September 16, 2019
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Repatriation of Refugees

Economic and Social Council: Human Rights Council

Topic: Repatriation of Refugees

In recent years, the amount of turmoil, and the number of international and domestic disputes has risen significantly. Initially established in 1950 following the aftermath of World War II, the United Nations General Assembly (GA) first established the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) to deal with the world’s ever-growing refugee crisis. Many of our current refugee emergencies fall within the scope of the UNHCR, however, as these crises persist, human rights issues continue to grow in tandem. The UNHCR has taken the initiative to support the voluntary repatriation of refugees, including ensuring the cooperation of the home nations of said refugees. According to their Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities, “the core components of voluntary repatriation are physical, legal and material safety, and reconciliation”, and currently, they have identified eight “ongoing emergencies”, including (but not limited to) the situations in Afghanistan, DR Congo, Syria, and Ukraine. The refugees in these countries, as well as many more, are facing ongoing and critical human rights issues, such as hunger, scarce water resources, homelessness, and lack of medical resources. For this reason, the Human Rights Council (HRC) must lend aid to this cause.

The current challenges identified by the UNHCR are: “increasing conflict, mass displacement, fresh challenges to asylum, the funding gap between humanitarian needs and resources, and growing xenophobia”. Particularly, mass displacement is continuing to increase at a rapid rate, which is why the HRC needs to aid in the ongoing repatriation efforts. The key components of voluntary repatriation are identified above and should be used as a guide for the HRC while coming to a resolution. In addition to discussing repatriation processes and policies in countries where peace has been reached, it is also crucial that the HRC discuss how to aid in the repatriation of refugees whose home nations have not been restored to stability. Specifically, the HRC should bring focus to the human rights violations that are pervasive and discuss how they can be addressed throughout the entirety of the repatriation process, including the political rights and treatment once the refugees have returned home.

It is not within the realm of this body to focus on a singular human rights crisis or a singular country’s circumstance; rather the HRC should take a broad-stroke approach as to how nations can collectively work together to ensure that the human rights needs of all refugees can be met. Some questions that the HRC delegates should focus on are as follows: How do we address the human rights issues throughout each step of the repatriation process? In what ways can the HRC aid the UNHCR in upholding its humanitarian repatriation approach? How can we work with refugees whose home countries are not secure to make sure their human rights are also being upheld? Once refugees have reintegrated back into their home countries, how can we ensure their human rights will continue to be upheld?

Useful Links:

UNHCR Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities https://www.unhcr.org/media/handbook-repatriation-and-reintegration-activities-complete-handbook

UNHCR 2022 Global Report
https://reporting.unhcr.org/global-report-2022

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/22/2023 23:35:50 76.139.137.22

Topic:
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Miro Alan Alagoz

Background:
The current largest country by land in the world, Russia as an entity has existed within Northern Asia and Eastern Europe since 879. The Russian Federation was established in 1991, adopted its current constitution in 1993, and became a union state alongside Belarus in 1999. Russia is home to over 147 Million people, ~70% Russians in addition to many different ethnic groups like the Tatars and Ukrainians, who have been forced under a Russian identity. Religion though gets a more lenient approach in Russia (Except for Jews, though tolerance has recently risen). And though the majority (~60%) and state hold Eastern Orthodox beliefs, ~25% are non-religious and ~10% are Muslim. Governmentally Russia is a semi-presidential republic that holds elections on a 6-year basis (The next one being in 2024) and consists of Republics, Oblast, Krais, Okrugs, and federal cities (83 recognized, 6 unrecognized in Ukraine), which although differ in how they operate within themselves are seen as equals by the central government. Within that federal government, there are 3 branches (executive, legislative, and judicial), and all are under the control of Vladimir Putin, the authoritarian dictator who through various forms has been in power since 1999 alongside his party “United Russia”. This mass one-sided control has corrupted the said Russian democracy, through election fraud and the silencing of political rivals/journalists. Unofficially though since the mid-1990s, Putin has been advised by a series of “Oligarchs”, billionaires who gained ownership of mass Russian wealth after purchasing large shares of governmental organizations that became private after the fall of the USSR. Their existence though is not primarily bad, due to their help in Russian stability to maintain their international businesses. Yet as Putin became more radical and powerful many oligarchs opposed him, leading to backslashes that towarthed their power through property seizures under fabricated charges and killings. Such repression led to a new type of oligarchs called silovarchs, Putin puppets put in charge of the seized business, or loyalists who obey his rule.
Internationally, Russia has been recognized by the UN since 1991 as the precedent of the USSR, a permanent founding member, and their delegate since 2017 has been Vasily Nebenzya. Throughout its current existence, Russia has been involved in many international conflicts like the Post-Soviet Wars, even acting as UN peacekeepers to this day between Armenia and Azerbaijan; The Russo-Georgian War (2008), where Russia gained control of Abkhazia and Southern Ossetia (aka. Alans); The Russian War Against Terror, primarily in the Middle East, Syria, and Mali (Especially since 2015); And the Russo-Ukrainian War (2014 – now), where Russia gained control of the 77% Russian yet historically complicated Autonomous Crimea in 2014 in which it helped establish puppet republics within the diverse yet Russian majority Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts, who were annexed alongside bordering lands in 2022. When it comes to wider world relations, Russia has increased its sphere of influence by helping developing and unstable countries in exchange for alliance, as seen with its new endeavor to help build up African countries. Overall though the biggest allies of Russia, especially economically are the “BRICS” countries of Brazil, India, China, and S. Africa. And even though Russia did have feasible relations with multiple powerful nations, most have soured due to “Western” support for Ukraine in the current war, leading to mass financial sanctions being placed on Russia, and their GDP going from 2.3 down to 1.2 Trillion (USD), although its back to 1.8 now.

