September 16, 2019
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Militarization of Outer Space

General Assembly: Disarmament & International Security Committee

Topic: Militarization of Outer Space

For generations humans have been fascinated with what lies beyond the surface of the Earth. As time has gone on, and scientists have discovered more about the vast expanses of outer space, humanity’s desire to control it has also grown substantially. In many ways, despite the cliche, outer space is the final frontier. Its economic and strategic benefits have many states longing for a “piece of the pie”. The issue of militarizing outer space is not a new one, however. In fact, the cornerstone for international law on outer space comes from resolution 2222 (XXI) adopted in 1967, commonly referred to as “The Outer Space Treaty.” And since then, the United Nations has made continued efforts through the Conference of Disarmament, the Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC) and the General Assembly as a whole to promote transparency and communication to prevent sparking an all-out arms race in outer space.

It is with this understanding that we go into discussions regarding the future of space exploration and militarization.  Currently, a number of nations have begun to discuss their plans for military space operations, some expressing an immediate interest in utilizing it for strategic and defensive purposes, while others have discussed the dangers of doing so, and the need for restraint in utilizing the environment for weapons of war. Currently, no nation has deployed any active weapons in the traditional sense of the word, but it’s important to note that not all military resources are strictly weapons; various militaries around the world have used satellites to assist in coordinating military action, spy on hostile nations, and even disrupt civilian resources in space. Defining what constitutes “militarization” in the context of space will be an important aspect of these discussions to come.

Space, by its very definition, is a broad topic to tackle under any circumstance, and care should be taken when dictating new agreements that oversee and bind its use. Defining what makes a weapon in space, understanding the resources already available and soon to be developed for space, and sharpening the rapidly blurring line between civilian and military actions in space are all important functions of this discussion, and should be priorities for review in this body. The use of space as a resource and commodity will only grow and expand in time, not shrink, and the work this body accomplishes will be integral to how that development will progress in the future.

Useful Links:

Outer Space – UNODA
https://disarmament.unoda.org/topics/outerspace/

Outer Space Treaty (unoosa.org)
https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties/outerspacetreaty.html

Outer space – Conventions and Definitions
https://www.reachingcriticalwill.org/resources/fact-sheets/critical-issues/5448-outer-space

Arms control in outer space: Status, timeline, and analysis
https://www.ploughshares.ca/reports/arms-control-in-outer-space-status-timeline-and-analysis

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Submitted Position Papers

Gregory Poole 11/29/2023 20:26:05 64.136.227.206

Topic:
Country: Ecuador
Delegate Name: Brady Mason

Topic: 2023- Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Bangladesh
Delegate Name: Brady Mason

The militarization of outer space refers to the development and deployment of
military assets, including satellites and other technologies, for defense and security
purposes in space. Major space-faring nations, such as the United States, Russia, and
China, are actively involved in this phenomenon, utilizing space as a strategic domain.
This militarization has global implications, affecting not only the countries directly
engaged but also the international community. Satellites, essential for communication,
navigation, weather monitoring, and surveillance, are vulnerable to disruptions,
potentially impacting the lives of millions worldwide. The issue gained prominence in
recent decades due to increased competition among major powers and the recognition
of space’s strategic importance for national security. International efforts to regulate and
address the militarization of outer space have been initiated, emphasizing the necessity
for peaceful and cooperative use of space resources.
This issue is viewed with concern due to its potential global implications. The
United Nations (UN) has been actively engaged in addressing this issue, with efforts
focused on promoting the peaceful and responsible use of outer space. Various
resolutions and treaties have been significant in this regard. The Outer Space Treaty,
adopted in 1967, forms the cornerstone of international space law, emphasizing the
principle that outer space should be used for peaceful purposes and prohibiting the
placement of weapons of mass destruction in orbit. The Prevention of an Arms Race in
Outer Space (PAROS) resolution, annually introduced at the UN General Assembly,
advocates for the prevention of an arms race in space and the development of an
international legal framework to address space security concerns. On the two sides of
the topic, there is tension between the desire for national security through space
militarization and the international call for the demilitarization of outer space to ensure
its use for peaceful and cooperative purposes. Bangladesh, as a member of the
international community, seeks to contribute to the ongoing dialogue within the UN to
strike a balance between these perspectives.
This situation has prompted concerns about its potential impact on national
security and the country’s technological infrastructure. Bangladesh has recognized the
importance of space-based technologies for communication, weather monitoring, and
disaster management, making it susceptible to any disruptions resulting from the
militarization of outer space. In response, the country has engaged in diplomatic efforts
within the international community, including participation in discussions at the United
Nations, to address the challenges associated with the militarization of space.

Bangladesh’s leaders have emphasized the need for international cooperation and the
formulation of treaties to ensure the peaceful use of outer space. While the country may
lack a direct role in the global space race, its leaders have advocated for policies that
promote the demilitarization of outer space to safeguard the peaceful and beneficial use
of space technologies for all nations.
Addressing the militarization of outer space requires a cooperative and
diplomatic approach. Bangladesh is likely to support international initiatives that
advocate for the demilitarization of space and the establishment of a comprehensive,
legally binding treaty to prevent the weaponization of outer space. The country may
endorse proposals within the United Nations that emphasize the peaceful use of space
technologies and discourage the deployment of military assets in orbit. As for funding
such initiatives, Bangladesh would likely prefer a shared financial responsibility among
member states of the international community. This funding could be facilitated through
contributions from countries based on their economic capacities, ensuring a
collaborative effort to sustainably address the challenges posed by the militarization of
outer space without disproportionately burdening any single nation.

Sources:

Secure World Foundation. (2022). “Global Counterspace Capabilities: An Open
Source Assessment.” [Online] Available:
https://swfound.org/research/counterspace-capabilities/
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). (2022). “Outer Space
Security Conference.” [Online] Available:
http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/topics/outer-space-security-conference.h
tml
Central Intelligence Agency. (2022). “The World Factbook: Bangladesh.” [Online] Available: https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/bangladesh/

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Gregory Poole 11/29/2023 20:19:54 64.136.227.206

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Ecuador
Delegate Name: Jacob Marabanian

For Ecuador, a country dedicated to international collaboration and peaceful
pursuits, the militarization of space poses a difficult dilemma. The threat of
weaponization and strategic dominance looms large as nations continue to make
inroads beyond Earth’s atmosphere. Ecuador, a country that values international
harmony and diplomacy, needs to navigate this terrain with astute diplomacy and a
morally upright posture. Ecuador is adamantly committed to demilitarizing space, even
in light of the potential advantages of space exploration for scientific advancement and
socioeconomic growth. It is crucial to highlight international agreements like the Outer
Space Treaty of 1967, which promote cooperative efforts to protect space as a haven
for scientific research rather than a battleground for geopolitical wars.
In the international debate about space militarization, Ecuador is one of the
leading voices for preserving space as a place of mutual advancement and peace.
Endorsing programs that work to keep space from becoming a weapon and to promote
international collaboration, Ecuador shares the belief that the universe should serve
humankind’s interests as a whole, independent of military goals. Ecuador works to
protect the sanctity of space, highlighting its enormous potential for the betterment of all
humankind while remaining true to its commitment to peaceful coexistence on Earth and
beyond. It does this by encouraging dialogue, adhering to international agreements, and
fostering a culture of peaceful exploration.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 23:26:30 69.234.61.36

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Anna Crum

Committee: Disarmament & International Security Committee (DISEC)
Topic: Militarization of Outer Space
Country: The United States of America
Delegate: Anna Crum, Kalamazoo Central High School

The new frontier of space brings assets promising prosperity and security. But, with a new frontier comes new challenges. In order for the new access we have gained to space to propel us forward instead of setting us up for disaster, the international community needs to set guidelines that are both effective and verifiable. Maintaining peace and security in outer space is essential for the safety of all. According to President Biden’s Interim National Security Strategic Guidance the United States will explore and use outer space to the benefit of humanity, and ensure the safety, stability, and security of outer space activities. Competition cannot lead to conflict. As we pursue the new resources and vast knowledge of space we must set ourselves up for success. To address this topic faithfully an expansive approach is needed. We cannot continue supporting narrow and flawed agreements that do nothing to keep the international community transparent and committed to the pursuit of betterment over the pursuit of superiority. Agreements must include things like ground-based anti-satellite systems which threaten space objects that are essential to all nations’ security, economic, and scientific interests.
With the US creation of the Space Force we have committed to the responsible exploration of space. From national security to economic growth to new knowledge the United States recognizes the potential of the new frontier. Supporting the criteria recommended by the 2013 “Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities”, the US will continue to work on agreements that are voluntary and create transparency and confidence. Collaboration is key for the success of us all. Agreements like the draft PPWT fall short when it comes to variability so moving forward the US would like to see a change in approach. Stockpiling and breakout capabilities were also two issues we did not see adequately addressed in the PPWT. Moving forward the US hopes to see agreements addressing these concerns and defining what qualifies as a “weapon in space”. To keep every member of the national community safe and secure we cannot allow simple differences in definition to lead to international conflict. Specifics must be present in all agreements moving forward, or they are not worth the work the UN puts in.
Future resolutions must focus on transparency and confidence building measures that cover a wide range of threats to space systems. States must refrain from destructive behaviors that damage this collaboration as we work towards the future we know is possible. National security space activities should be observed and kept within reasonable bounds. As we have already seen with Russia, damaging one satellite can cause massive repercussions, in this case space debris that endangered the international space station. As we move towards a more advanced tomorrow, we cannot abandon safety and reason. The race to space is over, we have made it, but as we continue sprinting we cannot lose sight of why we started running in the first place. We go to space for the innumerable benefits, we cannot come back down to earth having only gained enemies.

