violence in the Gaza Strip by bringing them before the International Criminal Court.

As mentioned earlier, Algeria signed the Genocide Convention along with 152 other countries who all signed too prevent and punish those who commit genocide. Lastly, Algeria wishes the remaining 41 nations to sign the Genocide Covention so all the nations of the world can agree too stop genocide. Algeria wishes for Isreal too be punished for there crimes of genocide against Gaza and wants the conflict between the two too be resolved.

Sources:
https://glica.org/glica-conferences/glimun-2023-conference/glimun-2023-committees/definition-of-genocide/

https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&clang=_en
https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/genocide-convention.shtml#:~:text=Importantly%2C%20the%20Convention%20establishes%20on,individuals%E2%80%9D%20(Article%20IV).

https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/algerian-president-tebboune-turkish-president-erdogan-discuss-need-for-accountability-over-gaza-genocide/3060907#:~:text=ALGIERS%2C%20Algeria,-Algerian%20President%20Abdelmajid&text=%22We%20reiterated%20our%20condemnation%20of,the%20Presidential%20Palace%20in%20Algiers.

https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/2021-10-03/ty-article/algeria-accuses-france-of-genocide-recalls-ambassador-amid-visa-spat/0000017f-dc81-df62-a9ff-dcd793f50000?v=1700603929896

https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/genocide-convention.shtml#:~:text=The%20Genocide%20Convention%20has%20been,have%20yet%20to%20do%20so.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:48:01 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Italy
Delegate Name: Emerson Abbo

The definition of genocide is especially important to Italy due to the country’s involvement in World WarⅡ. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Jewish people- having lived in Italy for around two thousand years- were deeply integrated into Italian society. After the National Fascist Party seized control in 1922, many Jewish People were sympathetic to the regime and even held significant political offices. Despite Italy’s prosecution of Jewish people during World WarⅡbeing less severe than that of other Axis Powers, it is still responsible for collaborating with the Nazis and implementing antisemitic legislation during its fascist regime. Clearly defining genocide is necessary for bringing justice to victims of the Holocaust and other genocides, as well as preventing future atrocities.

Italy believes that the best way to address genocide is by educating the public on past genocides, denouncing violent prejudices, and promoting tolerant values. This approach not only honors victims of genocide but also emphasizes the steps necessary for a genocide to take place. As former Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi states, “We must take action focusing on the deep roots of racism and antisemitism, tackling their violent expressions and curbing any form of denialism.” Nationally, government officials participate in official ceremonies for holocaust remembrance efforts. Locally, towns and schools hold special events to honor the victims of the Holocaust, as well as the Roma Genocide. The country is devoted to continuously remembering and honoring the lives lost to genocide, especially on January 27, International Holocaust Remembrance Day. Italy is also a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance. Concerning the identification of other genocides, Italy’s Chamber of Deputies motioned for the recognition of the Armenian Genocide. Italy also recognizes the Holomodor Famine as a genocide. Italian senators reason that the USSR “deliberately provoked a famine that caused millions of deaths.” Both events fit Italy’s definition of genocide: “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part.” This definition, derived from Italy’s compliance with the Genocide Convention, allows the country to bring genocides to international attention. However, due to this definition’s ambiguities and exclusions, Italy is limited in its ability to properly define and prosecute specific genocides. Specifically, the exclusion of political groups from the definition unjustly minimizes the Soviet Union’s role during the Great Purge.

Due to the country’s dark past, Italy understands the importance of identifying genocide and supports definitions that clearly define and punish it. The Italian Republic recognizes that the definition of genocide, when hard to prove, leads to abusive interpretations that allow for countries to avoid international law. To stop states from taking advantage of ambiguous terminology, the United Nations must move towards more empirical standards that avoid proving a country’s “intent.” Rather, proving the effects of alleged genocide must be prioritized over proving an accused country’s motivations. Additionally, Italy advocates for the expansion of the definition to include political groups as possible targets of genocide. This allows Italy to better condemn atrocities of the past, present, and future.

Read More

GRCityDelegates 11/22/2023 14:07:01 136.228.205.180

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: France
Delegate Name: Harini Manikandan

Legal Committee
The Definition of Genocide
French Republic
Harini Manikandan
City High Middle
Genocide is one of the most horrific things the French Republic has witnessed. Genocide was defined by the United Nations in the 1949 Genocide Convention as “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part”. History is filled with notorious genocides like those in Armenia, Cambodia, and Darfur. The Holocaust is the most renowned example with over 6 million Jewish people being killed for only their religion. The Rwandan genocide from April to July of 1994 is an example of a modern genocide. It is a time when everyone stood blindly and under 1 million people died. Every nation has an individual view when it comes to genocide. Therefore, it is not about categorizing the past of who was wrong or who was right, but it is about honoring those who were harmed. In the 1900s, over 39 million people were killed by genocide. It is every nation’s duty to admit their past and secure a better future for those they have wronged. Thus we must write a definition of genocide to show that we have learned from our mistakes. This issue is of utmost importance, for this would be atonement for the role France played in the Rwandan genocide. The United Nations first started awareness of genocide in 1946, and it was declared an international crime in the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (the Genocide Convention). The definition of genocide hasn’t changed since 1948. France believes that the United Nations should work on finding a better definition that includes aspects that weren’t talked about prior.

France believes that there should be immediate action to change the definition and raise awareness of genocide. Although we do not face many problems with genocide nationally, we advocate for genocide awareness and human rights throughout the world. Nationally, the French parliament has approved of many changes to the legislation about crimes against humanity, and it has a legal system that will allow for easy prosecution of individuals who commit crimes against humanity or genocide. In Article 211-1 of our Constitution, we “extend the definition of protected victim groups to include groups determined from any other arbitrary criterion”. This modified definition is an excellent idea that could be used as inspiration for the universal change of it. In France, there are severe consequences for discrimination of people based on race, gender, and religion, which are known to be the main causes of genocide. We not only work on raising awareness and prevention for genocide, but we also seek to stop the problems that lead to genocide such as discrimination and hate speech. France considers the duty of remembrance to be an integral part of its foreign policy. It is committed to using its entire diplomatic, scientific and cultural network to encourage human rights education and remembrance of genocides”. We acknowledge genocides but we also seek to increase human rights awareness. Underneath every moral issue, France faces is a correlation to human rights which are the foundation of justice and democracy. France is honored to play a leading role in the United Nations on topics of peace, security, and mostly human rights. We talk about many issues in the Human Rights Council and are firm supporters of all human rights especially ones involving crimes against humanity. France believes that changing the definition of genocide is critical for clarifying standards for genocide which would then inform national decisions and would inspire better response to human rights globally.

The French Republic urges the United Nations to modify the definition that will inspire the international community and give clear guidance to both state and international powers when they deal with conflicts. France recommends having a meeting involving all state powers, and we can all collectively speak about improving the definition. Improving the definition is more than just helping convict the correct people. It sets the standard, so that if nations are faced with conflicts, then they can go about solving them in ways that don’t involve the degeneration of innocents and children. This is all about prevention. We stand for human rights. Our willingness to advance human rights and genocide prevention in the world is so that innocents no matter where they were born, who they were born to, or what they believe in have a right to liberty and self-determination.

Read More

FHN Delegates 11/22/2023 11:55:56 68.61.107.236

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: David Liu

Legal Committee
Definition Of Genocide
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
David Liu, Forest Hills Northern High School

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) emphasizes the critical necessity for the United Nations to evaluate and reinterpret the notion of genocide, taking into consideration its historical context and implications for international justice. Following World War II, the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide sought to define genocidal acts. However, the DPRK emphasizes the importance of addressing the constraints inherent in the current definition.