Topic: Repatriation of Refugees:
After World War 2, the influx of refugees required for the creation of The Higher Commission of Refugees under the Human Rights Committee. The UNHCR has over 18,000 staff in 132 countries and has helped ~59 Million refugees seek a new home with dignity. But as conflicts increase so does mass displacement creating a new challenge of where and how to situate immigrants, an issue that’s further hyperbolized by the funding gap between humanitarian needs and resources, as well as the growing rates of xenophobia. These problems need to be solved ASAP, for according to the UNHCR currently there are ~110 Million displaced people in the world, all of whom are suffering due to the lack of efficiency The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), and The Build a Better Future program carry due to their incalculability and underfundation. In this session we have to identify how to fix these issues on a global scale, especially focusing on the conflicts in the Middle East (Israel and Syria), Afghanistan, D.R.C, and Russo-Ukraine.
The Russian Federation has been a keen Allie of refugees as they escaped inhumane conditions. World Bank data shows that Russia before 2022, accepted ~100,000 refugees per year mostly from Russo-Ukraine, Syria, and Afghanistan; All who after passing brief background checks were let into the country as temporary asylum seekers, in which they could live freely carrying near identical rights to Russian citizens until the unrest in their homelands cleared out. Many though (over ⅔ according to the Russian immigration agency) choose to stay, which they could legally do by applying for permanent residency, and if granted would mean 5 years until Russian citizenship. This approach has stayed the same throughout the past 2 years as nearly 1.3 Million refugees solely from Russo-Ukraine sought asylum within our borders.
Our policies align with, and even further are more welcoming of refugees than what the UNHCR advocates for. These include but are not limited to: The free and equal healthcare and education of immigrants and their children, even for college if academically qualified; The fast and efficient acceptance of refugees into Russia; The fair, equal, and humanitarian treatment of refugees; The temporary mass housing for refugees as they are trained to be integrated into society outside of ghettos; As well as Russia’s commitment to the UN mission as seen by our delegation being the 11th biggest funder (450 Million USD) of the overall budget. But we recognize this approach not being universal, well-paved, or sufficient; Therefore, the Russian delegation urges for a collective and well-structured effort that solves this crisis on a long-term yet flexible basis.
Our proposal is to sign off on a globally funded deal that will set a safe and effective pathway for refugees to seek shelter and even a new home in dignity away from inhumane conditions. To support this we propose a mandatory annual tax based on a country’s GDPPC, which will receive a cut for nations that host a certain amount of refugees. This money will be used not only to advocate but also to support fleeing refugees, providing humanitarian help in their endeavors. We shall also set standards for countries that host refugees to provide them with sustainable and equal resources, programs that get them integrated into society, and a pathway for them to achieve permanent residence. Finally, recognizing the complexity of each crisis, the Russian delegation proposes a new commission under the UNHRC that helps coordinate the fulfillment of each crisis.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/22/2023 21:07:44 73.161.204.246

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Spain
Delegate Name: Mikey Beusse

Human Rights Council
Repatriation of Refugees
Spain
Mikey Beusse

The repatriation of refugees is the process of returning refugees to their home countries. The process of doing so is very complicated and has been discussed numerous times. In 1951, there was the Geneva Conference which provided the internationally recognized definition of a refugee. This conference also outlined what rights these refugees have and what protections and assistance they are entitled to. This Conference also set a principle for the criteria needed to be met for the refugee to be repatriated. They stated clearly that they would not be repatriated if returning to that country would face a threat against their life or their freedom as stated in Article 33, “If the life or freedom of the refugee is threatened in their country of origin, states that are signatories to the Convention are obligated to not return or expel such individuals.” Spain has been in support of these regulations and has been a signatory of the convention and its protocol since 1987.
As a delegate of Spain, we host refugees from many countries such as Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Honduras, and Coba. We host these refugees for a variety of reasons such as violence, war, and poverty. The amount of refugees we have taken in has increased by 159.31% from 2021 to 2022. We have recently worked with the United States to repatriate two women and 3 children from displaced persons camps in Northeast Syria. However, we have had controversies with Moroccans wishing to seek Asylum in Spain. Recently, we have repatriated 2,700 out of 6,000 individuals who swam their way from Morocco to Spain. This is due to certain controversies between our countries. This is also partially due to these Asylum applications having no immediate threat to their life or freedom.
Spain believes that the return of refugees is a very complicated issue. The main reason we take in refugees is that they are not safe in the country they came from, so such an act must be dealt with in the most careful manner. We believe that we must stay compliant with what was stated at the Geneva Conference as it laid out the basic principles for what should prevent repatriation. We give many of our Asylum Seekers the right to a normal life within our country, and we think that this should be something reflected in other countries that are able to accept refugees from countries where their “life or freedom… is threatened in their country of origin.”

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MattawanDelegates 11/22/2023 21:41:08 68.60.126.223

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: South Africa
Delegate Name: Hannah Weber

South Africa for the HRC
Repatriation of Refugees
South Africa
Mattawan High School
South Africa’s Position on the Repatriation of Refugees
The current issues refugees are facing include increasing conflict, mass displacement, fresh challenges to asylum, the funding gap between humanitarian needs and resources, and growing xenophobia. The largest issue is mass displacement as it continues to increase at a rapid rate, which is why the HRC needs to aid in the ongoing repatriation efforts. Repatriation is considered voluntary, safe, and dignified. Some other issues at stake are the countries housing these refugees because more often than not, they have restrictive asylum regulations.
The United Nations has been involved in refugee repatriation since 1950 and originally was used to help Europeans who lost their homes during WWII. UNHCR realized the right of return (a refugee’s right to return to their home country) and started acting on their repatriation promises in the 1980s; the first major repatriation movement was in Honduras and El Salvador (trying to help refugees return to El Salvador from Honduras, the first time the right of return was recognized by governments). When trying to repatriate refugees, UNHCR educates refugees about their rights and informs states to respect the rules of the refugee regime. A recent solution to the repatriation of refugees was DAR (Development Assistance for Refugees) in 2002.
Refugees in South Africa currently have more rights than most. Refugees are entitled to the same rights, primary education, and full legal protection outlined by the constitution. Refugees are also allowed to apply for permanent residence after 5 years of continuous residence, and seeking employment is also an option. South Africa is currently attempting to toughen asylum for foreign people seeking refuge through a proposal called the “White Papers” because, in 1996, South Africa signed up to international agreements – such as the UN’s refugee convention without seeking exemptions from certain clauses. Meanwhile, many other countries opted out of clauses giving asylum-seekers and refugees the same rights as their citizens, including the right to employment and education for their children. The new White Papers proposal could deny refugees coming from another country that is deemed “safe” to prevent too many refugees from entering the country.
South Africa supports the repatriation of refugees because it would help lower the unemployment rate issues. After all, refugees put a heavy strain on the already overstretched health sector, high unemployment, and poverty. Returning refugees to their home countries would help relieve some of this strain because it would allow South Africa to reallocate these resources to their citizens instead of refugees. Though it may not be safe, the HCR cannot force refugees to go back to their home countries; however, those who want to go back should be allowed to go back to their home countries as long as it’s safe and they understand the risks and possible consequences.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 16:03:16 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Kazakhstan
Delegate Name: Shriya Reddy