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MattawanDelegates 11/22/2023 21:38:28 68.60.126.223

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: South Africa
Delegate Name: Avi Messamore

Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
Topic: Militarization of Outer Space
Country: South Africa
School: Mattawan High School

The term, Militarization of outer space, insinuates using technology placed in space for military use. Militarizing space takes place in government bases, their astronautics agencies, and of course, in orbit around the planet. Several countries, such as China, Russia, the US, and India, have already taken action to militarize space. Other countries, such as The UK, France, Japan, and South Korea are still taking steps toward implementing their own military space forces. Militarizing space affects not only each individual government, but it affects each country’s people. Governments have the capability to spy on and even send missiles into other countries, all through the access and use of space technology. This topic should be discussed in order to determine how to keep space peaceful and to protect the security of countries.
The director and deputy to the high representative for disarmament affairs, Adedeji Ebo, has stated that “preserving outer space as a realm free of conflict and weaponization remains an urgent priority” (United Nations). So far, the most important treaty created to manage space affairs was The 1967 Outer Space Treaty. The treaty bans any Weapons of Mass Destruction from entering space, and military setups are not allowed on celestial bodies. The treaty also states that space cannot be claimed by any country as a territory, and that astronauts are obligated to help one another while in space. The Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space, Is a non-government organization advocating for peaceful use of space. They try to globally promote peace in space by holding annual summits to discuss future protests, and current space issues, and share information.
The threat of militarizing space concerns South Africa. If South Africa’s satellites were to be destroyed, the economy would soon follow. South Africa uses satellites for purposes such as maintaining the economy, tracking weather, and GPS just as any country would go about using space technology. Weapons in space threaten the safety of satellites that countries use to maintain the everyday lives of their citizens. South Africa has tried to spread awareness to create and maintain peace in space.South Africa will support any policies supporting the peaceful use of space. South Africa will neglect to support policies such as weaponizing space be it any form of weaponry and not just nuclear affairs.
There should be monitoring of space weaponry to keep debris from harming satellites, as well as laws prohibiting space from becoming a war zone. ASAT (Anti-satellite) weapons should be banned from being implemented into space. South Africa would also like to avoid an arms race in space, to do so member states must work together to avoid unfair technological advantages in space. Transparency with other countries will help create bonds to which countries will be able to share information and resources in order to build trust and avoid conflict. Banning weapons that could cause conflicts between countries will help space stay void of warfare. By keeping space free of conflict, countries won’t have to worry about the safety of their satellites, which if damaged could ruin their countries state of being.

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MattawanDelegates 11/22/2023 21:32:54 68.60.126.223

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Indonesia
Delegate Name: Maddy Fraaza

Maddy Fraaza
Mattawan High School
Indonesia
Militarization of Outer Space, as part of the DISEC
I.
As the world continues to make advancements in technology and outer space becomes more of a
given consideration in political issues, it is critical to keep in mind the ramifications of using
space as a means of militarization. Keeping the peace in space, like any place on Earth, is crucial
to maintaining inter-country relations not just between the UN, but with the entire world. In outer
space, anything from the smallest piece of space debris to another country’s spacecraft can be
used to destroy important devices. Currently, the UN does not have a definition as to what makes
a weapon in space, and without which there is no clear line between what could be seen as
hostile advancements towards other countries. As of now, the main form of legislation regarding
the militarization of outer space is the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in
the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Outer
Space Treaty), which was signed into effect in 1967. In the over 50 years since then, extreme
technological advancements have carried over into space exploration. It is crucial to re-examine
this treaty and update it as needed in accordance with current relevance. Many member states of
the UN advocate for peaceful use of resources in outer space that further the development of the
UN as a whole, as opposed to one specific country. Indonesia believes that, in accordance with
the existing Outer Space Treaty of 1967, space exploration should be open to and for the benefit
of all countries regardless of current resources and socioeconomic status.
II.
Indonesia signed the Outer Space Treaty in 1967 with unbridled support, since their government
advocates for peace and strong international relations whenever possible. The treaty allows
Indonesia to keep its allies with a strong space force without a high necessary improvement for
their own, and with little to no negative effects for these actions. Indonesia realizes that without a
true space exploration to date, they are not in a high position of power for this such discussion.
However, having gained space exploration resources from countries with high stakes in outer
space, such as France, China, and the United States of America, they have influential allies
whose opinions will be held more highly in the possible revision of the Outer Space Treaty. At
this point, the best Indonesia can do is stand aside and be a strong supporting force of peaceful
space exploration, while urging its allies who share the same views to be vocal with their
proposed policies.

III.
The delegation of Indonesia urges the other parties of the UN to examine the costs when it comes
to militarizing outer space for anything other than the collective good. In times such as these it is
easy to escalate small issues, and anything seen as hostility from opposing countries could lead
to nothing short of an all out arms race, and Indonesia encourages the rest of the UN to take this
into consideration if they so choose to amend the current treaties signed into action. Indonesia
supports the current constituents of the Outer Space Treaty regarding the prohibition of weapons
of mass destruction and the like in space, and suggests that all nations adhere to the current
guidelines, if not write stricter ones in place.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 16:37:20 68.41.144.173

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Ethiopia
Delegate Name: Stella Yakima

Date: November 19, 2023
Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
Country: Ethiopia
Subject: Militarization of Outer Space

Outer space is currently a huge concern globally. Many countries want to claim parts of it and create militaries to protect the places they have “claimed”. This has been going on for many, many years now, dating back to the 1950s during the Cold War. Unlike many countries, Ethiopia is not particularly interested in claiming space or militarizing space. The nation of Ethiopia would prefer a calmer, more passive approach to this issue.
Ethiopia is very opposed to the militarization of outer space. They want to focus on working with China and making satellites to observe the weather and monitor infrastructure and crops. Ethiopian satellites are very important to China and Egypt as they are used to collect data on climate change. Ethiopia is very committed to protecting instead of using outer space to their advantage against other countries.
The satellites Ethiopia have been focusing on are incredibly necessary, they provide information about space and Earth. Only two satellites have been launched by Ethiopia, the first, ETRSS-1, in 2019. The second came a year later called ET-SMART-RSS, a nanosatellite designed only for providing information and observations on Earth to China and other African nations. ETRSS-1 is a multi-spectral remote sensing satellite launched into a sun synchronous orbit with the goal of providing data made from observing Earth, focusing on the areas of Africa and the Middle East.
Ethiopia believes it would be best to continue working with countries like China to study the data that has been collected by the satellites and even potentially build and launch new satellites.

Bibliography:
https://press.un.org/en/2022/gaspd762.doc.htm#:~:text=Acknowledging%20the%20General%20Assembly’s%20adoption,private%20and%20non%2Dgovernmental%20sectors.
https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/ethiopia/#space
https://www.nasa.gov/learning-resources/for-kids-and-students/what-is-a-satellite-grades-5-8/#:~:text=NASA%20satellites%20help%20scientists%20study,that%20Earth%20absorbs%20and%20emits.
https://addiszeybe.com/ethiopia-preparing-to-launch-its-third-satellite-into-space
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militarisation_of_space
https://d197for5662m48.cloudfront.net/documents/publicationstatus/98803/preprint_pdf/a3ff03e07e753573fb7a5ee6e89e935f.pdf

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Trevor Riley 11/22/2023 16:17:29 174.162.60.153

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Canada
Delegate Name: Nova Wilson

Outer space has long been revered as the final frontier for mankind to conquer, but with this— as with all frontiers before— comes the militarization of it. The militarization of outer space has begun with the placement of satellites in orbit that militaries and civilians worldwide depend on for command and control, communication, monitoring, early warning, and navigation with the Global Positioning System. Despite this being benign, satellites can also direct bomb raids at the surface level. Hand in hand with the militarization of outer space is the weaponization of outer space. This can be understood as “the placement in orbit of space-based devices that have a destructive capacity” (“Critical Issues”). The advancement of militarization in outer space could result in a new arms race for this generation as precedented by the race to space. In 2017, the UN General Assembly established a Group of Governmental Experts who met in two two-week sessions (one in 2018 and one in 2019) in Geneva to consider the militarization of outer space and the prevention of an arms race. In their report, they stated practical measures for this prevention and convened a two-day open-ended intersessional informal consultative hearing to discuss with the Member States and hear their views on the topic. One view was that “Member States reaffirmed that outer space must remain free of nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction” (Open-Ended Intersessional Informal Consultative Meeting on the Work of the Group of Governmental Experts on Further Practical Measures for the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space).

The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has had the objectives of “promoting the peaceful use and development of space, to advance the knowledge of space through science, and to ensure that space science and technology provide socio-economic benefits for Canadians” (Agnew) since its inception in 1989. Thus, Canada and the CSA would like to implement Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures to create international norms in outer space to reduce strife caused by misperceptions of any State’s actions and advancements in outer space. Canada wants space to remain an environment without weaponry that all States approach with clear intentions. Canada has supported multiple actions to secure this— including the 2013 Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Transparency and Confidence-Building in Outer Space Activities, the four core space treaties, the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union and its Radio Regulations, the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization, the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Given the gravity that the militarization of outer space holds Canada implores the UN and Member States to implement Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures. Canada would look favorably upon the creation of a new treaty to outline the use of dual-use space systems— as many countries currently have in orbit— and define the proper use that would maintain the peace of outer space along with a guide for the proper continuation of expansion into outer space.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 16:07:59 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Pranav Mudhas

In the aftermath of the Space Race, humanity gained its ultimate uncharted frontier: space. Space held unknown opportunities in satellite surveillance and an abundance of minerals. After the end of the space race in 1975, countries began to realize the benefits space held for satellite surveillance, extraction of minerals, and navigation. Many nations have already started building space weapons in retaliation for each other. India has begun to conduct anti-satellite weaponry; Iran launched its first military satellite in April; in January of 2007, China started using anti-satellite weapons (ASAT). The UN has signed some treaties to regulate the militarization of space, such as The Outer Space Treaty, which bans mass destruction weapons and military operations in outer space and encourages peaceful exploration and research of space. The UN’s Conference on Disarmament (CD) has also debated resolutions to prevent an arms race in outer space. However, these treaties and proposals cannot regulate countries’ advancing interests in space.

The Federative Republic of Brazil believes firmly in regulating interstate competition in space, which could lead to countries being more motivated to militarize space. Brazil believes existing treaties and proposals should be strengthened to ensure this goal. Brazil has chaired with the bodies of the Conference on Disarmament (UNCD) about the Prevention of Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS), as well as the Group of Governmental Experts on Further Effective Measures for the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space, and the 62nd session of Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) which has adopted the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities Guidelines. Brazil is also interested in the Article XI project, which will increase transparency and transfer of information between countries on the exploration of the Moon. Brazil has created its program following other countries’ attempts to militarize space. The Brazilian Strategic Space Systems Program (PESE) aims to implement space systems to advance the needs of Brazilian MDs and armed forces. PESE will ensure benefits in joint military programs while heralding direct societal advantages.

The Federative Republic of Brazil, a country just beginning to engage its space program, believes in free outer space to promote research efforts and international peace. Implementing a resolution that will ban placing any weapon in outer space is necessary. Brazil supports policies that highlight stability, peace, and exploration. Brazil welcomes any resolution that prohibits a ban on anti-satellite weapons. Brazil looks to work with other countries to ensure a safe and prosperous environment in space where developing countries’s space programs can reach their full potential. Brazil wishes for a treaty that impedes the acceleration of a space war and provides opportunities for countries to explore space’s untapped potential.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 15:52:51 99.24.174.246

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Nigeria
Delegate Name: Evangeline Fraley-Burgett

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Delegate Name: Evangeline Fraley-Burgett

The country of Nigeria believes the militarization of space is not in the interest of its people or government. While we have a strong military on the ground we see no need to extend our resources and people like other countries. Nigeria does not feel threatened by space, as we were along the lines of the first countries in Africa to sign the 2222 (XXl) resolution adopted in 1967, which was the agreement of using space for research and not military leverage. Thanks to our allies China and Russia, we can launch satellites into space as we believe it is the only purposeful use of space.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:41:00 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Sudan
Delegate Name: Mallory Pearson

In 1967, the Outer Space Treaty was created to give the basic framework for international space law. It prohibits nuclear weapons in space, limits the use of the moon to only peaceful purposes, allows space to be freely explored by all, and prohibits any nation from claiming sovereignty. As of August 2023, 114 countries have signed and ratified the treaty. Although there are many countries that still need to sign or ratify the treaty, no nations have deployed any active weapons in space or have gone against the treaty. However, some nations favor using space for strategic and defensive purposes. There are already satellites in outer space used for military purposes.