Firstly, the historical backdrop of the Korean Peninsula is marred by conflicts, most notably the tragic Korean War (1950-1953). The war triggered a major humanitarian crisis, resulting in enormous human suffering and loss. The Korean Peninsula was devastated by the conflict, with cities and villages reduced to ruins and infrastructure decimated. The Korean War took a heavy death toll, with approximately 2.5 million killed, including civilians and combatants, and over 10 million displaced or rendered homeless, having a profound impact on families and communities across the peninsula. The war caused enormous hardships, separating families and leaving a lasting impact on North Korea’s socioeconomic fabric. The devastating consequences of this conflict are still felt today, emphasizing the importance of having an accurate and comprehensive understanding of historical events in order to avoid misinterpretations and misattributions, and to ensure that geopolitical tensions are not misinterpreted as genocidal actions. Misinterpretation of such events increases the likelihood of attributing conflicts to genocide, emphasizing the importance of a comprehensive and well-defined concept of genocide.

North Korea, having been subjected to external interventions and conflict, highlights the importance of a revised definition of genocide. The difficulty in determining “intent” behind genocidal acts, as specified in the 1948 convention, provides challenges in bringing offenders to justice and holding them accountable. As proven by global historical examples, such as the Rwandan genocide of 1994, this intricacy impedes atrocity prevention and timely response.

Furthermore, North Korea recognizes the importance of safeguarding against external narratives that may misrepresent historical events, emphasizing the importance of objective assessment of these situations. The DPRK is committed to ensuring accurate historical representations in order to avoid erroneous characterizations of conflicts as genocidal. Maintaining accurate historical narratives is critical for preventing conflict misattribution and ensuring that geopolitical tensions are not misinterpreted as genocidal actions.

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea reiterates its commitment to creating an environment that fosters accurate historical analyses and interpretations. The DPRK hopes to promote an objective understanding of historical events surrounding conflicts such as the Korean War by encouraging scholarly research and open discourse. It aims to prevent manipulative narratives that sensationalize or misrepresent events, thereby protecting against incorrectly attributing genocide to geopolitical conflicts.

In conclusion, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea affirms its dedication to collaborative efforts towards improving the existing definition of genocide. North Korea urges fellow member states to confront difficult historical legacies and strives for a definition that ensures justice for victims, addresses root causes, and avoids historical misrepresentations that could lead to wrongful genocide attributions.

Read More

Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 11:35:20 99.136.112.9

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: United arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Sara Gupta

Legal Committee
Definition of Genocide
United Arab Emirates
Sara Gupta, Forest Hills Northern High School

Genocide, since the inception of the United Nations, has been a leading matter of the United Nations’s mission. The horrors and atrocities of the time of World War II prompted the establishment of the United Nations. In attempts to prevent such atrocities in the future, the UN endeavored to create a definition of genocide. The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948 adopted the following definition of genocide: “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part.” This definition was adopted by states and acknowledged by the International Court of Justice.

On August 3, 2023, the 9th anniversary of the Yazidi Genocide, the president of the UAE shared his remarks saying, “The 9th anniversary of the crimes committed by the Daesh terrorist group against the Yazidis and others in Iraq is a painful reminder of the importance of embracing peaceful coexistence and rejecting all forms of discrimination based on religion or sect or ethnicity.” In his message, he touches upon one of the UN’s risk factors of genocide. In the UN’s publication, Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes: A Tool for Prevention, risk factor 9 of genocide states: intergroup tensions or patterns of discrimination against protected groups. President Zayed highlights the importance of rejecting all forms of discrimination. The UAE, as a member of the Arab League, accused ISIS of persecuting the Yazidis and committing crimes against humanity.

The United Arab Emirates acceded to the Geneva Conventions and condems all forms of genocide. It recently opted to teach the Holocaust in schools; such curricula were often absent in schools of Arab governments. The UAE believes that a more precise and comprehensive definition of genocide is implementable and that guidelines for preventing genocide are just as important as a clearer definition of genocide. The United Arab Emirates is inclined to work with other nations to elucidate the definition of genocide and identify and justly punish such heinous crimes.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 10:41:33 98.209.191.72

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Palestinian Authority
Delegate Name: Reese Bower

Spurred by the atrocities of The Holocaust, the United Nations has been searching for an exact definition of genocide since 1948. A uniquely cruel war crime, the current definition from the United Nations Geneva Convention rides on not only the physical element but also the search for intent to physically destroy a certain national, ethnic, racial, or religious group–something often complicated to prove. While some believe the current definition is too encompassing, others believe it to be restricting, excluding certain horrific crimes from being considered genocide. Ultimately, defining genocide is crucial because of the consequences of not doing so; when countries spend precious time debating the definition of genocide or the nature of an atrocious crime, inaction in the face of mass killing is allowed.

Due to Palestine’s circumstances, Palestine has had ample experience with crimes that approach and meet the standards of genocide. Ongoing Palestinian deportation with the intention of ethnic cleansing has occurred since the early 20th century. From the 1948 Nakba, where an estimated 700,000 Palestinians fled or were expelled from the state, to the displacement of almost 400,000 Palestinians during the 1967 Naksa, the forced displacement of Palestinians is a clear intentional eradication of the Palestinian nationality. Additionally, the Sabra and Shatila Massacre, a killing of between 2,000 and 3,500 Palestinian refugees by an Israel-backed army, was declared a genocide by the United Nations. Palestine is now experiencing many stages of genocide at the hands of Israel, yet little is being done to stop the development of this crime. The discrimination against and dehumanization of Palestinians (stages three and four in the ten stages of a genocide) promotes conditions for Palestinian genocide; the utilization of forced starvation and deportation (stage seven) marks the beginning of genocide.

Ultimately, the unstable situation in Palestine is alarming because of the lack of response from other nations. The definition of genocide must promote action to be taken by other nations against genocide, to not only define genocide but also prohibit it from occurring. This can come in the form of international prosecution and aid for the affected party. Additionally, Palestine urges the United Nations to add a clause to the official definition of genocide about the recognition of the ten genocidal stages in populations across the world. The best way to prevent genocide is to stop it in its early stages, which can be achieved through the recognition and action against early signs of oppression of and intent to remove a certain national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.

Read More

Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 09:39:43 68.41.14.10

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Finland
Delegate Name: RJ(Robert) Langen

Legal Committee
Definition of Genocide
The Republic of Finland
RJ(Robert) Langen
Forest Hills Northern

Finland is a country that values human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. Finland is deeply concerned about the ongoing atrocities and violations of international humanitarian law in various parts of the world that may amount to genocide. Finland believes that genocide is the most heinous crime against humanity and must be prevented and punished by all means.

Finland adheres to the definition of genocide as contained in Article II of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (the Genocide Convention), which states that genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

– Killing members of the group;
– Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
– Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
– Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
– Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Finland recognizes that the determination of genocide is a complex and sensitive matter that requires a careful and objective assessment of the facts and evidence. Finland supports the role of the United Nations, especially the Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect, in monitoring and alerting about situations that may lead to or constitute genocide. Finland also supports the work of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and other international and hybrid tribunals in investigating and prosecuting those responsible for genocide.