This topic is important for the committee to address because it allows all nations to address the challenges and opportunities involved in the process of helping refugees reconstruct their lives. It is important for international cooperation and commitment for this to work successfully. The Republic of Kazakhstan finds this topic to be super important because we are known as a country full of transit and immigration. We are also a host country for asylum seekers and refugees. The Republic of Kazakhstan is aware of many citizens fleeing the country and we are seeking their return home. The United Nations has advocated for refugees and offered life-saving aid and protection to them. The United Nations “ helps refugees UNHCR (also known as the UN Refugee Agency), to help individuals displaced by conflict.”

The Republic of Kazastan condones the reparation of refugees. The unhcr.org states “ A refugee has the right to stay in Kazakhstan and move within the country and abroad with a refugee travel document issued by the Kazakh Government, except the country of his/her origin.” Although many people escape our country, several refugees seek asylum in the Republic of Kazakstan looking for a better future. In 2022, there were 70 asylum applications from refugees from other countries. Therefore we encourage all to return to the Republic of Kazakstan. We will provide individuals with the correct protections and aid. Additionally, the UNHRC refugee agency book about Kazakhstan states that “foreign citizens and stateless persons in the Republic of Kazakhstan shall enjoy the rights and freedoms, as well as bear duties established for the nationals unless otherwise provided by the Constitution, laws and international treaties.”

The Republic of Kazakhstan recommends all refugees return to their homes with the help of the UN. Since we are a host country for refugees, we are willing to work with other nations to bring refugees to our country. We would gladly welcome them in until they can go back to their home country. We understand the hardships refugees go through and we will do everything in our power to help them return to their homes.

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GRCityDelegates 11/22/2023 15:22:40 107.5.241.73

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Oscar Gomez – Gutierrez

Oscar Gomez – Gutierrez
City High Middle School
Mexico
Human Rights Council
Repatriation of Refugees

Mexico believes that repatriating refugees back to their countries should be a safe process. In 2021, 147,000 undocumented immigrants were registered in Mexico. Mexico believes this is highly important because those individuals have to be safely transported back to their home countries if the conditions in their country are safe. But, if their countries’ are not safe, they should have the ability to develop a safe and comfortable life in Mexico.
In 2018, Mexico released a statement saying that all undocumented immigrants are to be carefully considered to be brought back to their home country if conditions were safe. Recently in 2022, the president of Mexico, Manuel Lopez Obrador, stated that “Mexico is a safe place”, implying that it is a welcoming place for everybody and it is open to receive refugees from all nations including Russia and Ukraine, since Mexico wanted to take their people back to their home country away from war. While the Mexican government claims to care for human rights, the media thinks otherwise. For example, 192 undocumented adult migrants and 54 minors slept on sidewalks. According to Mexico’s INM (Ministry of the Interior) the migrants were arrested. The Mexican president said he was unaware of the circumstances and assured that his government is “protecting migrants and ensuring that their human rights aren’t violated.” The headquarters of the Mexican Commission for Refugee Assistance in the city of Tapachula was the place where crowds of migrants arrived in search of refuge. Frances 24 says that Luis Garcia Willagran, a member of the Center for Human Dignity, assured that “the Mexican authorities were condemning people to stay up to a year in a city that has no way of being able to sustain the overpopulation.”
Since 2017, Mexico has participated in a National Action Plan called the Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework. This plan is made to serve children and adults with better resources with job, education, livelihood, and protection benefits. Two of the commitments that Mexico highlighted to work on were women’s health care and basic education, as well as higher middle education. Mexico has support from many organizations including the Ministry of the Interior, Child Protection Authorities, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, and many more. These organizations are helping refugees safely return to their home countries, as well as creating a safe and comfortable life in Mexico. Overall, Mexico’s National Action Plan hopes to achieve peace and unity for migrants and Mexican citizens.

Sources:
https://www.france24.com/es/am%C3%A9rica-latina/20211017-migraci%C3%B3n-mexicana-intercepta-a-casi-2-000-indocumentados-en-un-solo-d%C3%ADa
https://www.gob.mx/inm/prensa/mexico-protege-a-migrantes
https://notipress.mx/actualidad/mexico-un-pais-que-protege-amlo-invita-refugiados-rusia-ucrania-10190
https://es.statista.com/grafico/16470/migrantes-registrados-y-devueltos-en-mexico/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2IcvdRz5vM
https://www.gob.mx/inm/acciones-y-programas/programa-de-repatriacion-12469
https://www-unrefugees-org.translate.goog/news/displacement-in-mexico-explained/?_x_tr_sl=en&_x_tr_tl=es&_x_tr_hl=es&_x_tr_pto=rq#
https://rosanjose.iom.int/es/blogs/como-abordar-la-migracion-en-los-medios-7-recomendaciones-para-periodistas
https://www.france24.com/es/américa-latina/20211017-migración-mexicana-intercepta-a-casi-2-000-indocumentados-en-un-solo-d%C3%ADa
https://www.france24.com/es/am%C3%A9rica-latina/20231114-autoridades-detienen-a-246-migrantes-centroamericanos-venezolanos-y-haitianos-en-ciudad-de-m%C3%A9xico
https://www.hrw.org/es/news/2022/06/06/mexico-solicitantes-de-asilo-enfrentan-abusos-en-la-frontera-sur
https://migrantes.cndh.org.mx/MEX/integrate/doc/Directorio-Repatriacion.pdf
https://www.gob.mx/sre/prensa/ayuda-humanitaria-una-de-las-prioridades-en-la-atencion-a-migrantes-centroamericanos
https://www.grsproadsafety.org/members/mexican-red-cross/#:~:text=The%20Mexican%20Red%20Cross%20is,as%20providing%20human%20health%20services.
https://globalcompactrefugees.org/gcr-action/countries/mexico

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:00:50 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Sudan
Delegate Name: Harpreet Kaur

The Republic of Sudan has a long-standing history of providing refuge to displaced populations, with over one million refugees currently residing in the country, primarily from South Sudan, Eritrea, Syria, and Ethiopia. However, the ongoing conflict between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) since mid-April 2023 has resulted in significant displacement within Sudan and neighboring countries. The government of Sudan recognizes the importance of voluntary repatriation for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees and does not endorse forced repatriation. The return of large numbers of South Sudanese, who had previously fled violence in their own country, is giving rise to a mass, spontaneous, and uncoordinated repatriation movement.