Sudan is not largely focused on the militarization of outer space. Their space force is relatively small and is mostly focused on remote-sensing satellites. Although Sudan has yet to sign the Outer Space Treaty, they have established relations with countries that have; such as China, Egypt, India, Japan, and the United States of America. Additionally, they are part of the Arab Space Cooperation Group. The group aims to enhance knowledge and develop advanced space capabilities.

Sudan would look favorably upon the continuation of the development of space exploration and capabilities. Since the militarization of outer space is not of the utmost importance to Sudan, they are not focused on increasing or decreasing the guidelines for outer space.

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GRCityDelegates 11/22/2023 15:08:23 174.174.178.25

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Anish Kulkarni

Mexico firmly opposes the militarization of outer space. As one of the 18 founding members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Mexico has signed and ratified all five United Nations Treaties concerning outer space. We have also committed to the Space Debris Mitigation Committee and endorsed the space debris mitigation treaty. This treaty mandates that States Parties return any “foreign” space objects found within their territory to their rightful owners and report such discoveries to the Secretary-General. For Mexico, it is imperative to safeguard near-Earth space for future generations.

The militarization of space would inevitably lead to an increase in space debris, which could be impossible to mitigate. This poses a significant environmental threat as the debris can release harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, contributing to ozone layer depletion. According to the government of the state of Tennessee, increased UV radiation due to ozone depletion can result in a higher incidence of skin cancer, cataracts, and weakened immune systems. Excessive UV exposure is believed to contribute to the rise in melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Given Mexico’s humid climate, this issue becomes particularly concerning for our citizens.
Furthermore, the militarization of space could potentially trigger another arms race, reminiscent of the Cold War between the USA and Russia. During that period, the creation of the atomic bomb led to a dangerous escalation, with both nations amassing enough nuclear weapons to ensure Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). This meant that either country could annihilate the other, making any attack too risky. If such a scenario were to unfold in outer space, it would undoubtedly incite widespread panic and global fear.

In light of these potential threats, Mexico advocates for a strict proposition to prohibit anti-satellite weapons and weapon bases in space. This measure would safeguard the global commons while still allowing non-weaponized military operations. Another proposal we endorse is the development of more eco-friendly rocket launch systems that minimize space debris. While such initiatives are already being implemented by companies like SpaceX in America, we believe it is crucial to enforce this practice globally.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 15:17:42 172.14.188.94

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Lila Darwiche

In the six decades following the launch of Sputnik 1 into outer space, opportunities beyond earth have grown more and more familiar to various countries across the globe. Over 7000 artificial satellites are currently orbiting in the outskirts of earth’s atmosphere, functioning as tools for observation, navigation, and communication. In the context of the military, satellites are valuable assets for reconnaissance, conducting long range operations, and providing early warnings of enemy activity. Despite its many useful functions, the militarization of outer space is a contentious topic of discussion, with many experts warning of the dangers of advanced technology when used offensively. Placing devices with destructive capacity in outer space can pose a threat to national security, and defensive measures taken in response to this can very easily spark an all-out arms race. As we gather for discussions on the benefits and dangers of utilizing space for military purposes, safety and transparency between nations is of the utmost importance.

As a member state of the Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) since 1994, the Republic of Korea greatly values international coordination and utilizing space as a tool, not a weapon. With the help of American companies like SpaceX, the Republic of Korea has launched numerous satellites into the atmosphere, primarily used for meteorology and observational purposes. In May of this year, the Republic of Korea successfully launched its first independent commercial-grade satellite and intends to launch its first independant spy satellite on November 30th. By establishing a surveillance system based in space, the Republic of Korea will have access to new security reinforcements and safety measures, which have proven to be imperative in recent years. On November 21st at 13:42 GMT, after two unsuccessful attempts, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea launched a reconnaissance satellite into orbit, effectively breaching UN Security Council Resolution 1718, which suspended all ballistic missile activites within the nation. When discussing what constitutes the militarization of outer space, it is essential to take into account the importance of international safety. The solution to a threat is protection, but without clear definitions of either concept, our atmosphere becomes plagued with uncertainty.

The Outer Space Treaty, though sufficient in outlining the basic framework of international space law, should be revisited and expanded upon. The Republic of Korea recommends looking to the consensus report A/68/189, submitted by a GGE on Transparency and Confidence Building Measures (TCBMs) in outer space. This report emphasizes the importance of information exchange on space policies, international cooperation, consultative mechanisms, and contact and visits to space launch facilities. Along with this, creating a multilateral code of conduct will help clarify what is expected of nations as they establish themselves beyond earth’s surface. With the goal of producing a solution that promotes the progress of all nations, while also providing the necessary safety measures, the Republic of Korea looks forward to discussing this topic in the near future.

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GRCityDelegates 11/22/2023 11:45:57 174.174.178.25

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Anish Kulkarni

Mexico firmly opposes the militarization of outer space. As one of the 18 founding members of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Mexico has signed and ratified all five United Nations Treaties concerning outer space. We have also committed to the Space Debris Mitigation Committee and endorsed the space debris mitigation treaty. This treaty mandates that States Parties return any “foreign” space objects found within their territory to their rightful owners and report such discoveries to the Secretary-General. For Mexico, it is imperative to safeguard near-Earth space for future generations.
The militarization of space would inevitably lead to an increase in space debris, which could be impossible to mitigate. This poses a significant environmental threat as the debris can release harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, contributing to ozone layer depletion. According to the government of the state of Tennessee, increased UV radiation due to ozone depletion can result in a higher incidence of skin cancer, cataracts, and weakened immune systems. Excessive UV exposure is believed to contribute to the rise in melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Given Mexico’s humid climate, this issue becomes particularly concerning for our citizens.
Furthermore, the militarization of space could potentially trigger another arms race, reminiscent of the Cold War between the USA and Russia. During that period, the creation of the atomic bomb led to a dangerous escalation, with both nations amassing enough nuclear weapons to ensure Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). This meant that either country could annihilate the other, making any attack too risky. If such a scenario were to unfold in outer space, it would undoubtedly incite widespread panic and global fear.
In light of these potential threats, Mexico advocates for a proposition to prohibit anti-satellite weapons and weapon bases in space. This measure would safeguard the global commons while still allowing non-weaponized military operations. Another proposal we endorse is the development of more eco-friendly rocket launch systems that minimize space debris. While such initiatives are already being implemented by companies like SpaceX in America, we believe it is crucial to enforce this practice globally.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:57:53 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Farrah Sayler

Militarization of outer space: Space has been militarized since the earliest communication satellites were launched. Today, militaries all over the world rely on satellites for command and control, communication, monitoring, early warning, and navigation with the Global Positioning System. The United Kingdom’s aim to protect critical space-based assets, both civilian and military, has therefore become a priority. Space is also increasingly viewed as a military domain in its own right, as countries look to utilize space to enhance their own military capabilities and security.
In July the UK ministry of Defense officially opened its first space headquarters. In the RAf high wycombe, a royal air force base. The moD has pledged to invest 1.4 British pounds (1.9 billion) into space activities over the next decade. The United Kingdom has made this decision due to other countries such as the US and Russia advancing their space capabilities. It is vital we invest in this domain because we do not want to be at a disadvantage. However we do not want to create satellite attack weapons, we want to use our space program as a defense of British assets that are in outer space. We have submitted a draft resolution to the UN that aims to prevent the arms race of outer space. This draft resolution aims to find an agreement on what countries should and should not do to help prevent misunderstandings and miscalculation that could cause war. We want to prevent tensions from arising between countries due to the militarization of space. The United Kingdom seeks to break the decade long impasse between countries on this issue.

The United Kingdom has three goals for the UN on the topic of the militarization of space. We first want to look at current treaties that relate to how states interact in outer space. We are looking at treaties such as the 1967 outer space treaty, the genova conventions and the law of armed conflict. The United Kingdom aims to tighten up the gaps in these treaties, For example one gap is the lack of formal accords designed to restrain risky military behaviors. These agreements exist for actions on land and sea but not outer space. Our second goal is to have an open dialogue around current and future threats and security risks. The main security risk The United Kingdom is focused on is technology. The United Kingdom emphasizes isn’t on technology but how we develop, tested and used by nations. To clarify, we are not opposed to technology in space, we support the use of dual-use technology being used for economic purposes. However, we do not want any technology in space that could cause tensions between countries to increase. Our third goal is to directly address what norms and principles could provide solutions to other risks. We want to have an open dialogue that addresses and advances the safety, stability and sustainability of national security related space activities.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:51:43 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Italy
Delegate Name: Elexis Soukal

On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched the first satellite, sputnik 1, into space. Then on April 12, 1961, four years after the launch of Sputnik, Russian astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit Earth in Vostok 1. The United States saw this as a threat and feared they had fallen behind on developing new technology. Following that President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, which established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). unofficially starting and defining the space race, the race between the United States and the Soviet Union to travel to the moon. The United States won the race by putting men on the moon in 1969; Apollo 11’s mission sent Neil Armstrong, Micheal Collins, and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin to the moon. In just 65 years since the first space launch, we’ve made huge strides in space technology, even talking about colonizing Mars and expanding further into space. Countries are now looking to space for answers as they face population growth and resource needs, considering it for defense or strategic advantages. So far no one has violated the peaceful international space laws currently set in place under the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. However, this does not mean that there should be a less active approach to continue to discuss the agreements on the peaceful uses of outer space.

Italy recognizes the importance of setting firm boundaries for space militarization and will work towards personal limitations on space militarization so long as it does not interfere with innovation. Space should serve as a platform for the progress and enlightenment of humanity, rather than an arena for the expansion of military interests and national ambitions. The trend of militarizing outer space has been evident since the start of space exploration. Military forces globally utilize satellites for purposes that lack a peaceful nature, including guiding bombing raids and obtaining imagery of military installations. Italy has signed several key space-related treaties, including the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, the Rescue Agreement of 1968, the Liability Convention of 1972, and the Registration Convention of 1975. These agreements reflect Italy’s commitment to responsible and collaborative space exploration, addressing issues such as the peaceful use of outer space, rescue operations, liability for space object damage, and the registration of space objects. Italy’s active participation contributes to the international framework promoting transparency, cooperation, and accountability in space activities.