Finland calls on all states to ratify and implement the Genocide Convention and to cooperate with the relevant international mechanisms to prevent and combat genocide. Finland also urges all states to uphold their responsibility to protect their populations from genocide and other mass atrocities, as well as to assist other states in fulfilling this responsibility. Finland stands ready to contribute to international efforts to prevent and end genocide and to ensure justice and accountability for the victims.

Sources

“Finland’s international human rights policy – Ministry for Foreign Affairs.” Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland
“Human rights in Finland – Wikipedia.” Wikipedia
“Summit for Democracy Commitments by Finland – U.S. Department of State.” U.S. Department of State
“Human Rights and International Law – Finland abroad: Permanent Mission …” Finland abroad: Permanent Mission4
“Finland: Freedom in the World 2022 Country Report | Freedom House.” Freedom Hous
“Public International Law – Ministry for Foreign Affairs.” Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland
“Human rights in Finland Amnesty International.” Amnesty International
“Humanitarian aid – Ministry for Foreign Affairs.” Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland
“Bringing IHL home: the protection of the environment in war.” International Committee of the Red Cross
“Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide …” Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
“List of parties to the Genocide Convention – Wikipedia.” Wikipedia
“Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, …” International Committee of the Red Cross
“United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to …” United Nations
“Report on Responsibility to Protect Spotlights Development as …” United Nations

Read More

Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 10:15:41 174.174.177.82

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Ukraine
Delegate Name: Aanya Muzumdar

Legal Committee
Definition of Genocide
Ukraine
Aanya Muzumdar, Forest Hills Northern High School

Millions of Ukrainians have suffered, displaced, or lost lives due to atrocious crimes like the man-made famine Holomodor by the Soviet Union, Babyn Yar killings by Nazis during the Holocaust, the invasion and annexation of Crimea and Donbas region by Russia in 2014, and the current invasion of Ukraine by Russia. Raphael Lemkin coined the term ‘Genocide’ to segregate these violent crimes that were committed against a particular group with the intent of destroying their sole existence. United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defined and enacted a formal definition of Genocide with the purpose of preventing and punishing such crimes. Though this definition covers some aspects – lethal and non-lethal crime, small or large scale, partial or whole group, it is very narrow. It excludes atrocities perpetuated on cultural or political groups, requires proof of the perpetrator’s deliberate intent which is mostly difficult to prove, and does not clarify what not to classify as a genocide. The definition is so contentious that though 43 massive crimes killing more than 50 million people have occurred since WWII, only two crimes have been proven as genocide in the international court of law – killings of Tutsis by Hutus in Rwanda in 1994 and the events in Srebrenica (Bosnia & Herzegovina) in 1995. The systematic killing of non-Arab people by the Sudanese government in the Darfur region, systematic persecution and killing of Cambodian citizens by the Khmer Rouge, and many many others have gone unpunished. Many scholars, academicians, and human rights activists have attempted to redefine it, but none have been widely accepted.

On Feb 24th, 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine under the pretext of a “special military operation” geared to punish and denazify Ukraine. It falsely accused Ukraine of committing genocide in Luhansk and Donetsk oblast and used that to justify this illegal invasion. On Feb 26th, 2022, Ukraine filed a dispute request against Russia, asking the International Criminal Court to intervene and to order Russia to halt all military action immediately. Per Ukraine, Russia’s discourse about the war allegedly violates the specific tenet of the Genocide Convention: making false allegations of genocide. Furthermore, there is growing evidence and international support that Russia is committing genocide in Ukraine and not the other way around. It is committing systematic violence against not only male civilians but also against women, children, and the elderly and forcing people into “filtration” camps. It is kidnapping and forcibly transferring children to Russia, having them reeducated or adopted by Russians. Russia has worked to erase the local culture, history, and language of Ukraine by targeting attacks on museums, churches, and libraries and by seizing literature and history books. All of this conforms to the UN definition of genocide, yet it has been difficult to hold Russia accountable and stop this massacre.

Ukraine supports the UN’s definition of genocide and as listed in article 442 of its criminal code, punishes the perpetrator. Ukraine believes there is room to improve this definition because it is narrow, requiring a high burden of proof to establish the perpetrator’s intent before the crime can be classified as genocide. It advocates for a broader and more inclusive definition like a one-sided crime committed by a state or authority to destroy, in whole or in part, a specific victim group, where the group is defined by the perpetrator and its discriminating differences towards that group. Ukraine looks forward to working with other states in redefining the definition of genocide, one that helps preemptive and speedy identification of this brutal crime and helps prevent atrocities. Such efforts will greatly benefit humanity.

Works Cited
Ukraine_Criminal Code, 8 November 2013, https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2013/11/08/criminal_code_0.pdf. Accessed 21 November 2023.
“/.” YouTube, 16 June 2023, https://www.icj-cij.org/sites/default/files/case-related/182/182-20220227-WRI-01-00-EN.pdf. Accessed 21 November 2023.
Akbar, Noor. “How should we define genocide?” Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies, https://www.humiliationstudies.org/documents/AkbarHowShouldWeDefineGenocide.pdf. Accessed 19 November 2023.
“Framework of Analysis.” the United Nations, https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.49_Framework%20of%20Analysis%20for%20Atrocity%20Crimes_EN.pdf. Accessed 18 November 2023.
“Genocide.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genocide. Accessed 18 November 2023.
“Ukraine « World Without Genocide – Making It Our Legacy.” World Without Genocide, https://worldwithoutgenocide.org/genocides-and-conflicts/ukraine. Accessed 21 November 2023.

Read More

Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 22:23:44 98.250.244.199

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Gabon
Delegate Name: Macie Dow

Genocide, as a disastrous and continuous aspect of human history, has taken many different forms in various ages and countries. While mass violence and the intended execution of specific communities may be traced back centuries, the term “genocide” was introduced in the twentieth century by Polish lawyer Raphael Lemkin during World War II and the Holocaust. The Republic of Gabon recognizes the critical need to address genocide within the context of this committee. Gabon, as a country dedicated to the principles of peace, justice, and human rights, emphasizes the importance of establishing a definitive and comprehensive definition of genocide to prevent and respond to such acts effectively.
Gabon believes that responses to acts of genocide must be swift and decisive to prevent further losses of innocent lives. The country recognizes the importance of international cooperation and collective action to resolve challenges such as a lack of coordinated global efforts, legal accountability, and refugee and displacement crises. The effects of these challenges are seen in past conflicts like Rwanda and Bosnia in the 1990s and the international community’s response. Moreover, there is a rise in refugee crises resulting from genocides such as the Rohingya genocide in Myanmar, which affected neighboring countries like Bangladesh and created a strain on their resources and infrastructure.
Gabon has a long history of engaging in efforts to prevent mass crimes. Gabon is acutely aware of the regional factors that can contribute to or alleviate the risk of genocide as a member of the African Union and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Gabon has actively participated in peacekeeping missions and regional efforts aimed at encouraging debate, conflict resolution, and reconciliation in areas prone to genocidal conflict. Gabon has also taken steps to strengthen its national legal system to address and prosecute individuals involved in genocide. Gabon has faced challenges as a result of a lack of legal accountability, such as the post-election violence on Gabonese territory in 2016.
Considering these challenges, Gabon would like to address the conflicts of genocide and human rights violations that have plagued different regions. Gabon encourages increased international cooperation in preventing and responding to genocide, emphasizing the importance of early warning systems, intelligence-sharing, and collaborative efforts in addressing the root causes of genocide. Legal accountability is necessary, and Gabon encourages all member states to cooperate with the International Criminal Court (ICC) in investigations and prosecutions related to genocide, ensuring the ICC has the resources and capabilities to ensure the conflicts are resolved efficiently and timely. By taking proactive measures, Gabon aims to promote peace and stability on the continent, fostering an environment conducive to development and prosperity. Additionally, Gabon recognizes the importance of international cooperation and seeks partnerships with other nations and organizations to tackle these issues on a global scale effectively.