In collaboration with UN agencies, the Republic of Sudan has primarily focused on facilitating the onward movement of displaced individuals to their areas of origin, aiming to prevent the formation of prolonged temporary camps. However, a more comprehensive approach is required to address the needs of these individuals in the long run. To this end, the Human Rights Council (HRC) should collaborate to develop and execute a comprehensive repatriation strategy that prioritizes the provision of immediate life-saving assistance while concurrently preparing a sustainable plan that integrates the movement to and development of areas of return. Such an approach would ensure the well-being of displaced persons and facilitate their successful reintegration into society.

The Republic of Sudan acknowledges the gravity of the refugee crisis and is fully committed to collaborating with the international community to alleviate the suffering of those affected. In addition to providing immediate emergency aid, Sudan recognizes the importance of mitigating long-term risks and undertaking sustainable development programs in areas of return. The aim is to facilitate the safe and dignified return of refugees to their homes while also ensuring the stability and prosperity of the communities they return to. Such measures will require close cooperation between Sudan and its international partners.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:20:52 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Italy
Delegate Name: Alessandra Alkema

Recently, the amount of international and domestic disputes has risen significantly in relation to the debate of refugees. Initially in 1950, the United Nations General Assembly (GA) established the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) to deal with the growing refugee crisis. The UNHCR has taken support to the voluntary repatriation of refugees, including ensuring the cooperation of home nations. According to their Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities, “the core components of voluntary repatriation are physical, legal and material safety, and reconciliation.” They have identified eight ongoing emergencies, including (but not limited to) the situations in Afghanistan, DR Congo, Syria, and Ukraine. These refugees in such nations face critical human rights issues such as but not limited to homelessness, hunger, and lack of water and medical resources. Current challenges particularly fall with mass displacement increasing at a rapid rate. In addition to discussing repatriation processes and policies in peaceful nations, it is also crucial that the HRC committee discuss how to aid in the repatriation of refugees whose home nations have not been restored to stability or peacefulness.

As a delegate from the country of Italy, we stress the importance of assisting and guiding refugees who have lost stability in their home countries. Italy is at the center of the European refugee crisis, the country connecting with the International Rescue Committee (IRC) in order to help refugees in times of chaos. IRC Italy works across the regions of Lombardy, Sicily, Lazio, Piedmont, Campania, and Friuli Venezia Giulia to enhance refugees’ safety, power, education, economic empowerment and mental health – with a focus on women and children. In 2022, Italy hosted 296,000 refugees through dangerous sea routes, showing a 98% increase in the number of arrivals between 2021 and 2020. There are 10 repatriation centers in Italy which have a capacity to hold 1,338 migrants until their planned expulsion. As a member of UNHCR’s Advisory Committee since 1951, Italy’s support for UNHCR’s mandate has been steadfast. Italy’s financial support directly contributes to UNHCR’s activities on the ground, saving lives and offering solutions in times of emergencies. In 2022, record-high funding from Italy supported humanitarian responses to displacement crises in Ukraine, Afghanistan, Syria, Libya, Niger, Colombia, and more. Italy has made a total contribution of 33.1 million dollars in 2023 so far.

Italy continues its contributions and connection in providing refugees with humanitarian responses in resources and safe places. The government wants to double the number of centers and have at least one in each of Italy’s 20 regions. With the extensive collaboration of financial resources, Italy wishes to continue providing money and assistance to struggling and displaced peoples. However, with the surge of migrant arrivals, Italy has toughened the country’s measures and responses to the crisis. The new measures will allow for the extended detention of migrants awaiting asylum decisions, from the current three months to an initial six months — with the possibility of an extension up to 18 months. In hopes of these measures commencing properly, Italy wishes to further support refugees in times of need and collaborate with other nations in its efforts and programs to ensure safety and security.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:15:15 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: India
Delegate Name: Raksha Karunanithy

In the realm of international humanitarian efforts, the repatriation of refugees stands as a critical challenge, demanding cooperative solutions. The Human Rights Council plays a crucial role in ensuring the rights of individuals who have fled their country, as it provides a universal base to collaborate with other countries and come up with solutions. As the amount of refugees in the world starts to increase, the amount returning is declining as only 1.2% of the 26 million refugees of the world in 2019, had returned to their country of origin. As the number of refugees globally rose up to 35.3 million in 2022, it raises a concern about how these refugees will find a way to get back home or start a new life which requires the collaboration of all countries. The ratio of refugees leaving, and returning is significantly different as more are fleeing and fewer are returning which will only significantly get worse if no action is taken.

At the end of 2022, India housed approximately 405,000 refugees and there is an increasing inflow of refugees from Tibet and Myanmar. India has no specific legislation addressing the topic of refugees. India is not a participating party of the 1951 Refugee Convention or the 1967 Protocol which are key documents pertaining to refugee information. India currently houses an estimated 250,000 refugees who are often left vulnerable to poverty and neglect because India is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention. Since the majority of these refugees in India are denied government documentation, they are usually excluded from formal systems of socioeconomic inclusion affecting not only themselves but also future generations. India deals with refugees under its general immigration and foreigner laws. Tibet and Sri Lankan refugees are managed directly under the government while those arriving from non-neighboring countries have to approach the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to determine their refugee status. India has engaged in discussions with Bangladesh on the repatriation of the Chakma refugees. They are also conversing with Sri Lanka about the repatriation of the Tamil refugees who fled during the Sri Lankan civil conflict. India is also in communication with Bhutan on relocating the Lhotshampas who were expelled from Bhutan in the 1990s, and there have been bilateral agreements that have aimed at making the return of these refugees possible. India has been in discussions related to the Rohingya refugee crisis and has expressed security concerns and is in favor of deporting the Rohingya refugees of Myanmar. This has been subject to international criticism as it violates the principle of non-refoulement. India is not part of any organization that addresses the repatriation of refugees and is struggling quite a bit to document and manage all their refugees. They haven’t signed any agreement or resolution addressing the repatriation of refugees.