The Republic of Italy urges the United Nations to take a more specific approach to tackling the militarization of space to ensure it cannot be used for war. Italy recommends creating a sub-committee of the Disarmament and International Security Committee that will focus solely on the construction of treaties and logistics of countries seeking to expand into outer space. This will ensure no country will gain unfair advantages and will no countries seek to use space for war. As this is a global issue Italy recommends inviting other countries into the discussion even those that are not actively part of the United Nations. The goal should be to collect one or two representatives from each country to ensure the negotiations are fair and benefit all. Countries that are willing to demilitarize space or set firm limitations on militarization in space should be willing to bring other countries with different opinions in to secure the best possible solution for this issue. It is prominent that actions to limit space militarization are set in place now to ensure that it does not become a larger issue. Italy is willing to help budget the creation of the sub-committee and get other countries on board as well.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:28:10 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: India
Delegate Name: Claire Williams

The space race is a staple in the space age and space history. In the 1960s the Soviet Union and the United States were in the middle of the Cold War. Both sides were suspicious of one another and believed the other was planning to start a war on each other. So, to stop this from happening, both the United States and the Soviet Union sent military satellites into space. On October 4, 1957, the Soviets sent the first satellite called Sputnik I. Although, the Soviet Union sent the first revolving satellite, the United States ultimately won on July 20, 1969, with the Apollo Program landing on the moon. Ever since this event this led to the expansion of militarization of outer space.

India has contributed to the technological advances in militarizing space. India uses ASAT missiles, this missile is a key part of the Indian Ballistic Missile Defense and The Defense Space Agency. The Defence Space Agency is a tri-service agency of the Indian Armed Forces. The agency (DSA) is tasked with operating India’s space-warfare and Satellite Intelligence assets. The DSA draws personnel from all three branches of the Armed Forces. They plan to enhance outer space military by collaborating with the Defence Research and Development Organization to develop systems for expanding India’s defense and offense capabilities in space. The military created: communications, intelligence, navigation, missile warning, and weather satellite systems in conflict areas since April 19, 1975. India only has two military satellites used for the Indian Navy force and the Air Force.

India firmly believes in militarizing outer space. Using outer space for military use can help India with surveillance, national security, and intelligence services. India has teamed up with the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue to counter China’s anti-satellite. Which includes the United States, Japan, Australia, France etc. In addition to military outer space, India also believes in monitoring the regulations and behaviors of other countries, such as China. The Quad also pushes for doubling down on space security, reducing usable space orbits, and tracking down space environment for threats. Although there is the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, India did not sign it because of the multilateral agreement under the UN radar. Nonetheless, India plans on expanding their knowledge of outer space militarization, based on the space security threats China and New Delhi have shown and are presenting in upcoming years.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/22/2023 12:04:13 107.4.29.194

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Spain
Delegate Name: Luci Perez-Simons

The Kingdom of Spain recognizes that the militarization of outer space may be necessary to explore further what lies outside Earth. Still, the Kingdom of Spain wants to do all it can to prevent the weaponization of outer space. Many nations have fought over who should be in power in outer space, with dates going back to post-World War II. The main issues facing the DISEC committee today are: how to define militarization in outer space, defining what makes a weapon in outer space, and making sure nations communicate when it comes to militarizing outer space.

The Kingdom of Spain has dappled very little in outer space. Mainly, the Kingdom of Spain has played a large role in signing various treaties about the militarization of outer space, such as the Outer Space Treaty (1967), which “forbids countries from deploying “nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction” in outer space” (armscontrol.org). Additionally, the Kingdom of Spain has ratified the Registration Convention. Overall, the Kingdom of Spain wants to prevent the weaponization of outer space but is open to discussing how and what the definition of militarization is.

As for the Kingdom of Spain, since we are a very neutral country when it comes to the militarization of outer space, we are open to various proposals, such as the PPWT proposal, favored heavily by China and Russia. This proposal would prevent placing any weapons in outer space, and stop resorting to to threats in outer space. As the Kingdom of Spain, we recognize that this proposal will promote peace in outer space, something that will favor all countries. On the contrary, the Kingdom of Spain also promotes cleaning up debris if that is deemed necessary by the committee, but the Kingdom of Spain wants to focus more on the militarization aspect of outer space.

Ultimately, the Kingdom of Spain wants to promote communication between nations regarding the militarization of outer space. We would like to consider promoting peace by stopping more weapons from being added into space, and focusing more on early warning systems (tell if a nuclear weapon is coming) as well as satellites. The Kingdom of Spain reaffirms that outer space is used peacefully.

Works Cited
https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/outerspace#:~:text=The%201967%20Outer%20Space%20Treaty,treaty%20entered%20into%20force%20Oct.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 12:27:33 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Turkey
Delegate Name: Andrew Gerrits

Militarization of space is quickly becoming one of the foremost issues in the current global climate. Since the 50s space has been the newest front in warfare. The US and the USSR brought this issue to the forefront during the space race and the first space militarization programs that appeared at this time. In 1967 space law was introduced by the UN that prohibited nuclear weapons on celestial bodies and space stations and had several provisions to keep space a peaceful space such as keeping space free for all states as well as states being liable for damage caused in space. There have also been other treaties such as the moon treaty. But countries such as the UK and Australia have derailed Chinese and Russian attempts to further demilitarize space in recent years.

Turkey firmly believes that the purpose of space is for research and exploration not for the destruction of humanity, in the words of former president Serdar Hüseyin Yildirim “Space, like any advanced technology, has two faces: one we can either use this technology for the benefit of humankind, or we can choose to use it for war and destruction” Turkey is fully committed to space exploration and since the formation of the space agency in 2018, Turkey has worked towards a fully operational space command. Turkey believes the key to global peace is collaboration, which is why Turkey has worked with the ROSCOSMOS Space State Corporation (a Russian space organization) on space exploration and demilitarization, and why Turkey strongly believes in international solutions to the continued demilitarization of space.

The best solution to keeping space demilitarized is for countries with common interests in keeping space purely for exploration to unite, and use their majority to fight against aggressors harboring Cold War hostilities. This is why we need to support all resolutions to demilitarize space, even if they are not all-encompassing, because getting more baseline rhetoric is essential to keeping space safe.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 12:19:06 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Rwanda
Delegate Name: Chase Martin

Rwanda as a nation has only ever launched two satellites into space and has never sent humans before. As it would be an endeavor bringing the people of Rwanda to outer space, a rapidly competitive environment might prohibit our efforts. The militarization of outer space may lead other countries backing away from the challenge and impeding other less developed countries such as Rwanda. Outer space should be a neutral zone shared by all peoples of the world and not a playground to push around the little guy.

Rwanda asks to summon the United Nations Security Council to address this issue of the militarization of outer space. The UNSC will be presented with a decision to prohibit expanding the affair in space at the current moment. Militarization will lead to a monopoly in space that will create unforeseen consequences in the future of this planet. The bill will reset the previous treaties of outer space to eliminate caveats and loopholes in the original treaties to prevent foul play. The delegation of Rwanda humbly offers these ideals as food for thought in the coming future of our society.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 12:12:45 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Neel Grover

As a nation whose identity is intricately woven with innovation and international cooperation, Japan recognizes the pressing need to deliberate on the challenges that the militarization of outer space presents. Our position is anchored in the belief that, as stewards of this unique domain, we must collectively uphold the principles that safeguard outer space for the betterment of humanity. Japan’s narrative is one of collaboration, foresight, and a resolute commitment to a future where outer space remains a beacon of scientific exploration, innovation, and global harmony.

The militarization of outer space poses unprecedented challenges to the international community. As we navigate this complex issue, it is crucial to appreciate its historical context, geopolitical implications, and current status. The expansion of human activities in outer space has accelerated, making it imperative to uphold the principles outlined in international agreements. Japan acknowledges the historical significance of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which has provided a foundation for guiding nations toward peaceful cooperation in space activities. As a space-faring nation, Japan has actively contributed to various international programs aimed at advancing scientific research, technology, and collaboration in outer space.

Japan unequivocally opposes the militarization of outer space. Our stance is grounded in the belief that outer space should remain a sanctuary for scientific exploration, technological innovation, and international cooperation. We advocate for the prevention of the weaponization of outer space and stress the need for transparent, confidence-building measures among nations. The potential consequences of militarizing space, including accidental conflicts, debris generation, and global security risks, underline the urgency of collective action. Japan firmly believes that diplomatic and cooperative approaches are essential to addressing security concerns without compromising the peaceful use of outer space.

Japan has a distinguished history of contributing to the peaceful uses of outer space. Our nation played a vital role in the development of the International Space Station (ISS), providing modules and contributing to groundbreaking research. Additionally, Japan has advanced satellite technology for Earth observation, climate monitoring, and disaster management, showcasing our commitment to global well-being. Our diplomatic efforts include active participation in discussions within COPUOS(Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space) and other relevant forums to address challenges related to space security. Japan consistently advocates for responsible behavior in outer space and engages in dialogue to promote transparency and build trust among nations.

Japan encourages the development of international norms and guidelines explicitly prohibiting the deployment of weapons in outer space. Multilateral agreements and adherence to existing treaties, such as the Outer Space Treaty, are essential for maintaining the peaceful use of outer space. Establishing mechanisms for increased transparency regarding space activities is a vital part of keeping outer space open. Regular information exchanges on space policies, strategies, and activities will contribute to building trust and reducing the likelihood of misunderstandings among nations. Establishing a framework for dialogue among space-faring nations will facilitate the peaceful resolution of disputes and prevent the escalation of tensions.