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 15:54:47 136.228.39.189

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Reagan Overmyer

Human history has been stained by events of death and violence against one another. One form of this is genocide, where a group of people make an attempt to eradicate another group and/or their culture. There was never a specific term for this until after WWII, when human rights activists brought forward the concept of genocide. Genocide is a very specific term that refers to violent crimes committed against a certain group as an attempt to eradicate the group as a whole. Before the term genocide was introduced, acts like that fell under more general terms; massacres, mass murder, inhumanity and barbarism.

Denmark currently relies on its status as a party to the Genocide Convention to maintain its right to intervene in proceedings regarding genocide. In a recent declaration of intervention, Denmark has stated that “The Genocide Convention is of utmost importance to prevent and punish genocide.” Denmark also says that “By intervening in this case, (it) wishes to reaffirm this collective commitment to upholding the rights and obligations contained in the Convention, including by supporting the crucial role of the Court and emphasizing that international co-operation is required to prevent, adjudicate on and punish acts of genocide”. Before Denmark ratified the Geneva Conventions, multiple proposals were made: to conduct a study on the impact of these conventions, create a commentary on the conventions, to set up a committee to coordinate and oversee implementation of them, and work closely with other Nordic countries. It was found that Danish legislation was almost entirely consistent with the 1977 Additional Protocols and only measures for implementation were put in place.

Denmark is compliant with international humanitarian law, and believes that the best way to handle this is to add the relevant provisions into domestic legislation, as previously seen with the European Convention on Human Rights. Denmark also believes that dissemination of humanitarian law in different sectors of the civilian population should be prioritized in the years to come. Denmark is advocating for countries to come together to detect and stop genocides before they happen.

Works Cited
“Implementation of International Humanitarian Law by Denmark – ICRC.” International Review of the Red Cross, 31 Oct. 1997, www.icrc.org/en/doc/resources/documents/article/other/57jnvf.htm#:~:text=Before%20the%20ratification%20by%20Denmark. Accessed 20 Nov. 2023.
Allegations of Genocide under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. 2022, www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/182/182-20220916-PRE-03-00-EN.pdf.
United Nations. “War Crimes.” Un.org, 2022, www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/war-crimes.shtml.
“Universal Jurisdiction: A Preliminary Survey of Legislation around the World – 2012 Update.” Amnesty International, www.amnesty.org/en/documents/IOR53/019/2012/en/.

Read More

GRCityDelegates 11/22/2023 07:56:40 104.225.180.98

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Poland
Delegate Name: KenZie Low

Legal Committee
Definition of Genocide
Republic of Poland
KenZie Low
City High Middle

During WWII, Poland suffered from numerous mass atrocities with invasions from both Germany and the Soviet Union. These crimes involved the murder and torture of millions of people, specifically people of different religions, ethnicities, and nationalities. The word ‘genocide’ was coined in 1944 to describe the international crimes committed against these specific groups of people. The United Nations was committed to reform and wrote the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948. The treaty defines the word genocide and legislates that all nations must punish those who commit it. The definition of genocide in the Genocide Convention is “any of the following acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: a. Killing members of the group, b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, e. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” The five acts listed are the physical acts of violence in genocide. However, the definition also consists of a mental aspect. There must be a provable intent that the persecutor willingly planned to murder the specific group. This mental aspect allows for many crimes against humanity to fall into the gray area between an unspecific crime against humanity and genocide. Additionally, the definition of genocide does not provide any information on which countries can prevent genocide, or how genocide is punished or dealt with internationally.

Poland is a nation that has suffered from genocide. The nation has a history of being mistreated and tortured by Germany and the Soviet Union, even though these war crimes are not officially considered genocide by the United Nations. Both Germany and the Soviet Union falsely accused Poland before they invaded. Germany is responsible for terrorizing Poland and murdering anyone of Polish descent. Additionally, Poland highlights the torture the Soviet Union’s NKVD committed on the nation, noting that the NKVD caused the murder/torture of two hundred thousand Poles in both execution and concentration camps alike, and the imprisonment of many Poles’ family members. Poland felt that its culture and people were almost diminished after WWII. In response to all the acts of injustice, Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin coined the word genocide, based on his study of the crimes committed against the Armenians during WWI. Lemkin defined genocide as “the destruction of a national or ethnic group.” Lemkin’s lobbying for the recognition of genocide as a war crime supplemented the creation of the Genocide Convention. Poland has been part of the treaty since November 14, 1950. Poland’s only issue with the treaty is that the laws of genocide should apply to Non-self-governing territories as well.

Poland deeply remembers its history and wishes to be justified for the crimes committed against the nation, and further, claims that the ethnic cleansing of Poles was considered genocide. Poland believes that intent is seldom provable on a technical level. Instead, intent speaks for itself when an act is committed that destroys a national, ethnic, religious, or racial group. Additionally, Poland does not believe that a specific number of people must be murdered to be considered genocide, as long as the group is clearly being persecuted with violence. Poland stands with the draft articles provided by the International Law Commission and supports clearer rules on the definition of genocide, how to prevent and punish genocide, and the international community’s cooperation in cases of genocide. Educating youth on pluralism and incorporating human rights into all aspects of the UN organization is key to preventing genocide. Nonetheless, when genocide occurs, Poland urges the international community must provide assistance when the suffering nation fails to do so. Poland is open to creating another convention covering the topic of systematic murder of civilian populations. Poland is also open to helping neighbors who are experiencing genocide or the mass murder of their population. As a victim of war crimes, Poland understands that it is imperative to change the definition of genocide. Therefore, many mass atrocities that were done injustice can now be rightfully labeled.

Read More

Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 06:45:38 212.231.122.105

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Cuba
Delegate Name: Ema Bekic

Legal Committee
Definition of Genocide
Republic of Cuba
Ema Bekic, Forest Hills Northern High School

Unquestionably, the issue of Genocide stands as an enduring concern within international relations. The Republic of Cuba understands its fundamental role in defining the act of genocide and, more specifically, defining the intent and evaluating risk factors leading up to it. At the 1949 Geneva Conventions, following the end of World War II, the Fourth Geneva Convention established the protection of civilians in areas of armed conflict and occupied territories. Civilians, no matter their race, religion, or nationality, were to be safeguarded from murder, torture, and other heinous crimes.
Cuba believes that there is no justification for violating the basics of international humanitarian law, which include international terrorism, transnational crime, and other scourges that are plaguing humanity’s well-being. Following Cuba’s ratification of the Geneva Conventions in 1954, the Republic has passed legislation, such as the Military Penal Code, and worked closely with organizations such as the Center for the Study of International Humanitarian Law (CEDIH) in order to adhere to its promise to the principles of the Conventions. Moreover, the Cuban National Society of the Red Cross signed a collaboration agreement with the International Committee of the Red Cross to disseminate International Humanitarian Law (IHL).
The 1949 Geneva Conventions were the fundamental building blocks for the prevention of genocide; however, the Conventions only marginally touched base upon indirect acts of Genocide, which opened the door to ambiguous interpretations from various parties. Through these acts of omission, Cuba recognizes the importance of intent behind every international policy that may have indirect consequences leading to genocide.
Cuba acknowledges that there cannot be a perfect definition to prevent and evaluate genocide. The Republic urges member nations to assess indirect acts of Genocide, with the most prominent example being restrictions on trade or travel, which can have drastic effects on the peoples of impacted countries. Cuba has first-hand experience with these indirect effects. Through restrictions on pharmaceuticals, food, and aid, many Cubans have died. These restrictions, with definitively proven intent, are and should be considered genocidal. Cuba recommends amending the current Geneva Conventions in order to accommodate these indirect acts of genocide. By implementing these amendments, Nations can begin to prosper without the hindrance of harmful acts destroying their people’s lives.