Though India has been conversing with multiple countries on the repatriation of refugees and has documented a significant amount of refugees staying in the country, they still lack legislation that governs refugees. India stresses the importance of international collaboration regarding refugee crises. Coordinated efforts are essential to finding efficient solutions to these displacement issues. India also expresses the need to provide humanitarian assistance such as shelter, food, and medicine to host nations to ensure they can meet the basic needs of their refugee populations. India emphasizes conflict resolution and believes that solving the conflict that led to the fleeing is essential to creating a safe environment so the refugees can return back to their country.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 14:13:04 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Rwanda
Delegate Name: Abby Klein

Ongoing emergencies in Afghanistan, DR Congo, Syria, Ukraine, Rohingya, Venezuela, and South Sudan have caused individuals to lack many basic resources and a safe asylum that all people deserve to have access to. The United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) was created in 1950 in order to help with situations much like these. The UNHCR has done as much as possible to give civilians resources to help, as well as relocating them to places where they can be safe. While the ongoing emergencies that were previously mentioned persist, it is time to return refugees from previous emergencies back to their home. Ensuring the safe return of refugees is of paramount importance. The process must be meticulously managed to avoid any forced removal or deportation that might expose refugees to the risk of settling permanently in unsafe conditions or places lacking the familiar jobs, lifestyles, and resources they were accustomed to. While the UNHCR has made commendable efforts in implementing voluntary repatriation programs, there remains a substantial gap in reaching every refugee who may desire to return to their home country. Addressing this challenge is crucial to comprehensively assist individuals in making informed and voluntary decisions about their return.

Rwanda has a history of facilitating the return of refugees, a practice notably exemplified in the aftermath of the Rwandian genocide of 1994. During this tragic event, the Hutus, a major ethnic group in Rwanda, overthrew the government and military, resulting in the genocide of over 800,000 people. In the face of imminent danger, nearly half a million citizens sought refuge in neighboring countries. Fortunately, the genocide came to a swift end, allowing Rwandian refugees to come back. Since then, Rwanda has collaborated with the UNHCR to orchestrate the return of thousands of individuals who had fled during the genocide, successfully reuniting millions of people with their home country and their families. Rwanda aspires to assist other nations in achieving similar success in the repatriation journeys of their refugees. This commitment reflects Rwanda’s dedication to fostering stability, rebuilding communities, and facilitating the safe return of those displaced by conflict.

One way that Rwanda foresees doing this is to work with the UNHCR to create more organization as to where individuals seeking refuge go, in order to be able to contact them after their home is safe for them to return. A critical challenge in the repatriation journey is the potential resettlement of refugees in locations that may not align with their preferences or safety needs. To address this concern, Rwanda proposes the creation of a specialized branch within the UNHCR. This dedicated branch would prioritize ensuring the safety, happiness, and full rights of refugees, in alignment with the principles recognized by the UN. This branch should be created by the HRC with the only goal of ensuring that all refugees are granted the same freedoms and respect that the UN gives to all global citizens. Once refugees have reintegrated back into their home countries, this branch can do periodical check ups on the refugees to make certain that they receive human rights. Creating this establishment would make the repatriation of refugees a smoother and effective transition and ensure that all refugees receive the human rights that they deserve.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 14:08:59 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Jordan
Delegate Name: Hadley Abrutyn

The repatriation of refugees is a prevalent issue for developing countries that are housing them, such as Jordan. Jordan houses over two million refugees, over 1.3 million of which are Syrian refugees. Around 80% live in host communities, and 17% in refugee camps. The conditions of these camps are not terrible, but still pose concerns such as health and hygiene. At least 70% of children in these camps are receiving education, and Syrian refugees are also allowed to work in certain sectors, giving them access to livelihood opportunities. But Jordan cannot afford the housing of refugees all alone, as much of funding comes from outside financial aid.

Voluntary repatriation is the act of a refugee returning to their place of origin of their own volition once the conditions have been resolved. This is the best option for refugees and the receiving country, as the refugees get temporary asylum until they are safe to go back, and the country does not have to permanently house them. The United Nations established the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or UNHCR, to assist with the ongoing problems and overall crisis. The UNHCR has taken steps to support voluntary repatriation, there are still many issues to work around, such as hunger, homelessness, lack of clean water and medical resources. For these reasons, as well as others, the Human Rights Council must help the UNHCR with this cause.

The living conditions of refugees in Jordan has significantly worsened, with cost of living and job decrease on the rise. The country of Jordan is open to working with the countries of origin to improve conditions and safety, or to find any solutions to better the health and living conditions for the refugees currently living in Jordan. Jordan has been a major player in providing asylum for refugees and has the second largest refugee population per capita. UNHCR is actively working with the Jordanian government, partners, and donors to ensure continued access to services and sustained humanitarian and development support to the refugee response. Jordan would like to resolve these problems by improving quality of living in refugee camps and host communities and increasing access to jobs and healthcare.

The country of Jordan sees fit that the committee focus on the continued repatriation of refugees, and assurance of safe reintegration to their place of origin. There is a plethora of issues to focus on, including the insurance of human rights and access to safe water and healthcare, and a plan of action in the case of conflict reemerging in their country of origin.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 14:05:12 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Turkey
Delegate Name: Vivi Westenberg

The ongoing refugee crisis is not only a humanitarian issue but a social and political issue as well that cannot be ignored. According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), there are 110 million forcibly displaced people worldwide as of late 2022 and early to mid 2023. Of those 110 million, many are refugees. Over half of all refugees come from just three countries. These countries are the Syrian Arab Republic with 6.5 million refugees, Afghanistan, with 6.1 million refugees and Ukraine with 5.9 million refugees. It is important to note that these numbers are preceding the recent Israel-Hamas war. With the recent conflict, the number has only increased with UN Officials reporting more than 1.4 million displaced people in Gaza.