In conclusion, Japan reaffirms its commitment to the peaceful uses of outer space and urges the international community to collaborate in addressing the challenges posed by its militarization. We stand ready to contribute our expertise, technology, and resources to initiatives promoting the responsible and peaceful use of outer space. Let us collectively strive to preserve the integrity of outer space for the benefit of present and future generations. Japan remains open to collaboration with fellow nations and organizations in achieving these common goals.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/22/2023 12:05:30 107.4.29.194

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Morocco
Delegate Name: Lukian Fific

UN Disarmament & International Security
Militarization of Outer Space
Kingdom of Morocco
Lukian Fifić

The Kingdom of Morocco is dedicated to protecting the peaceful use of outer space.
As a nation that participates in utilizing outer space as a resource, it is against our interests, as well as the world’s, for conflict to arise in outer space. Being among the most active African countries on the Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space since 1961 as well as the only one to ratify all five core outer space treaties, the Kingdom of Morocco stands as a noble contributor to the preservation of peace in outer space.
The Kingdom of Morocco has supported and ratified all five core outer space treaties, and it is the only African country to do so. The five core outer space treaties are a collection of treaties that address issues such as arms control, appropriation by a single country, freedom for exploration and scientific endeavor, and exploitation of natural resources. The treaties are named as follows: the “Outer Space Treaty”, the “Rescue Agreement, the “Liability Convention”, the “Registration Convention” and the “Moon Agreement”. Morocco has also authored a draft resolution titled “The Prevention of An Arms Race in Outer Space” along with countries such as Mexico, Egypt, and India in 1982. This resolution aimed to prohibit the stationing of any kind of weapons in outer space. Finally, Morocco appeared as an additional sponsor in a draft resolution titled “No First Placement of Weapons in Outer Space” alongside countries such as the Russian Federation, China, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in 2016, which aimed to avert the threat of an arms race by taking practical measures to prohibit weapons in space.
Indicated by its participation in the aforementioned treaties and resolutions, the Kingdom of Morocco shows great concern for the possibility of militarization in outer space, and as such its position on this issue is one of peace and demilitarization. Morocco has supported multiple resolutions that aimed to prohibit stationing weapons in space as well as the treaties that set rules regarding how a nation may utilize space equally with all other nations. The Kingdom of Morocco believes that space is a valuable resource, both in the field of science as well as in war, and as such must be protected from those who wish to do it harm, or to do harm through it.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 11:04:59 107.4.62.74

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Algeria
Delegate Name: Dominik Barrett

11/18/23

DISEC
Algeria
militarization of outer space

Algeria agknologes the importance of the prevention of the arms race in space. We don’t want to be invalved in things we don’t have any part of. We will be willing to help our allies if anything goes down.
The commity should really consider making amendments the the space treaty that we have passed that prohibits all the countries from any of there space craft to even come near another countries space craft. If any country violates that law there defence committee will be persecuted and charged with truspassing and damages to the space craft.
Algeria will help by donating 23,000,000 to help with giving space crafts reasonable and reliable security to help defend the space crafts. If the system breaks down it will be that countries responsibility to fix it. If that country refuses they will be fined 1,000 dollars.
This will all be made for an amendment for the space treaty. The only thing before this was the space treaty.
In conclusion, Algeria thinks this will help this issue soo troublesome countries will think before they do things.

https://documents.unoda.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/ga-76-fc-td-algeria-fr.pdf

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 10:54:45 69.14.167.30

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Switzerland
Delegate Name: Broderick Mcdonald

11/18/23
Delicate Name – Broderick Mcdonald
Committee – DISEC (GA)
Country – Switzerland
Subject – MILITARIZATION OF OUTER SPACE

Introduction
In the past, present, and future the country of Switzerland has been a neutral country for most conflicts in neighboring countries. Yes, the country of Switzerland is neutral but with their military and laws set in place, they will help bordering countries in conflicts. In the past, we have aided neighboring countries by accepting refugees or mobilizing our army for others. Switzerland’s aid has always been offered freely and we have remained neutral in every major conflict.
Switzerland recognizes that The Outer Space Treaty could become an effective tool for the regulation of nations as the issue of the militarization of outer space becomes more widespread
Switzerland is a country that is committed to maintaining the use of outer space as a safe and sustainable resource for humankind. In the beginnings of ESA Switzerland was a founding member to make sure that space technology and space actions did not become too far out of hand. This shows that they are well familiar with the Outer Space Treaty because they were one of the founding members of the European Space Agency.
Part |

Switzerland would like us to focus on the downsides of The ideas of militarization of outer space. Countries would start using space as a “battleground” or start to pollute space. Potential for “battleground” use would depend on there being technology or wars happening now in space over satellites or any other technology that will be used to look at other countries’ plans. What the country of Switzerland means by this is that the 2nd topic of polluting space is with all of these satellites and other technologies going up in space how are we supposed to make sure they aren’t going to pollute space once we are done with them?

Part ||
As the country of Switzerland, there is no conflict nor a resolution for the common knowledge background since we are such a neutral country for all/any events happening in the world. For the pollution problem that was brought up earlier Switzerland is very wealthy in funds to help clean Space. “Switzerland’s ClearSpace is a startup with a solution. It’s working on technology for space debris removal — and has just raised a €26.7m Series A to accelerate the launch of the world’s first-ever space mission to remove a moving, non-cooperative object from orbit”. Switzerland has brought this problem up many times because they are worried about the militarization or weapon materials being hidden or tampered with by space pollution.
https://sifted.eu/articles/clearspace-elon-waste-series-a-news

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The background information for DISEC is how far will space weapons get in space.
In the textbook https://www.esa.int/esapub/hsr/HSR_31.pdf of section 2.12, they talk about the beginnings of space technology and how Switzerland was part of something big. This surrounds the issue of how large will all of this get with space technology because this textbook shows us how far they were getting back in 1967 and how far are we going to get in today’s time. Switzerland’s view on space technology is “working with international partners in a targeted way”. https://www.sbfi.admin.ch/sbfi/en/home/research-and-innovation/space/swiss-space-policy.html#:~:text=Switzerland%20protects%20its%20space%20policy,space%20activities%20is%20particularly%20important.

Conclusion
If Switzerland goes at the pace and the views that they are going at right now, I believe that we will see considerable progress and programs for Space technology. The Outer Space Treaty is large right now but with the progress we have shown as a group of the ESA, I believe that space technology will be so advanced that every country with the funds will be talking about space military programs.
Bibliography
https://www.history.com/news/why-is-switzerland-a-neutral-country
​​https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/fdfa/fdfa/aktuell/newsuebersicht/2022/03/raumfahrt-interv ew-natalia-archinard.html
https://sifted.eu/articles/clearspace-elon-waste-series-a-news
https://www.esa.int/esapub/hsr/HSR_31.pdf
https://www.sbfi.admin.ch/sbfi/en/home/research-and-innovation/space/swiss-space-policy.html#:~:text=Switzerland%20protects%20its%20space%20policy,space%20activities%20is%20particularly%20important.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 10:45:59 174.240.114.125

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: United arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Karmen Rozelle

The United Arab Emirates recognizes the increasing importance of outer space activities and wishes to acknowledge their potential benefits. With that being said, the United Arab Emirates strongly believes in maintaining space solely for peaceful use. Furthermore, the United Arab Emirates encourages other nations to develop their space capabilities peacefully, recognizing the numerous benefits associated with such endeavors. The country advocates for international cooperation to prevent the weaponization of space.
The United Arab Emirates asserts that outer space should be utilized primarily for scientific research and exploration. It aims to uphold treaties dedicated to keeping outer space free from military conflicts. While outer space has traditionally been considered a place for research, recent developments have raised concerns about the potential militarization of this domain, prompting the need for a rise in attention.
The United Arab Emirates is committed to the peaceful use of outer space and calls upon the international community to collaborate in preventing its militarization. The country seeks to foster diplomatic ties with nations rather than engaging in conflict. Upholding principles of cooperation, the UAE will develop a plan with three key priorities to maintain peace in outer space:
Prevention of Weaponization: The UAE opposes the deployment of weapons in outer space, including any activities that could harm other nations.

Peaceful Use: Outer space should be utilized for scientific research and exploration, promoting the peaceful advancement of knowledge and technology.

National Cooperation: The UAE emphasizes the importance of responsible national cooperation in outer space activities, ensuring that exploration is conducted responsibly.

By focusing on these priorities, the United Arab Emirates aims to contribute to the global effort to keep outer space a peaceful and collaborative domain.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 10:45:19 68.43.129.232

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Finland
Delegate Name: Johanna Renucci

Disarmament and International Security Committee
Militarization of Outer Space
The Republic of Finland
Johanna Renucci, Forest Hills Northern Highschool

Finland recognizes the increasing importance of outer space activities and is honored to contribute to the discussions in the Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC) on the crucial issue of the militarization of outer space. Recognizing the significance of outer space activities for scientific, economic, and communication purposes, Finland emphasizes the need for international cooperation to prevent the weaponization of this vital domain. Outer space plays a crucial role in advancing scientific knowledge, fostering international cooperation, and supporting economic development. Satellites orbiting the Earth contribute to weather monitoring, telecommunications, navigation, and scientific research. As a nation committed to the peaceful use of outer space, Finland is concerned about the potential consequences of its militarization, including the escalation of tensions, the risk of armed conflict, and the impairment of peaceful space activities.
Finland reaffirms its commitment to the existing legal framework governing outer space, particularly the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. This treaty, which Finland has ratified, prohibits the deployment of weapons of mass destruction in outer space and emphasizes the peaceful use of space for the benefit of all countries. As a responsible space-faring nation, Finland believes in upholding and strengthening these international agreements. Finland strongly opposes the weaponization of outer space and believes that the prevention of an arms race in this domain is of paramount importance. The international community should work together to develop and strengthen norms, rules, and mechanisms to prevent the deployment of weapons in outer space. Finland encourages the DISEC to consider the formulation of a comprehensive treaty or code of conduct to prevent the weaponization of outer space.
Finland supports the establishment of transparency and confidence-building measures to enhance predictability and reduce the risk of misunderstanding or miscalculation in outer space activities. States should be encouraged to exchange information about their space capabilities, activities, and intentions in a timely and voluntary manner. Finland suggests the exploration of a mechanism within the United Nations framework to facilitate such exchanges. Finland believes that international cooperation is crucial for the peaceful use of outer space. The international community should collaborate on research, development, and the sharing of technology for the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. Finland encourages the establishment of cooperative mechanisms to address common challenges, such as space debris mitigation and the responsible use of space resources.
Finland remains committed to the principles of peace, cooperation, and the responsible use of outer space. By preventing the weaponization of outer space, promoting transparency, and fostering international cooperation, the global community can ensure the continued peaceful and sustainable use of this crucial domain. Finland looks forward to engaging in constructive dialogue with fellow member states to develop effective measures that safeguard outer space for the benefit of present and future generations.

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GRCityDelegates 11/21/2023 23:23:54 73.145.58.180

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: France
Delegate Name: Krishna Mano

United Nations Disarmament & International Security Committee
Militarization of Outer Space
France
Krishna Mano
City High Middle School

As our world continues to progress into the future, various nations have involved themselves in missions in outer space, motivated by both scientific and militaristic reasoning. While we still find ourselves at the basic surface level of understanding the regions beyond Earth, human activities in outer space are currently governed by international law. Some relevant documents include the Charter of the United Nations and, more importantly, Resolution 2222 (XXI) or the 1967 Outer Space Treaty (OST), which provides a broad framework on the commitments, responsibilities, and liabilities states are subject to when exploring outer space. However, despite the advancements this new domain has helped humanity make, with this progress comes the risk of military escalation occuring in the region. It is important to understand the major distinction between the militarization and weaponization of outer space. France, in the various treaties and guiding documents that we have written and signed (both in the United Nations and elsewhere), have accepted the general distinction that militarization includes militaristic, scientific, and diplomatic advancements made by a nation in space, while the weaponization of space refers to specific, intentional advancements in improving a nation’s military arsenal using space as a resource to further their development.