Read More

RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 00:14:36 74.199.80.22

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Ethiopia
Delegate Name: Julia Malone

11/20/23
Submitted To: Legal Committee
From: Ethiopia
School: Royal Oak High School
Subject: Definition of Genocide

In 1948, Ethiopia signed and ratified the Genocide Convention, along with 152 other states. This meant that all of these states were obligated to both “prevent and punish” genocide and its enablers. Instead of this happening, the world has seen a massive increase in potentially genocidal events at an unprecedented scope and scale. In this committee, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia seeks to stipulate an exact definition best equipped to define current and future genocides.
In the 1970s, the Republic of Ethiopia dealt with an event entitled “the Red Terror” that
could be deemed genocidal. Following the Ethiopian Revolution, the military took power and created a government-controlled communist system. Several non-government groups, entitled the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party (EPRP) and the All-Ethiopian Socialist Movement (MEISON), began to take shape and advocated for a more educated and worker-driven Ethiopian government. The military referred to these groups as ‘anti-revolutionaries.’ From 1976 to 1978, the government executed anywhere from 10,000 to 100,000 of these anti-revolutionaries to keep its regime in power.
The Red Terror is often forgotten when discussing historical genocidal events despite it nearly ultimately qualifying as an act of genocide under the UN’s current Definition of Genocide. Genocide is currently defined as “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part.” While it may seem that the Red Terror qualifies as genocide under this definition, the victims were those allied with enemy political groups and not national, ethnic, racial, or religious groups. The Republic of Ethiopia would like clauses for protecting victims of social and political genocides included in an updated definition. We would also prefer for the committee to focus on the prevention of genocide (as opposed to the punishment of it). Ethiopia is the most significant contributor to all UN peacekeeping efforts, with 8,300 troops currently representing our nation on UN missions. We would be willing to expand our number of soldiers if we had sufficient cause to believe that our efforts would go toward the prevention of genocide. Overall, Ethiopia looks forward to committee and wishes every delegation a successful GLIMUN!

Works Cited
United Nations. “United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect.” United Nations, https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/index.shtml. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Lefkow, Leslie. “‘One Hundred Ways of Putting Pressure.’” Human Rights Watch, Mar. 2010. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

United Nations. “Ethiopia: A Leading Contributor to UN Peacekeeping Efforts.” UN News, 27 Apr. 2018, https://news.un.org/en/gallery/1128322#:~:text=Ethiopia%20is%20the%20largest%20troop,and%20South%20Sudan%20(UNMISS). Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Mesfin, Berouk. “Ethiopia’s Role and Foreign Policy in the Horn of Africa.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 6, no. 1/2, 2012, pp. 87–113. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41756936. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Tibebu, Teshale. “Ethiopia: The ‘Anomaly’ and ‘Paradox’ of Africa.” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 26, no. 4, 1996, pp. 414–30. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2784716. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Ekwe-Ekwe, Herbert. “A Required Reference for Understanding Contemporary Africa.” Journal of West African History, vol. 1, no. 2, 2015, pp. 147–54. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.14321/jwestafrihist.1.2.0147. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Kissi, Edward. “Beneath International Famine Relief in Ethiopia: The United States, Ethiopia, and the Debate over Relief Aid, Development Assistance, and Human Rights.” African Studies Review, vol. 48, no. 2, 2005, pp. 111–32. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20065098. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

van Schaack, Beth. “The Crime of Political Genocide: Repairing the Genocide Convention’s Blind Spot.” The Yale Law Journal, vol. 106, no. 7, 1997, pp. 2259–91. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/797169. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Read More

KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/21/2023 21:48:05 24.247.158.241

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Jaelyn Andrick

One of the first issues the United Nations tackled when first created in 1948 was the issue of genocide. Just a few years after the end of the Holocaust, the biggest genocide in world history, there were many different ideas and pathways for solving such a horrifying act. Genocide is defined in the dictionary as, “the deliberate killing of a large number of people from a particular nation or ethnic group with the aim of destroying that nation or group.” Also created in 1948 was the Genocide Convention, however, this didn’t prevent many other genocides from happening in the years after. Although 153 countries have ratified the Genocide Convention, about 47 member states still have not ratified the convention, and many more have an unclear stance. The issue of genocide continues to grow, with many modern-day instances of genocide happening currently, which is why the true definition of genocide needs to be found and there needs to be a clear plan for those affected and those involved.

In order to fight against genocide, the United States of America has worked with many countries and passed many things in order to prevent genocide from happening again and to help the victims of genocides. Executive Order 13729, which is still in order, states “preventing mass atrocities and genocide is a core national security interest and a core moral responsibility of the United States.” Some of the prevention methods within this Executive Order include diplomacy, foreign assistance, justice and accountability, law enforcement, and more. In addition, the USA is also one of the countries that has signed and ratified the Genocide Convention.

The United States of America strongly prohibits and disagrees with genocide, in any shape or manner. The United States is willing to work with other countries to maintain international peace and update the Genocide Convention or create a new one, in order to prosecute those in power, and help the victims who were affected. The main issues are to end any genocides around the world, help the victims get justice, and further prevent any more genocides from ever happening again. The United States is willing to work with other countries in order to help properly define the issue of genocide, and help regain international peace.

Read More

RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 22:23:23 69.14.164.154

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Switzerland
Delegate Name: Lillian Navin

11/21/23
Submitted To: Legal Committee
From: Switzerland
Subject: Definition of Genocide

In 1949, Switzerland committed to preventing and punishing genocide by signing the Geneva Conventions. However, over time, instances of genocide have increased, surpassing the confines of existing definitions and preventive measures. Switzerland views genocide as a crime characterized by “the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a group of persons based on nationality, race, religion, or ethnic, social, or political affiliation.” Yet, it recognizes a divergence from the UN definition, which excludes social and political groups, integral elements of genocide. In this committee, Switzerland aims to modernize the definition of genocide, fostering a more universally inclusive understanding.

In order to prevent genocide from occurring, a universal definition of genocide must first be agreed upon. To do this, the definition must be updated to include the new atrocities that the world is currently facing. Given the dynamic nature of genocide, Switzerland asks that the committee investigate how the term might be strengthened to explicitly include political and social groupings, acknowledging their susceptibility to targeted violence.

An ideal resolution must take into account more recent crimes and make sure they are encompassed in the definition of genocide. Switzerland suggests explicitly including social and political groupings in the definition of genocide, reflecting the diversity of current conflicts and human rights violations. Switzerland would also wish the committee to concentrate on genocide prevention. Switzerland recommends increasing assistance and support for GAAMAC (Global Action Against Mass Atrocity Crimes), which assists states in implementing or improving their national atrocity prevention procedures and policies.