Türkiye has provided refuge for displaced people for years and hosts the largest refugee population in the world. According to the European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations, Türkiye currently has close to 4 million refugees housed within its borders.

Most of the refugees that Türkiye has taken in have been refugees of the Syrian Civil War who have fled to one of Syria’s neighboring countries. This conflict in Syria first took hold of the country in 2011 after pro-democracy protests were violently shut down by the Syrian government. The government’s retaliation ignited a civil conflict that has been continuing ever since, causing many Syrians to leave their homes and flee to the surrounding states to avoid the shooting and bombing taking place in their homeland. In total the number of Syrian refugees living in Türkiye as of November 2023 amounts to 3.6 million according to the Migration Policy Institute.

Although The Republic of Türkiye prides itself on the number of people who seek refuge within its borders, the sheer size of the refugee population puts a strain on the country and Türkiye does not have enough funding to provide safe homes and jobs to all the refugees. Thus, the nation would like to work to seek support in managing the refugee crisis. Türkiye seeks help from its American delegates in working to provide funding for the housing, support and eventual repatriation of refugees in Türkiye. The country also turns to other neighboring nations of Syria such as Iraq, Jordan and Israel for assistance in working to return these displaced people to their homes. Furthermore, The Republic of Türkiye wishes to work with these countries as well as Syria to build and improve infrastructure and working to resolve conflict in Syria in order to allow these refugees to return to their home nation safely.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 13:30:15 173.225.193.247

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: LucyClaire White

The United States recognizes that the problem of refugees being overlooked and treated poorly is one that has been going on for years. Throughout history the world as a whole has experienced many wars and frequently have seen displaced refugees. The problems that the U.S. is planning to address are upholding the rights of refugees through the rough repatriation process, the process of figuring out what to do with refugees currently residing in unsafe countries, and ensuring that once refugees reenter their home country we are able to continue ensuring their safety.
In order to uphold the rights of refugees through the repatriation process the U.S. believes that a hotline or housing can be set up for refugees fleeing violent countries or countries at war. The idea of setting up hotlines, houses, or both is one that will take time and planning however the U.S. is willing and eager to begin negotiations and discuss ideas based off of that.
The idea of sending a refugee back to a home country that is unsafe is not one that the United States agrees with. However a solution has not yet been discussed for what to do in said situation. The U.S. believes that the discussion of housing to be set up in a neutral country could be a viable option in order to stop the practice of sending refugees back to unsafe home countries. The United States does acknowledge that many refugees may not be willing to go to live in a different country than that of their home country and the U.S. is currently unsure of what to do with that situation however the U.S. is open for suggestions on how to further handle it.
In order to ensure the safety of refugees after returning them to their home country the United States believes that setting up a hotline or national refugee organization may be something to consider. A center for refugees to check in or even what’s essentially a refugee social worker could be extremely beneficial to the safety and care of refugees. Documentation and paperwork for all refugees is essential as well in order to keep up and manage the refugees entering foreign countries or even the ones who have gone back to their home countries, without the proper documentation of refugees it is impossible to ensure their wellbeing after returning them to their home country.
The United States is eager to start planning on how to best care for refugees around the world. The U.S. believes that this is a great opportunity for the countries of the world to work together. Americans are willing to negotiate and to create a plan for how to best handle the situation of refugee displacements and violation of their rights.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 13:58:05 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Kennedy Anderson

Since Japan’s introduction as a member of the U.N. on December 18, 1956, Japan has wanted to save future generations from the horrors of war. And since then Japan has contributed to world peace and prosperity. Since 2016 Japan has been serving as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Having a key role in the maintenance of peace and security in the international community. Japan’s Prime Minister Abe announced at the 71st UN General Assembly that will provide about 2.8 billion US dollars over the three years, from 2016 to 2018, in humanitarian and self-reliance assistance to refugees and migrants, as well as support to host countries and communities. Japan has been agreeing on better conditions for refugees.

Japan has made provisions to the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act to provide for fair management over the entry and departure procedures of all persons in Japan, the residence of foreign nationals in Japan, as well as consolidate the recognition procedures of the refugee status. Japan has not been allowing as many refugees into the country in past cases where some applicants who committed crimes used it as a way to dodge deportation. Although Japan itself doesn’t allow most immigrants into the country, Japan has been providing money for immigrants around the world for numerous years. Japan also has accepted 2,302 Ukrainians since the Ukraine and Russian War.

Japan will continue to provide financial assistance for refugees around the country however for repatriation to happen global/country disputes that will cause citizens to flee needs to be resolved and inter-country disputes need to be put to light and resolved to keep citizens safe in their home countries. The UN needs to have these issues resolved and ask for them to be resolved to allow for refugees to go back home and not have as many refugees exiting the country. Asking countries to sanction others that do not comply in solving disputes should be an option as many refugees leave their country for war and ethnic, tribal and religious violence.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2023 13:08:55 98.97.2.135

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: China
Delegate Name: Olivia Bryan

Olivia Bryan
Williamston High School
China
Human Rights Council
Repatriation of Refugees

The refugee crisis has been and is an ongoing issue. The UNHCR, an organization founded in the 1950’s to help immigrants, is at the forefront of this issue. There are currently around 110 million dislocated people around the world. While the UNHCR does the best they can resettling and dealing with the refugees, there are still issues that the HRC can acknowledge.
Specifically within refugee areas there are limited resources.

China currently has around 303,107 refugees hosted within the country. China has a growing interest in the help of refugees and has increased funding to UN refugee organizations. As well as that China works with the UNHCR to provide asylum to those seeking it. The UNHCR works on China’s mainland to bring in and relocate refugees. China has established the National Immigration Association to help incoming immigrants and refugees.

As a solution China would be willing to discuss the immigration and refugee laws currently in place. China does have strict laws on refugees due to governmental ideals. However, China would be willing to work with all countries that are willing to discuss the issue. China would propose potential increases in the amount of refugees admitted to each country, as well as a separate organization beyond UNHRC dedicated to repatriation of the refugees.