Over the years, France has taken many steps to support the militarization of outer space, primarily for deterrence and scientific purposes, while ensuring that the necessary guidelines are in place to balance out and prevent any miscalculations made by any country, regardless of whether it was intentional or not. We have also used our position of being a leading nation in our world, as a founding and key member of the European Union, Group of Seven, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations itself, we have been diligent and cautious with our decisions to set a good example for emerging space-exploring nations to emphasize the importance of safety and security in this new frontier. When European nations came together in 1998 with various other countries including the United States, Canada, Japan, and Russia, to come to a series of Intergovernmental Agreements about space activities after the establishment of the International Space Station, our government endorsed Article 2, which outlines the international rights and obligations that every nation has to be held accountable for their own actions in space, and Article 27, to create a system of adding amendments to the agreement, considering we were well aware of the advancements in military technology that were sure to come in the future. However, this doesn’t mean that we are opposed to space exploration. Empirically, we have supported and co-sponsored the 1967 Outer Space Treaty “​​for the benefit and in the interests of all countries” and “province of all mankind”. Even then, however, we emphasized the significance of safety in space exploration by ensuring that states are responsible for “national space activities”, “damage caused by their space objects”, and “avoid[ing] harmful contamination of space”.

When we are all divided by conflicts throughout the world, it is essential for us to not just acknowledge, but also take prompt action to secure the growing threats of weapons outside of our world. France strongly urges the committee to support allowing the fascinating world above us to be researched by both the government and private sectors with multilateral cooperation and transparency, but to also consider the risks that come with this free reign, ones that require safeguards and thorough amendment processes, similar to the ones France has endorsed in the past, and will continue to endorse in the future.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 10:17:10 75.26.147.166

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Cuba
Delegate Name: Jack Doyle

Committee: DISEC
Topic: Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Cuba
Delegate: Jack Doyle, FH Northern HS

Mankind’s aspiration to explore outer space has been evident since the first ever satellite, Sputnik, was launched in 1957, and with the surge of new technology, humanity’s desire to control outer space has grown as well. Yet despite various attempts to institute regulations and directives, the guidelines for the militarization or prevention of it in space remain vague. Even with The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, many aspects of the exploration of outer space and what it means to prevent militarization are left unclear and could be specified and expanded upon.
In 1967, Cuba ratified the Outer Space Treaty. Cuba acknowledged then and acknowledges now that the only way to avoid the calamity that would be an arms race in outer space is its demilitarization or prevention of militarization. Since the approval of the Outer Space Treaty, Cuba has strongly voiced its approval of and full commitment to the prevention of an arms race and has denounced the possibility of war materials in space.
Cuba believes that the militarization of outer space would be one of the major threats to the future of the human species. To prevent disasters such as an arms race, more direct guidelines must be put in place, not only defining militarization but taking measures to prevent it as well. The future of space activities largely relies on the strengthening of legal regimes regulating war materials in space. For the common interest of all mankind, we must make progress in ensuring that the exploration and study of outer space remain peaceful and beneficial to all states. Cuba intends to fortify the regulations around preventing an arms race in outer space while refraining from undermining the sovereignty of any state and or its peaceful purposes in outer space.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 09:51:00 45.56.198.224

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Alex Mochel

Disarmament and International Security
Militarization of Outer Space
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Alex Mochel, Forest Hills Northern High School

Between 1955 and 1975, many great powers across the world competed in technological competition to reach new goals in outer space. During this time, incredible feats were achieved, and enormous progress was made internationally and domestically. For these nations involved, the goals were equal part exploration and militarization. The ongoing arms race was vital in expediting the funding and construction of rockets, satellites, and other probes. These simultaneous efforts of increasing space involvement and militarization have led to international paranoia and fear of danger from space.
In the modern age, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has successfully created one of the leading space programs in the world. The successful launch of the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 using the Unha-3 rockets has led to a significant increase in the size and capability of the Kwangmyŏngsŏng program. Beyond this, through advanced satellites and orbit technology, the DPRK has maintained a constant moral and purely explorational origins for this program. In this process, the DPRK has contributed to international space cooperation. As many leaders have said, the goals of the DPRK in space are to reach new pinnacles and follow those before us in planting our flag on the moon. The very nature of the DPRK’s Kwangmyŏngsŏng program is to observe both the world and outer space for a greater understanding of the universe.
Despite these 6 successful satellites of leading technology, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea acknowledges the need for international cooperation to prevent the weaponization of space and opposes the use of outer space for military purposes. In recent years, the National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA) has felt a more significant threat from other world powers, with danger and militarization looming beyond the atmosphere. The militarization of outer space poses great challenges to global security and stability. The DPRK is deeply concerned for the safety of its people, given the potential for a second arms race in space; this has led to a justified increase in defensive measures.
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea advocates for the continued allowance of its peaceful exploration and use of outer space for scientific, technological, and developmental purposes. The DPRK also recognizes that numerous other nations do not share this common goal and may seek to exploit outer space for more sinister motives. The DPRK supports the development of international agreements that prohibit the deployment of weapons in outer space, given that both national security and interests are not infiltrated or disrupted. The current leading space treaties enacted by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs cover only the legal principles and ability to explore outer space and fall exceedingly short in this topic. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea calls upon other nations with great military prowess and others affected by the danger of militarization to come to a solution for this pervasive issue.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 23:44:08 24.128.132.252

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Jacob Zhang

Disarmament and International Security
Militarization of Outer Space
Argentine Republic
Jacob Zhang
Forest Hills Northern High School

Argentina is faced with a significant dilemma, prompting the question of whether or not the United Nations should militarize outer space. As a country that wants to preserve international peace, Argentina is devoted to the idea of not having weapons in outer space. We also believe that each nation should be able to have its right to peacefully use outer space. Argentina would like to address this critical issue. This issue has a significant impact on Argentina, so we believe that there should be efforts dedicated towards mitigating this challenge.
Our nation places paramount importance on maintaining international peace, and the anticipation of weapons in outer space directly contradicts our fundamental values. We envision outer space as a right for peaceful collaboration, and not as a battleground for potential conflicts. Recognizing the potential for an unfair advantage through militarization, Argentina actively supports The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) and the Artemis Accords. These are seen as vital tools in governing space activities and fostering safe and sustainable exploration, aligning with Argentina’s vision for a harmonious international agreement.
Argentina has already made many steps towards the framework. International peace is one of our greatest values and Argentina believes that no country should have an unfair advantage through the militarization of outer space. Therefore, we greatly support The Committee on the Peaceful uses of Outer Space, also known as the COPOUS, which helps govern the rules in outer space. We also support the Artemis Accords that gives the United Nations an understanding of safe and sustainable exploration of outer space. Argentina has achieved notable progress in many different fields. Argentina also acknowledges the potential effects that these decisions can have on global peace and security, so, therefore, we strongly encourage the cooperation of other nations.
To support our commitment, Argentina would also like to strengthen the COPOUS and the Artemis accords. Argentina encourages the development of a treaty that prohibits the militarization of outer space. We greatly encourage measures that will help reduce the potential issues in outer space. We also believe that disarmament of weapons in space is very necessary to benefit the United nations. In conclusion, Argentina remains faithful to the principles of international peace and cooperation. These actions that we propose align with the vision of a secure future for the United Nations.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 22:28:28 67.39.250.5

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Ukraine
Delegate Name: Kenna Charbauski

Questions concerning the regulations on using space for military measures have recently become a larger focus for the UN due to innovations in technology and the increasing militarization of space. Conflicts, including the invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation, bring to light the potential abuses of current space law and the need for greater regulation. Passed in 1967, the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies (OST), provides basic law for the use of outer space that will remain necessary for all nations to follow as new developments occur. Ukraine recognizes the advantages that the exploration of outer space offers and the benefits of satellites used for military protection, but emphasizes the importance of the OST and keeping space peaceful. Ukraine firmly believes that no weapon should be placed in orbit and reaffirms the importance of preventing a global arms race in space.

As a member of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), Ukraine is a participating nation in the current space discussion. At the 77th UN session in DISEC, Ukraine co-sponsored the resolution (document A/77/C.1/L.62). The draft resolution details Ukraine and other nations’ concerns about the potential for an arms race in space. Ukraine values the peaceful, sustainable use of outer space. COPUOS has also worked to enforce the Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities and the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines. The Russian Federation’s invasion of Ukraine has placed particular emphasis on the increasing dangers of space debris and the use of satellites for military purposes. The Russian Federation’s anti-satellite missile tests alone have created over 1,500 pieces of trackable space debris. Ukraine is concerned about the dangers of these tests as debris in space can create the Kessler Syndrome and potentially harm people on earth. Another development has been the use of commercial satellites for military purposes. After Ukraine gained sovereignty, Ukraine’s military space program was discontinued. The recent invasion has led Ukraine to partner with private organizations and use those satellites for military observations. The use of commercial satellites raises important questions concerning data privacy.

The Russian Federation’s abuse of current space norms requires immediate attention, as it threatens humanity through increasingly irresponsible use of weapons and refusal to comply with current enforcement mechanisms. The Russian Federation’s space force has moved from peaceful to increasingly aggressive and has fired nearly 3,000 missiles on innocent civilians. Ukraine reminds the UN of the OST and the need for a peaceful space.

Ukraine acknowledges the need for innovations in space technology but prioritizes keeping peace in space. As the UN works to create improved legislation on the use of space, Ukraine recommends the use of legally binding instruments for the prevention of the arms race. Ukraine also believes in creating a system that will create transparency for all nations, including taking necessary confidence-building measures between nations. Ukraine emphasizes the importance of protecting the outer space environment as well as Earth and its people.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/21/2023 18:17:42 68.37.157.179

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Julia Callahan

Committee: Disec
Topic: Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate: Julia Callahan
School: East Grand Rapids HS

Russian Federation notes that with the progression of technology, the militarization of outer space is imperative to address and modulate. The militarization of outer space commenced in the 1960’s with the the Soviet Union and the United States placing military communication satellites in orbit. Russian Federation applauds the 1963 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, inaugurating peaceful use of outer space and prevention of nuclear weapons. Russian Federation acknowledges the negotiation of the 2002 Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS) treaty, which enforces the prohibition of arms races regarding outer space, recognizing the consequences of the Cold War nuclear weapon arms race.

Russian Federation recognizes the privilege of being one of the few countries currently conducting a full range of activities in outer space. Russian Federation acknowledges the progression of the militarization of outer space by the Soviet Union, notably the 1957 launch of the Sputnik 1 satellite, the 1960s-1970s arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States, and the implementation of a plethora of military space programs. Russian Federation commends the Soviet Union’s military space programs, such as the 1960s-1970s Almaz Program, the employment of military space stations with the purpose of surveillance of Earth, the 1960s-1970s IS-A Satellite Series with the function of ELINT and SIGINT collection, and the 1960s-1970s Istrebitel Sputniks with ASAT objectives. Russian Federation acknowledges the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) proposal by the United States, significantly affecting the interactions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Russian Federation commends post-Soviet Union outer space militarization activity, such as the Rocosmos space program and the signing of The Agreement Concerning Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes was an agreement between the United States of America (U.S.A) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R) encouraging cooperation and forestalling of weaponization in outer space. Russian Federation commends the International Space Station, which partners with member states such as the United States, Japan, and Canada, as well as the European Union with observer status at the UN. Russian Federation joined the ISS in December 1993, cooperating on joint space missions. Reestablished in August 2015, the Russian Space Force is now an individual branch of the Air and Space Forces (VKS)

Russian Federation endorses early warning system programs modeled after the Russian Federation’s own Space Forces Early Warning System (SPRN), Tundra, Voronezh Radar Network, and Okno Optical. Russian Federation encourages military satellite programs such as the Russian Federation’s own Kosmos Series and Persona. Russian Federation stresses the discussion and further negotiation of the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force Against Outer Space Objects (PPWT) treaty.