Both Articles I and VIII of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide call for genocide prevention. According to this, Switzerland and the other founding members of GAAMAC agreed that a secure platform was required for national-level debates on strengthening genocide prevention. The organization actively aids nations in protecting their citizens against atrocity crimes by addressing underlying causes of violence and early warning indicators within their communities in strong cooperation between State actors and civil society. Switzerland sees GAAMAC as critical to averting future genocides. Furthermore, we must develop a new definition of genocide in order to effectively prevent genocide in the first place. In Art. 264 of the Swiss Criminal Code, Switzerland includes political and social groups in its definition of genocide, and it advocates for the UN definition to be revised to include these groups as well.

Switzerland believes that expanding the definition of genocide to encompass political and social groupings will result in a widely accepted criterion for prevention. We hope that this committee can reach an agreement on how genocide should be defined in order to prevent genocide in the future.

Bibliography:

GAAMAC
gaamac.org/who-we-are/. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

“Switzerland Criminal Code.” Fedlex,
www.fedlex.admin.ch/eli/cc/54/757_781_799/en. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

“Preventing Atrocities.” Eidgenössisches Departement Für Auswärtige Angelegenheiten EDA,
www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/fdfa/foreign-policy/human-rights/peace/genocide.html. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1948
www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.1_Convention%20on%20the%20Prevention%20and%20Punishment%20of%20the%20Crime%20of%20Genocide.pdf. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

Read More

RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 21:49:42 69.14.164.154

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Belarus
Delegate Name: Phoebe Navin

11/21/23
Submitted To: Legal Committee
From: Belarus
Subject: Definition of Genocide

The nation of Belarus stands with the current definition of genocide yet believes that slight changes to the definition and enforcement must be made. Belarus is currently in agreement with the Genocide Convention of 1948 and has pledged to prevent and punish genocide in any circumstance. Yet the current definition of genocide is vague and occasionally faulty in identification and enforcement. To be able to punish and prevent this heinous crime correctly, slight changes need to be added to the current definition of genocide.
Recently, there has been an increasing number of accusations of genocide in diplomatic conflict. Although genocide can happen in such a circumstance, a war or political conflict doesn’t automatically constitute genocide. If the intent isn’t to eradicate and destroy, then the conflict isn’t genocide. Extreme accusations are often thrown out during times of conflict, eliminating the seriousness of this crime and delaying the reaction due to unsureness. Belarus believes it’s in the best interest of the UN to strengthen these definitions, instead of leaving much up to interpretation. This will shorten reaction time to actual genocide, and the UN can additionally spend more time on prevention instead of identification.
Additionally, Belarus is of the firm belief that it is in the UN’s best interest for the enforcement of genocide to extend to all lands, whether it is non-self-governing or not. Allowing some territories to not be included leaves room for legal genocide. As the UN creates a world attempting to eliminate genocide, why should non-self-governing territories be able to continue genocide-related practices? There is no reason; it simply allows genocide back into the world. It destroys the entire solution previously created. No matter the location, genocide must be stopped worldwide.
Belarus encourages other countries to amend the definition of genocide, leaving less up for interpretation. Identifying the motive as the difference between war crimes and genocide will make prevention and identification a faster process, leaving more time to eradicate the problem. Additionally, Belarus is concerned with Article Twelve and believes the best way is to eliminate it entirely because it only leads to more concealed “legal” genocide. A suitable resolution will consider amending the current definition and action plan to fit the concerns above, while also putting more emphasis on preventing genociding in any way possible.
The 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide is currently the most relevant document on genocide. Belarus and many other countries are all in agreement that “genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish”. The 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide holds the UN’s current opinions and definition of genocide, and little to no changes in the definition have happened to this document, a fact Belarus hopes to modify.
Belarus optimistically looks forward to discussing this topic and clarifying the terms so genocide can be quickly identified and prevented to the point of eradication. Belarus hopes to further this improvement in the definition through collaboration with other countries. Belarus is open to any and all revisions and hopes to collaborate with other countries to solve this ongoing problem and hopes their allies in the treaty will aid and collaborate to help improve the enforcement of genocide.

Bibliography:

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1948
https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.1_Convention%20on%20the%20Prevention%20and%20Punishment%20of%20the%20Crime%20of%20Genocide.pdf
Accessed 19 Nov. 2023

United Nations Treaty Collections: Status of Treaties
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1948
https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&clang=_en&_gl=1*1etlvsf*_ga*MTc2MTkwNjIzMy4xNjk4MzMzNzE5*_ga_TK9BQL5X7Z*MTcwMDE0MzMyMi42LjEuMTcwMDE0NDQwMS4wLjAuMA..#EndDec
Accessed 19 Nov. 2023

ICC: Situation in Ukraine
https://www.icc-cpi.int/situations/ukraine
Accessed 19 Nov. 2023

Read More

Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 19:11:38 172.10.86.216

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Emilio Hernandez

As the global populace grows increasingly vulnerable to horrific atrocities, both in times of war and of alleged peace, Argentina believes it is time to reassess the definition of such crimes in the eyes of international law, most notably genocide. Of course, an understanding of the word’s meaning has been commonly held since it was first coined in 1944 by Raphäel Lemkin, a response to the events of the Holocaust. In legal terms, it was officially recognized as a crime in 1946 by the United Nations General Assembly and codified two years later in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, colloquially known as the Genocide Convention. Under this accord, genocide is defined through various listed acts performed “with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.” Over 150 independent states have since ratified the Convention.

The Argentine Republic does unfortunately have experience with genocide, specifically in regards to the Dirty War and the dictatorship that had control over the country at the time. Political dissidents of the far-right Argentine Anticommunist Alliance were heavily persecuted, with as many as 30,000 people killed or disappeared. It must be made completely clear, however, that democracy has been restored in Argentina and the leaders of the fascist regime have been internally prosecuted for their transgressions. Despite various officials directly involved in the homicidal acts of the Dirty War being granted amnesty around 1986, the government reopened the case in 2003 and came to indict many such agents, specifically citing genocide as one of their crimes; 29 of these cases have resulted in life sentences in prison. This effort to bring closure to this terrible chapter in the nation’s history continues to this day.

Under the 1998 Rome Statute, the International Criminal Court (ICC) is given authority over cases of “atrocity crimes,” which indeed include genocide as defined by the aforementioned Genocide Convention. Thus, a proper understanding of this definition is necessary to distinguish it from other acts that may fall under the ICC’s jurisdiction. The Argentine Republic has already ratified both the Genocide Convention and the Rome Statute, as it respects the value of the Court and sees no issue with the way it has carried out its duties so far.

Nevertheless, Argentina must request one change to the definition of genocide presently held by the United Nations: the need to specify ideological oppression as a potential expression of it. As it now stands, the list of possible victims of genocide extend only to groups of a given nationality, ethnicity, race or religion, which then excludes those who have suffered (or may in the future suffer) greatly at the hands of malicious governing bodies that illegally suppress their right to voice political stances. The innate freedom of opinion and expression is one that the UN has upheld since its inception, and a military administration attempting to take away that right should be taken as nothing short of an offense equivalent to genocide, particularly so when it employs mass murder to accomplish this goal. Under this belief, the government of Argentina has already set a precedent in prosecuting members of tyrannical regimes guilty of this form of genocide. In short, though the definition of genocide established in 1948 has been regarded as sufficient in years past, Argentina is of the opinion that this committee must consider modifying it to include targeted attacks against political groups, in order to ensure justice and protection for victims of such cases.