Sources:

China’s Overseas Humanitarian Action to Assist Refugees, www.chathamhouse.org/2022/06/chinas-overseas-humanitarian-action-assist-refugees. Accessed 16 Nov. 2023.
“Legal Directory – Nonprofit Resource Center.” IAN Nonprofit Resource Center, www.immigrationadvocates.org/nonprofit/legaldirectory/organization.392885-Chinese_Mutual_Aid_Association. Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
National Immigration Administration, en.nia.gov.cn/index.html. Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
Pan, Liang. “Why China Isn’t Hosting Syrian Refugees.” Foreign Policy, 26 Feb. 2016, foreignpolicy.com/2016/02/26/china-host-syrian-islam-refugee-crisis-migrant/#:~:text=Chinese%20political%20ideology%20actively%20discourages,of%20the%20country%20of%20origin.
“Rights & Duties.” UNHCR China, help.unhcr.org/china/asylum/rights/#:~:text=Refugees%20and%20asylum%2Dseekers%20registered,Exit%20and%20Entry%20Administration%20Law. Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
UNHCR’s Initiative on Internal Displacement – Global Focus, reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/UNHCR%20Initiative%20on%20Internal%20Displacement%202020-2021.pdf. Accessed 16 Nov. 2023.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 12:01:47 174.224.71.52

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Ukraine
Delegate Name: Christian Boyce

Committee: Human Rights Council
Topic: Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Ukraine
Delegate: Christian Boyce
School: Forest Hills Northern High School

The displacement of refugees has been a growing issue in recent decades, with 36.4 million refugees worldwide in 2023. 52% percent of refugees worldwide originate from three countries: Ukraine, Syria, and Afghanistan. In contrast, only 404,000 refugees were returned to their countries of origin. There has been progress made to aid refugees with return to their country of origin, but greater international involvement is required in order to resolve this great issue. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has supported and provided a framework for the voluntary repatriation of refugees. However, many additional human rights issues have presented themselves. There are many improvements to be made regarding the most effective and ethical approach to repatriation.
Since February of 2022, Ukraine has been involved in a humanitarian crisis due to the Russian occupation of Crimea and many proximate oblasts (provinces) within the country.Due to this violation of territorial integrity and human rights, 6.3 million Ukrainian citizens have become refugees, with few returning. 90% of these refugees are women and children, bringing with them additional concerns for their fundamental rights and with repatriation and reintegration. The majority of these refugees have fled to neighbouring and other European countries such as Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia, and Germany. Ukraine seeks cooperation with these states and all others hosting refugees for a safe and ethical return to their countries of origin.
The United Nations has done considerable work to aid refugees in regards to repatriation. The UNHCR has supported refugees in voluntary repatriation and reintegration and has created a framework through which to go about this process. Eight ongoing emergencies have been named by the UNHCR across multiple countries and continents, which it has supported to meet basic needs and aid in repatriation. However, there is still much work to be done to accomplish the goal and avoid human rights issues.
Due to the wide range of crises across the world, an inclusive, universal approach to the issue for refugee repatriation is necessary. Creating a general solution will provide not only an effective remedy for current emergencies, but also one for future crises of a similar nature. Ukraine looks forward to working with its allies and other nations to resolve the many issues that come with repatriating refugees. Ukraine hopes to find a solution to ease and expedite the process of returning refugees to their countries of origin.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 22:51:20 104.187.246.60

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Belgium
Delegate Name: Evie Stornant

Evie Stornant
Williamston High School
The Kingdom Of Belgium
Human Rights Council
Repatriation of Refugees

In early years, the amount of international and domestic disputes has grown remarkably. the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees, or shortened to UNHCR, was created by the United Nations in order to help deal with the quickly growing refugee crisis. Although the UNHCR has taken the lead to deal with the voluntary repatriation of refugees and guaranteeing the coordination of the refugee’s home nations, numerous human rights concerns still exist and take place all over the world such as famine, lack of water, homelessness, and lack of medical resources.. The Human Rights Council, or HRC, is taking action to help assist the UNHCR to possibly find solutions to some of these problems and to help with this cause.
Belgium has worked with the UNHCR to try and protect the human rights of foreigners. They have succeded by creating Myria, which defends and ensures the human rights of detained foreigners under circumstances of deportation or re-entry. Myria works to protect these human rights through their three main goals which are to protect the rights of foreigners, fight against human trafficking and smuggling, and to inspect migration. To protect the rights of foreigners, Myria follows the complex legislation that controls this issue and provides foreigners with a first line of support to give them the necessary information on their fundamental rights and residency status. Myria also plays the role of an independent monitoring mechanism in the field of human trafficking and smudging on behalf of the Belgian state. This means Myria will hld it’s power until legan action must be taken, and will draw up a yearly independent public evaluation report to show how Belgium has developed in the battle against international human trafficking and smuggling. Lastly, Myria inspects migration by focusing on the nature and characteristics of the evolution of migration. The main point of this is to be updating the public authorities and the civil and wider society on the migration movements both in and out of the country. Detention centers in Belgium are also used to keep foreigners in their process of deportation, but can also be used by the Immigration Office to detain a foreigner.
Belgium has also worked with the UNHCR to help out asylum seekers and refugees. The Acess to Asylum Law of the Kingdom of Belgium helps aid the granting of asylum or a refugee status. All of this continues to provide seperate specific protection asylum criteria entrenched by the 1951 convention pertaining to the Treatment of Refugees and its 1967 arrangement. Becuase of the risk of serious harm in specific countries, some individuals may be granted a temporary backup protection even if they do not fit the legal criteria for refugee status. Under the EU Emergancy Relocation Mechanism, the country was able to accept refugees through UNHCR. Belgium has also managed to oversee a voluntary return program for migrants working together with the International Organization for Migration.