Russian Federation strongly believes in the militarization of outer space with adamant opposition to further weaponization of outer space. Russian Federation encourages the expedite of early warning system development as well as military satellite implementation. Russian Federation endorses peaceful and unhostile advancement of outer space activity, stressing militarization without weaponization.

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FHEDelegates 11/21/2023 18:44:49 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Palestinian Authority
Delegate Name: Nikhil Talla

In the aftermath of the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union, space became a domain for strategic military activities. The deployment of satellites for commercial purposes such as navigation, radio, and mobile communications has led to the advancement of military technologies in reconnaissance and surveillance. For example, most nations with weapons of mass destruction operate a nuclear launch and detection system made up of a small fleet of satellites that constantly scan the earth for the massive heat signatures of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) being fired to raise alarms and activate defense systems. The weaponization of space, including, for example, the development of anti-satellite weapons (ASATs), could lead to an arms race where multiple nations develop and accumulate technology to gain a military or political advantage. Arms races can escalate quickly in response to a real or perceived threat, even if there is no intent for violence. Although not under any perceived space weapon threats, Palestine encourages the development of regulations that ensure the safety of developing nations without restricting nations from establishing outer space defense measures.

The Palestinian National Authority, although not having signed the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, supports the efforts of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Subcommittees (COPUOS) and the Conference on Disarmament (CD) to ensure outer space is used for peaceful purposes. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, with over 114 nations signing it, prohibits the placement of weapons of mass destruction in space, limits the use of celestial bodies to peaceful purposes, prevents countries from claiming sovereignty over outer space, and forbids base-building, weapon tests, and military maneuvers on celestial bodies. Recently, countries such as China, India, and Russia performed tests of ASATs on their own satellites, creating large amounts of debris. The debris created by ASATs could lead to a chain reaction of collisions known as the Kessler syndrome that will damage all satellites or spacecraft in orbit. The use of ASATs and rendezvous and proximity operations (RPOs) could also damage systems vital to defense such as military Global Positioning Systems (GPS), communication systems, and ballistic missile early warning systems. Although the advancement of outer space weapons threatens the safety of all countries, Palestine recognizes the importance of other space technologies found in satellites like RPOs that could be used to advance the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs’ (UNOOSA) 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Palestine suggests that countries work together to increase transparency between nations to prevent escalation of conflict by removing doubt about potential malicious intent, reducing the potential for an outer space weapons arms race. The United States, China, Russia, and India are all nations leading the advancement of the militarization of outer space with revolutionary technology. Palestine encourages these countries to discuss bilateral agreements that would involve limited data sharing and advance notice of maneuvers in space to improve communication and decrease misperceptions over hostile behavior. Palestine also recommends exploring the possibility of facilitating the commercialization of space to establish peace in space. Private companies that are investing heavily in their space assets have an incentive to lobby their government to enact policies that avoid a conflict in space to protect their assets. Efforts to ensure safety regarding the militarization of outer space are supported by Palestine, and Palestine wishes to work with other countries to develop more specific solutions.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 18:40:25 96.70.83.177

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Gabon
Delegate Name: Reem Omran

Committee: Disarmament & International Security Committee (DISEC)
Topic: Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Gabon
Delegate: Reem Omran, Forest Hills Northern High School
The Republic of Gabon recognizes the critical importance of space and its positive impact on human users. Gabon’s participation in international affairs is governed by United Nations norms. Thus, Gabon argues that space can only be used peacefully and not violently. Military use raises concerns about potential problems with international security, stability, and sustainable development by other states. Gabon seeks ways to prevent the arms race and firmly believes in having common standards to ensure their peaceful implementation.
Gabon recognizes the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the historical context of space exploration through treaties that affected the management of outer space activities The use of nuclear weapons or other highly destructive weapons in cycles or rotations of the treaty in the 19th century clearly follows. Gabon continues to support the importance of adhering to the principles established by this treaty and calls on all parties to adhere to its delivery.
Gabon supports the global effort for the peaceful use of outer space and contributes to the growth of space law through the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space (COPUOS). In the past years, space faring and space emerging countries in Africa have considered it necessary to sign or ratify space related laws, notwithstanding the lack of technological capacity to fully engage in space related activities
Despite the existence of existing international agreements, Gabon acknowledges the emerging challenges and concerns associated with the militarization of outer space. Developments such as the introduction of anti-satellite weapons, the militarization of space facilities and the possibility of escalating conflict are seen as areas of concern Gabon is very concerned about the risks and impact of debris it can have on the long-term sustainability of space activities.
As a nation of growing space technology, Gabon is committed to the peaceful use of space. Gabon emphasizes the need for transparency in space activities, encourages international cooperation in space exploration, research and technological development and commits to settle disputes over space activities through diplomatic channels about the peaceful.
Finally, Gabon reaffirms its unwavering commitment to the peaceful use of space and calls on the international community to take concrete measures to prevent the deployment of troops in this vital area. Gabon actively supports international efforts to address new challenges within the United Nations and seeks common solutions that prioritize the interests of all countries. By promoting responsible actions and cooperation in space activities, the international community can preserve shared space heritage for present and future generations. Gabon is ready for dialogue and constructive cooperation to achieve common goals.

Works Cited
“UNITED STATES SAYS DISCUSSING MERITS of TREATIES to PREVENT “WEAPONIZATION” of OUTER SPACE “POINTLESS”, as FIRST COMMITTEE CONTINUES THEMATIC DEBATES | UN Press.” Press.un.org, press.un.org/en/2007/gadis3349.doc.htm. Accessed 21 Nov. 2023.
spacewatch.global/2020/08/spacewatchgl-opinion-african-states-and-international-space-treaties/.
Africa, Space in. “AGEOS Is Driving the Development of Gabon’s National Space Policy and It’s First Satellite.” Space in Africa, 28 Aug. 2020, africanews.space/ageos-is-driving-the-development-of-gabons-national-space-policy-and-its-first-satellite/. Accessed 21 Nov. 2023.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 18:22:39 104.63.90.115

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Venezuela
Delegate Name: Young

11/20/23
DISEC
From: Venezuela
Subject: Militiraztion of Outer Space

For the past 70 years as the expansion of space has become ever so popular, the country of Venezuela has not been very interested in space. However, this year the nation of Venezuela has been invited to join China in creating a research base on the moon which we have accepted, and we hope to send the first Venezuelan citizens to the moon very soon. However, we do have some fears of potential attacks on our mission to the moon and preventing the militarizing of space could prevent this from happening.
The nation of Venezuela believes that if we militarize space, other nations in the future could potentially compromise this research base, by possibly destroying it or by stealing our research and risk the lives of some of Venezuelas best and brightest minds, as well as China’s. We strongly support the 1967 Space Treaty, and we hope every other nation here today does the same. Venezuela is interested in continuing to explore space, but we hope that we can do so safely.
However the Space treaty of 1967 only prevents countries from possessing weapons of mass destruction in space. We believe to help prevent further conflict in space, not only involving the country of Venezuela, but any country from using space to strategize military operations, that we prevent countries from using outer space for any military operations, whether these are involving weapons of mass destruction or not. Space is for us to explore right now. And as a nation we hope to explore it without having any militaries potentially interfering with our research that we hope to conduct in the future alongside China.
It is our main goal to expand upon the Space treaty of 1967 to prevent not only countries from possessing weapons of mass destruction, but weapons of any sort, and any sorts of military bases or intelligence bases to prevent any conflict or negative interactions with not specifically Venezuela’s space research, but all nations’ research of space.

Bibliography:
https://spacenews.com/china-invites-venezuela-to-join-moon-base-project/ ,
https://mppre.gob.ve/2018/10/25/venezuela-exhorts-to-respect-the-principle-of-non-militarization-of-the-space/#:~:text=%C2%ABWe%20call%20on%20all%20States,to%20the%20UN%2C%20Henry%20Su%C3%A1rez. , https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/09/13/venezuela-china-astronaut-space-moon/

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 15:32:01 136.228.39.188

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Isaac Webb

Committee: DISEC
Topic: Militarization Of Outer Space
Delegate: Isaac Webb
School: Williamston High School

Denmark, a nation committed to the peaceful exploration of outer space and the responsible use of technology, recognizes the increasing concerns regarding the militarization of outer space. As a member of the international community, Denmark believes in the importance of maintaining the peaceful and sustainable use of outer space for the benefit of all nations. Denmark, situated in Northern Europe, is known for its dedication to international cooperation, diplomacy, and the peaceful resolution of conflicts. As a member of the European Union, NATO, and the United Nations, Denmark actively contributes to global efforts aimed at promoting peace, security, and sustainable development.

Denmark has consistently advocated for the peaceful use of outer space. Our nation is a party to various international agreements, including the Outer Space Treaty, which underscores the importance of preventing the placement of weapons in outer space and the use of outer space for military activities. Denmark has actively supported initiatives aimed at the peaceful exploration and utilization of outer space Denmark remains deeply concerned about the increasing trend of militarization in outer space and its potential consequences for global security. Denmark firmly believes in the demilitarization of outer space and the prevention of an arms race in space. Our nation supports diplomatic initiatives that aim to promote transparency, confidence-building measures, and international cooperation in outer space activities.