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 16:24:47 66.216.206.68

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: China
Delegate Name: Izzy Sheppard

Delegate: Izzy Sheppard
School: Williamston High School
Committee: Legal Committee
Topic: Definition of Genocide
Country: People’s Republic of China

Genocide is a terrible and heinous act that has been committed multiple times throughout history. The crime has existed in many capacities spanning many millennia. The most infamous incident to date was Adolf Hitler’s act of mass Genocide against the Jews, the Roma, Homosexuals, and mentally or physically handicapped people called the Holocaust. In total, at the end of the war, when the allied powers won the European Theatre, 6 million Jews, and 5 million non-Jews. Hitler was allowed by his peers and was able to “justify” this crime to his people by way of claiming to be creating the perfect world through the extermination of “undesirable races”, in essence, eugenics. Addressing this terrible act, and preventing future genocide was one of the founding goals of the United Nations, which is still in need of more insight as the world continues to change and grow.
The People’s Republic of China has experienced perhaps some of the worst accounts of genocide in recent history. During World War II, the Japanese committed horrendous atrocities against the Chinese in cities such as Nanjing(formerly Nanking) and Guilin(formerly Kweilin). During this awful six-week invasion of China, the Japanese army burned through the city leaving buildings destroyed, family homes demolished, and bodies in the streets. The Japanese erased bloodlines, killing men, women, and children alike. In the aftermath, the total death toll, which is still in speculation, was anywhere from 100,000-300,000, and it would be decades before the city came close to its former glory.
In the future, China would be interested in preserving the current state of prosecution of Genocide, and the full legal definition. The UN currently has genocide defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Article II. China sees this definition as fit, however, would like to look into adding stress on how a culture could have genocide committed against it, and how that can permanently damage the mental state of a people. The damage of genocide does not only affect the simple population but traditions and the way of life of people. As China experienced a horrible atrocity that not only killed thousands but also destroyed a city and its own culture and individuality, we would look very favorably into expanding genocide to include the death of tradition and culture and punishment for that crime. China however would like to look into finding, and defining common traits throughout history that have led to mass genocide. Through this definition, the UN would be able to identify situations that could lead to genocide, address them properly, and prosecute those who have influenced or contributed to the conditions in which genocide occurs. China would also be interested in providing more assistance to the victims of genocide as defined by the UN, by working with some Non-Governmental Organizations to provide relief and assistance to those groups who need it.

Works Cited:
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Nanjing Massacre.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 7 Nov. 2023, www.britannica.com/event/Nanjing-Massacre.
General Assembly of the United Nations. “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.” Un.Org, 1948, www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.1_Convention%20on%20the%20Prevention%20and%20Punishment%20of%20the%20Crime%20of%20Genocide.pdf.
History.com Editors. “Rape of Nanjing: Massacre, Facts & Aftermath.” History.Com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/asian-history/nanjing-massacre.

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 15:45:21 136.228.39.189

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Thomas Meyer

Committee: LEGAL
Topic: Definition of Genocide
Delegate: Thomas Meyer
School: Williamston High School

After the atrocities of World War II the United Nations was created. One of they’re main issues that they were concerned with was Genocide, and more specifically how to define and prevent it. Back then, there was no way to describe what genocide was. In a Radio Broadcast made by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill during World War II, he talked about the extermination Jewish communities faced at the hands of German police, and the lack of definition for such a heinous crime. After hearing of the similar destruction the Armenians faced as a result of the Ottomans during World War I, Jewish Lawyer Raphael Lemkin sought to create a term to describe similar atrocities. He came up with the word Genocide,consists of the ancient Greek root word Genos, which means tribe or family, and -cide, which means killing. The United Nations accepted the term in 1948 at the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. During this convention, along with many countries vowing for Genocide to never happen again, the UN delegates defined genocide as “a crime committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or in part.”

There is no substantial evidence of Ghana ever being involved with Genocide. Ghana has repeatedly spoken out against Genocide. For example, the Ghanaian Minister of Foreign Affairs said that Ghana fully supports the responsibility of nations to prevent atrocities such as Genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and, ethnic cleansing. Ghana also sent unarmed soldiers during the Rwandan Genocide, who under the command of Colonel Clayton Yaache helped to save the lives of over 30,000 refugees.

Ghana strongly supports the idea of stopping modern genocides. In Ghana, we believe that if one person or group in the government gets too much power, Genocides are more likely to happen. Ghana also believes all countries must detect and stop genocides in their neighboring countries.

Read More

Celia Kaechele 11/21/2023 14:04:54 173.167.18.97

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Jordan
Delegate Name: Phaedon Papadopoulos

According to the Miriam Webster dictionary, genocide is defined as “the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group.” For decades, the Middle East has been plagued by genocide and war, whether it be caused by neighboring countries, or distant, more powerful countries. Amidst the ongoing Israel-Palestine conflict, the topic of genocide has become massively prevalent. With thousands of both Palestinian and Israeli citizens having been killed since the beginning of the war, it would seem as if genocide would not be a definite way to describe the conflict. However, Jordan, amongst many other nations, are questioning Israel’s motives behind the attacks on Gaza and are warning Israel about the consequences of these attacks. Taking into account of Israel’s history of promoting and spreading Zionist beliefs, it would seem as if Israel’s motives behind these attacks consist of more than simply stopping Hamas. Alas, Jordan prefers to keep a relatively neutral stance on this specific topic as Jordan has maintained positive diplomatic relations with Israel for decades.

As the conflict between Israel and Palestine worsens and more information regarding it is being released every day, Jordan continues to question if this war can be considered a genocide against Palestinians. Genocide, despite being a relatively simple word to comprehend, is anything but when put into the context of real-world conflicts. The situation between Israel and Palestine is simply one of many other global conflicts that fall into the gray area of defining what they truly are. This could be due to the context behind certain conflicts, who exactly is involved, what actions are being taken during these conflicts, and so on.

The delegation of Jordan is advocating for the collaboration between all nations to discuss what exactly defines a genocide and is eager to hear from the standpoints of countries that have been involved in conflicts with other nations. It is crucial for this topic to be discussed for the purpose of knowing when to hold problematic nations accountable for playing a perpetrator role in any foreign dispute.

Read More

Trevor Riley 11/21/2023 13:21:57 64.49.126.130

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Canada
Delegate Name: Prad Nalam

The word genocide has flipped the world upside down ever since it’s foundment. It is, if not, the most important aspect that led to the foundation of the U.N. The United Nations was founded after World War II in an attempt to maintain international peace between all countries and the world. Its sole purpose was not to let another dangerous ideal gain enough power to threaten an entire religion and millions of people. The word genocide is a nightmare that was deliberately made to define the atrocities committed by Adolf Hitler and anyone who believed in the ideology of Nazism. It is a word that was created by Rapheal Lemkin to represent his campaign to raise international outrage against atrocities in Axis-Occupied Europe. He coined the term from an ancient Greek word “Genos” which means tribe, and the Latin word “cide” which means killing or massacre. Raphael Lemkin was a victim and survivor of this word. He was faced with the threat of German forces conquering his homeland and by luck and chance, he barely evaded German capture. Lemkin soon seeked asylum in the United States and was invited to join the law faculty at Duke University in 1941. Although Lemkin escaped, he lost more than 49 relatives during the period of the Holocaust. Infuriated with rage and anger, Raphael was determined to show the world the crimes and sins committed by the Nazis in Europe. With the pain in his heart and the motivation from his colleagues, in 1944, Lemkin wrote his magnum opus, “Axis-Rule In Occupied Europe”. This was the first time the world was introduced to the deadly term Genocide. in November 1944, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Finally, in 1945, during the foundation of the U.N. this book was used as a conductive moral representation of the purpose of why all countries should maintain peace and stay in mediation by joining the United Nations.

The Delegation of Canada draws a strict line at any conducive aspects of genocide. Every policy, law, and moral instruction including human rights outright denies genocide in any situation. We do not think it is needed in any setting or in any aspect of human life as it only brings destruction with or without reason. The Canadian Parliament is always on edge with recognition of Genocide. Early of 2023, the Canadian House Of Commons passed a non-binding motion to recognize China’s horrible treatment on Muslim Uyghurs as genocide. The Canadian Government has undertaken including and implementing Indigenous relations policies, providing Indigenous training to employees and contractors, and partnering with Indigenous business and communities to represent equality and unity as well as degrading any form of racial propriety. Under Canadian law, any promotion of Genocide is considered involvement of promoting murder, battery, and harrasment and will be charged with incarceration up to 5 years. Life is precious and any harm towards a community of people that believe in a non-harming aspect of life, will be met with the Canadian law.

To really put an end to Genocidal ideologies with civilians, citizens, and countries, The Delegation of Canada proposes the U.N. to create a new committee of genocidal protection for countries. This new committee should be created and given the respective permission to traverse every part of the world that is suspected to have ideologies of Genocide and help promote peace to all people. This committee should be given funding and recognition to be allowed to travel throughout Earth and help countries that are struggling with outside parties causing and promoting genocide. The U.N. has a particular history of creating committees that serve benign and beneficial purposes for the cause of peace and prosperity. Genocide is harmful, and only harmful. We as an organization of peace should put an end to this and once again show the world that we fight for the people.

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 08:44:54 136.228.39.189

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Belgium
Delegate Name: Ellie Thorburn

Genocide is a vast topic in many countries, and many countries a known for their past actions of genocide. It is the killing of a large number of people, specifically national or ethnic groups, with the main goal of destroying them. For example, WWll is known for the mass killings of Jews. The Natzis were the impostors that caused serious harm to the group members and destruction. Many countries saw the struggle Jews were having and decided to fight back against the Natzies creating even more destruction. The genocide convention is a crucial racial step toward the development of international human rights and international criminal law. It was the first human rights treaty adopted by the General Assembly and signified the international community’s commitment to ‘never again’ after the genocide during WWII. Belgium has ratified the Genocide Convention. The topic of genocide is very political and very complex at the moment because there are a lot of killings all over the world. Many countries would call it genocide but many wouldn’t.

Belgium has stirred up controversy regarding implementing the EU ban on genocide denial, and it is stirring up controversy. There was a proposed ban on denying mass crimes at the commemorations on April 24th. The draft included the denial of genocides, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Members of the Belgians protested the draft law. One of the members Christian Democrat Georges Dallemagene said “We can either allow the freedom to deny all genocides, or ban their denial, but we must put all these crimes on the same footing”. This means Belgium fulling disagrees with the genocide denial draft. like countries Armenia, Aramean/Assyrian, and Pontic Greek organizations was the proposal to be amended before adoption.

Belgium’s law on Genocide Article 136 (a) is a crime under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the Act. The accordance with the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of December 9th, 1848. Without prejudice of the penal rules applicable to breaches committed by negligence the crime of genocide means the following acts were intended to destroy a whole nation, ethnical, racial, or religious group. The following also include killing members of the group, causing serious bodily/mental harm to members, and deliberately inflicting group conditions. Like life calculated to bring out physical destruction, imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, and forcibly transferring children from one group to another. Belgium has a complex history of genocide. Belgium’s past genocide was part of the Tutsi genocide in Rwanda in 1994. This genocide is often overlooked today. The League of Nations gave the country administrative control of two former German colonies of Rwanda and Burundi. Belgium didn’t know anything about the countries and administered them indirectly. The Belgians were influenced by anthropometry and obsessed with the classification of differentiation of races.

Works Cited
“ABOUT THE GENOCIDE CONVENTION THE CONVENTION ON THE PREVENTION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE (1948).” the United Nations, https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/Genocide%20Convention-FactSheet-ENG.pdf. Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Belgium implements EU Ban on Genocide Denial; Stirs up Controversy.” AGBU Europe, https://agbueurope.org/controversy-over-belgiums-implementation-of-eu-ban-on-genocide-denial/. Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Belgium, Law on Universal Jurisdiction.” How does law protect in war?, https://casebook.icrc.org/case-study/belgium-law-universal-jurisdiction. Accessed 21 November 2023.
Braeckman, Colette, and Charles Goulden. “Belgium’s role in Rwandan genocide, by Colette Braeckman.” Le Monde diplomatique – English edition, https://mondediplo.com/2021/06/11rwanda. Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Doc.1_Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.pdf.” the United Nations, https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.1_Convention%20on%20the%20Prevention%20and%20Punishment%20of%20the%20Crime%20of%20Genocide.pdf. Accessed 21 November 2023.

Read More

Celia Kaechele 11/20/2023 13:41:53 173.167.18.97

Topic: 2023-Definition of Genocide
Country: Turkey
Delegate Name: Megan Sims

Honorable Chair and Fellow Delegates, we must come together and call out groups that engage in unprovoked terror attacks against innocent citizens. We must acknowledge that a country has the responsibility to protect itself and its citizens against such atrocities. When we globally fail to recognize the violent actions of certain groups and classify them as the terrorists they are, we fall short on our sacred duty to protect our people and preserve our country. As long as certain countries turn a blind eye and keep providing support to these terrorists, we will never rid ourselves of this plague. As Türkiye, we condemn these unprovoked acts of violence against our people and as a country, asserting that we have the right to defend ourselves against those who wish to do us harm. However, our efforts to eliminate these threats are undermined by our fellow countries who provide financial and military support to such groups. Most notably, the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, known as the PKK, and other Kurdish militants in Syria and Iraq continue to pose threat to the safety and wellbeing of our people and government. As a delegate for Türkiye, our country supports the idea of declaring the People’s Defense Units, known as the YPG, as a terrorist organization because of a shared ideology and organization with the terrorist group PKK. It is imperative that the countries we call allies cease supporting groups like the YPG who are known to be closely aligned with the PKK.

The PKK is a recognized terrorist group by the countries of the European Union (EU) and The United States since 1984 (Republic of Türkiye, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2022; Ismail and Masri, 2023). As described by the Office of the United States Director of National Intelligence, the PKK is a “militant Marxist-Leninist Kurdish separatist group established in 1978 with the goal of creating a unified, independent Kurdistan.” (2023) To achieve their objectives, the PKK has an extensive history of violent attacks against the Turkish people including bombings (Hoffman, 2019). Since July 20, 2015, the Crisis Group Fatality Tally reported that over 2,000 people have died by terror attacks committed by the PKK, with over 600 of those civilians (2023). We cannot ignore the obvious. The YPG comprised of Kurdish militants in Syria shares a similar ideology, organization, and resources with the PKK (Avodogan, 2022).

Known United States support of the YPG “legitimizes” the violent group’s purpose (Aydogan, 2022). Associating with the YPG gives tacit support for the PKK and their treachery. Though the PKK claims to want to establish an independent nation for Kurds, they are not freedom fighters they claim to be. Their repeated attempts to overthrow the legitimately elected government of Türkiye through violence and intimidation against civilians (Gumrucku, 2023) threatens our democratic ideals and our existence. In order to protect our people and ensure the security of our nation, we must cannot mince words and it is imperative that we call a terrorist a terrorist. We seek your support in labeling the YPG exactly the terrorist group it is.

Read More

Start typing and press Enter to search