Denmark’s commitment to the peaceful use of outer space is evident in our adherence to international agreements and active participation in collaborative space projects. We believe that by working together, nations can address the challenges posed by the militarization of outer space and ensure the long-term sustainability of space activities for the benefit of humanity. Denmark, as a responsible member of the international community, remains dedicated to the principles of peaceful cooperation and the prevention of an arms race in outer space. By promoting transparency, adherence to international agreements, and collaborative efforts, Denmark believes that the global community can safeguard outer space for the benefit of present and future generations.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 15:32:57 136.228.39.189

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Thien Truong-Phan

Thien Truong-Phan
Williamston High School
Ghana
DISEC
Militarization of Outer Space

Outer space has always been an important area of interest for people all over the world. In the modern era, interest has increased more than ever, especially within governments. Utilizing space for reasons such as national security or influence has been an important topic for modern governments. Militarization of outer space has also been on the minds of many governments. Militarization is the process of a society actively preparing for armed conflict. Therefore, for example, the usage and creation of satellites is not inherently militarization, but most definitely can be used by a country in a militaristic manner. Satellites offer powerful information to agencies all across the globe. This information is both vital but also potentially harmful, due to the fact that it can aid military endeavors. In the upcoming years, more and more technology will be created that will expand the reach of governments into outer space. This will inevitably include weapons and military innovations. However, we must control this at all costs. If space were to become utilized by governments for military means, it could spark an arms race.
Ghana is a nation that is committed to peace, stability, and cooperation between all nations, therefore, Ghana is highly opposed to the militarization of outer space. Ghana believes that the consequences of militarizing outer space would start an arms race across many world powers. This would lead to instability and unrest in economies all over the world. Ghana strongly maintains the idea that cooperation between nations is vital in order to maintain healthy relations. An arms race would cause many nations to try and compete instead of cooperate. Ghana fully supports the Space Treaty of 1967 in the belief that it keeps nations at peace with one another. The treaty clearly prohibits weapons of mass destruction from being placed into outer space. Additionally, Ghana believes that outer space should be used for peaceful purposes that benefit all of humanity and not just for the betterment of a specific nation. Ghana has its own official space program, the Ghana Space Science and Technology Center (GSSTC), which seeks to develop and utilize satellites using remote sensing (RS) technology for many things such as natural resource management and weather forecasting. Ghana is one of the leading countries in Africa when it comes to space technologies, and Ghana wishes to use its knowledge for the betterment of all people.
In conclusion, Ghana stands strong in its stance against the militarization of outer space due to the many consequences it can cause to the world as a whole. Ghana advocates for the collective efforts of all nations to address this issue and to not cause any more tensions to rise. Ghana is looking forward to working with all delegates in this committee to come to an understanding and justifiable resolution. Ghana is anticipating the collaboration of many nations on this topic, and is willing to work together with any country that may have a similar or agreeable stance.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 14:43:33 136.228.39.189

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Belgium
Delegate Name: Ethan Ellis

The militarization of outer space is being defined, but there are no clear limits to what a nation can or cannot do. Right now, the militarization of space is using military assets such as satellites to direct bombing strikes. The satellites themselves are not harmful, but they are being used for destructive purposes. The weaponization of outer space would be placing spaced-based weapons for destructive purposes. The “Outer Space Treaty” prohibits the placement of nuclear weapons in outer space, put into place by the UN in 1967. Peaceful uses of outer space, such as exploration are allowed. Putting weapons into outer space could give a nation a lot of destructive capabilities.

Belgium is a large distributor of satellites. Belgium also does a lot of research and science for space. Similar to most countries, Belgium has a space policy that mostly focuses on the civilian aspects of space. Belgium has said that since the competition between major powers is increasing, then we need to play a role in space. Belgium has been recently working on developing defense measures for themselves and European allies, as well as cybersecurity defenses as technology improves. Belgium has worked with France to develop intelligence satellites to help with “strategic and operational level to military and civilian decision-makers”. Belgium and other modern societies are becoming more dependent on space-based services. Belgium and allied forces use and will use space-based assets for strategic military operations. However, Belgium does not want to start integrating space into our armed forces.

Belgium plans to continue to manufacture and distribute satellites to allies. We will also continue to conduct research and explore space in a more domestic use. Belgium will create a “Space Security Centre”, where there will be an increase in our situational awareness capabilities in space. Belgium will continue to increase defenses for possible space-based conflict. We will also keep developing defense strategies and come up with more technology for defense purposes. Belgium will consider joining allied nations to put armed forces and more military assets into space. Belgium’s allies are France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, other EU nations, and the U.S.
Sources
“Critical issues.” Critical issues, https://www.reachingcriticalwill.org/resources/fact-sheets/critical-issues/5448-outer-space. Accessed 16 November 2023.
“EGMONT POLICY BRIEF 302 On the Necessity of Defending Belgian Interests in Outer Space.” Egmont Institute, https://www.egmontinstitute.be/app/uploads/2023/04/Wannes-Verstraete_Policy_Brief_302.pdf?type=pdf. Accessed 16 November 2023.
“Outer Space – UNODA.” UNODA, https://disarmament.unoda.org/topics/outerspace/. Accessed 16 November 2023.
“Thales in Belgium.” Thales, https://www.thalesgroup.com/en/countries/europe/thales-belgium. Accessed 16 November 2023.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 09:39:34 216.11.121.174

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Belarus
Delegate Name: Lydia Lawrenson

The Republic of Belarus acknowledges the consideration of the militarization of outer space, and how that may be deemed appealing for some nations, or as a violation of peace by others. However, for all nations, let us be reminded of the moral of equity, and therefore to contribute to what our society has become now, and how to only make decisions like this to evolve us further for the better. It only makes sense that to go forward with technological advancements, our nations must grow past the ozone in the sense of industries thrivinging off of new jobs, as well as the opportunity for economic growth in the realm of space exploration. To prevent this growth, would only damage our alliance with our neighboring country Russia, whom our resources, economy and defense systems are spread between. We support Russia’s motion towards strengthening the safety of our nations. To take a further step in this direction we must debate the following question: “ Is the Outer Space Treaty outdated and is now inconsiderate of the needs of the modern people and current world issues that have the potential to be dealt with in a more advanced and efficient way?”. As we all share a common goal among the United Nations, trust and cooperation must be established to ensure that there will be no miscommunication upon power dynamic and false usage of military weapons. It is natural that there will be lands that will take the lead in this technological advancement, but they will be those who are most suitable in funds and have the knowledge and capabilities to do so. In Conclusion, The Republic of Belarus plans to support its neighboring ally Russia in whatever they may pursue in the exploration of growing and developing technology. Because of Belarus’s lack of military destruction weapons, since the 1990s, however, our space agency will follow whatever Russia does with the expectation that aid and goods are given to us. Russia has a high likelihood to take a leading role in the militarization of outer space, which will in turn be the best course of action for the individual states that make up the UN.
Bibliography:
NTI.org(November 1, 2020)“Belarus Overview” Fact Sheet
https://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/belarus-overview/
George,Matthew,(March,2023)” Tensions On the Belarus Border:A look at military spending and arms import patterns”
https://www.sipri.org/commentary/topical-backgrounder/2023/tensions-belarus-border-look-military-spending-and-arms-import-patterns

Armscontrolcenter.org -Center For Arms Control And Non-Proliferation(September 15, 2022)”Fact sheet: Russia’s Nuclear Inventory”
Masters, Johnathan ( September 27.2023) “Belarus? Russia Alliance” Cfr.Org
https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/belarus-russia-alliance-axis-autocracy-eastern-europe
Outer Space Treaty(unoosa.org)
htttps://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/aurora/space law/treaties/outer space treaty.htm
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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 07:42:50 136.228.39.188

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: China
Delegate Name: Hunter Sturm

Country: China
Committee: DISEC
Topic: MILITARIZATION OF OUTER SPACE
Delegate: Hunter Sturm
School: Williamston High School

Ever since the Soviets launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, in 1957, space has been in the forefront of people’s hearts and minds. Space is, after all, the final frontier, and as such has been delved into exhaustively in everything from pop culture to dinner table conversations. Just about every little kid has wanted to be an astronaut, and the argument for space colonization seems to be one of the possible futures for humankind. Yet despite all of these years of space exploration and global discussions on how to manage it, the framework for managing space, especially in terms of weaponizing it, is extremely minimal. The entirety of the International Space Law made by the United Nations is made up of 5 treaties and 5 principles, which all seem to lack adequate specifics.
China has been one of the most preeminent countries in the world in terms of space development. The invention of the gunpowder rocket, the precursor of the modern rocket, was just the beginning of China’s illustrious space program. At the core of the space program are the goals of national development and for peaceful cooperation between nations for the betterment of mankind. While China does have the largest military force in the world, they believe in mutually beneficial cooperation between nations. They also believe in the important roles that satellites play in telecommunications, navigation, and remote sensing for things such as meteorology, seismology, and urban planning.
In the future, China would like to minimize the legislation regarding space. While there does seem to be some flaws in the current, minimal legislation, space is a broad and vast expanse that is too hard to fully regulate. Countries should be able to expand in whatever ways they want, and work with other countries to both achieve sustainable and positive goals. After all, people are good, and nothing bad could happen with less restricted access to space.

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Celia Kaechele 11/20/2023 13:48:42 173.167.18.97

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Jordan
Delegate Name: Natalie Gibbs

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, or simply Jordan, is eager to collaborate with other nations to address the critical issue of the militarization of outer space. Jordan may not currently have a space program, but this issue remains very important to this delegation. As a nation firmly committed to international cooperation, Jordan understands the detailed problems with militarizing outer space that must be addressed. Outer space is both a vast, mysterious place to explore and a valuable resource to control. The precedents set by the Outer Space Treaty of 1966 (hereby referred to as OST) are over 50 years old, and must be re-evaluated to ensure that they are still to the benefit of all nations.
Jordan values international stability over all else, and will support its allies, specifically the United States and the United Kingdom, in reaching a peaceful resolution regarding the militarization of space. The responsible use of space by all nations is paramount, so Jordan would heavily lean toward a resolution that prevented the use of military in space. However, military personnel may be needed to ensure that outer space remains peacefully split between all nations. Jordan might support a resolution recommending the use of weapons and military personnel for non-peaceful purposes in space when necessary, primarily military under the control of the United Nations, to prevent the escalation of international conflicts. As long as the resolution reached by this committee is both peaceful and equal in its treatment of all nations, Jordan will likely support it.
As previously mentioned, one solution Jordan might support would be the introduction of a military unit under the jurisdiction of the United Nations into outer space. This unit could ensure the peaceful cooperation of all spacefaring nations and maintain the even split of resources in space. While this solution seems ideal for many nations, it would be in violation of OST, which bans military activities on celestial bodies, so an exception might have to be made. The solution should also involve the clarification and furthering of OST’s rules around weapons that didn’t exist even as theories at the time OST was agreed upon, such as kinetic bombardment. Answering whether the use and development of experimental technologies will be permitted in space by this committee is key, as is designating exactly what makes a piece of technology a weapon.
The delegation of Jordan is both prepared and eager to work in collaboration with other nations to further international law on militarization in outer space.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/20/2023 08:40:29 69.58.36.116

Topic: 2023-Militarization of Outer Space
Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Atlas Brooks

Outer space has been very important to human technological development. The current priority is not whether there are aliens or not, the priority lies with should there be military occupation in space?
The german military inaugurated a new space command center to watch for asteroids and any threats in space. While we understand the growing hostility and protectiveness of outer space but our goal is just for the protection of space as well as the world. While we currently have no plans to create a defense system in outer space, we rely on the United States for situational awareness and it is unlikely that we will create any kind of anti satellite systems or weapons.
We hope to focus on protecting outer space and focus on the environmental factors and alliances when discussing having military grade weapons in outer space.

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