Sources:

GLICA
https://glica.org/Glica-Conferences/Glimun-2023-Conference/Glimun-2023-Committees/Repatriation-of-Refugees/

“Belgium – United States Department of State”
https://www.state.gov/reports/2022-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/belgium/

“Repatriation, detention, deportation” Myria,
https://www.myria.be/en/fundamental-rights/repatriation-detention-and-deportation

“About Myria” Myria,
https://www.myria.be/en/about-myria#:~:text=Myria%2C%20the%20Belgian%20Federal%20Migration,on%20evidence%20and%20human%20rights.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 16:21:45 64.49.126.130

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Quinn Suvedi

Repatriation is the voluntary or forced action of returning someone to their home country. In the early twentieth century, population exchanges between nations in Europe after the first World War were considered the first refugee repatriations. Therefore, the repatriation of refugees is historically a newer concept. International repatriation is known as the personal right of a refugee or prisoner of war to return to their country of nationality. Many people who experience repatriation have to cope with reverse culture shock, and they have to be able to adjust back to how their country operates. The First World War generated lots of population displacement, with more than twelve million civilians living as refugees. After World War II, many people moved in search of better living conditions and opportunities. By 1945, over six million of these refugees were repatriated back to their home countries by military forces and the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration(UNRRA).

The Argentine Republic has approximately four thousand refugees currently residing within its borders. In 1966, there was a wave of Argentinian emigration back to Spain after the military coup. Analysts report that many Argentines who move abroad are motivated by the country’s recent economic, political, and social instability, as Argentina recently had its largest recession in history. Recently, the Argentinian government has been working with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to host refugees, asylum-seekers, and migrants. Our government has been providing housing, health, and clothing items to support these refugees.

In recent years, the UNHCR has supported voluntary repatriation of refugees to ensure the cooperation of refugees as well as their respective nations. Since there are currently eight ongoing emergencies with refugees, it is imperative that the Human Rights Council lend aid to the cause, and support issues with hunger, water scarcity, homelessness, and lack of medicine.

The Argentine Republic believes that we must right the wrongs that have occurred in the past, and help those who have been negatively impacted by being moved out of their home country because of military conflicts or other issues. We are looking forward to working with other nations to solve this current issue.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 21:33:35 174.162.98.130

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Cuba
Delegate Name: Lidija Habekovic

Cuba recognizes the trials and tribulations many refugees face not only when seeking
asylum, but also when returning to their home countries. As conflicts heat up, the issue of safe repatriation of refugees is more than glaring. Cuba recognizes that repatriation is not a simple replacement of a refugee, but a process involving individuals and even communities that have changed over their experience of being displaced. Cuba is committed to protecting refugees during the repatriation process, as well as making it as simple as possible.

Cuba does not have a large refugee population. Cuba recognizes that many of its refugee policies are lacking, and that the resettlement fee is higher than many can afford. There is one reception camp in Punta de Maisi, Guantanamo Province which receives Haitian immigrants in small waves. Those who express fear over returning to Haiti are referred to the UNHRC. Cuba currently does not have any administrative policies regarding human trafficking victims, refugees who cannot be repatriated on account of their home country being too dangerous, or identifying refugees in need of international protection.

Cuba is committed to protecting immigrants within its borders. It has ratified the Convention against Torture, and has granted schooling and scholarships to thousands of refugees. Additionally, Cuba has enacted to guarantee free healthcare services to all refugees, regardless of their status (or lack of status) within the country. Cuba observes a non-refoulement policy and offers de facto temporary protection of refugees. However, Cuba recognizes there is progress to be made. Cuba has not yet implemented any procedures regarding the protection of victims of human trafficking, resettling refugees in a country where they might be tortured, and identifying people in need of international protection. However, Cuba is hopeful that it can implement new policies to protect refugees in the near future.

Cuba acknowledges there is much progress to be made. However, by working with delegates from like-minded countries, Cuba believes that a solution can be reached, and refugees will be granted the protection they need. To start, Cuba proposes to make the UNHRC more accessible, through setting up more reception camps or whatever else, to make sure refugees in need of international protection are identified. Additionally, Cuba proposes to implement measures to identify and protect victims of human trafficking, particularly those who will face security risks if returned to their home countries. Finally, Cuba proposes to impose procedures to protect and possibly grant migratory status to refugees who cannot be repatriated on account of their home countries being too dangerous. Cuba is looking forward to working with like-minded delegates and observing progress in the near future.

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FHEDelegates 11/21/2023 18:52:26 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Andrew Dylenski

A refugee is defined as someone who has been forced to leave their home due to various causes such as conflict, persecution, and global conflict. In 2022, the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees(UNHCR) announced that the amount of displaced refugees has reached the 100 million mark, doubling its amount from the previous decade. Through both World Wars, the number of refugees skyrocketed and saw one of the greatest amounts of displaced people in the world. This mass displacement has bridged to many problems for the refugees such as increasing conflict and threatened human rights regarding levels of water, food, and shelter being provided. With 43.3 million refugees being children, this problem has a heavy toll on families. The neighboring countries of those who are facing conflict tend to get all of the refugees and that has a heavy effect on the nation’s supplies and has led to poverty. For example, Syrian refugees have fled to neighboring countries such as Turkey and Lebanon where jobs are being taken and wages being lowered. While the UNHCR and other refugees have made some efforts internationally, such as the 404,000 refugees who have returned to their homes, there needs to be a bigger push from countries and organizations worldwide to really fix the problem. The HRC, partnering with the UNHCR, must find a way to uphold human rights for refugees while proposing a repatriation process that involves returning those displaced either to their home country or a different safer community if theirs is in conflict.

In 2023, Brazil had a total of 603,905 refugees in their country from surrounding areas. The country has an open-border policy where it takes in refugees and provides them with food and shelter. Venezuela’s political and socio-economic situation has led to around 460,000 migrants coming to Brazil. The country’s Operation Welcome is a program through the government where refugees are able to come in through Roraima and Amazonas and are given humanitarian assistance and documentation related to the cities if their country of origin is not safe to return to. Recently, Brazil also established a humanitarian visa policy it will take in refugees from countries that are holding a lot; Refugees from Afghanistan and other countries of conflict have started to appear in strong numbers in the country. The Brazilian federal government has been working on the process they will take to support new refugees who are coming in. For example, with the Venezuelan conflict happening, the Federal Emergency Assistance Committee and other authorities have been working on a response to refugees that ensures documentation and registration of the refugees, the provision of humanitarian items such as food, water, and shelter, and the integration of the various refugees into communities where they will be provided education and shelter. There are still speculations surrounding the process of returning these refugees to their country of origin when it is deemed safe.

The resettlement and reintegration of refugees into their country of origin or a community where they will be safe is a main priority of the HRC. Voluntary repatriation of refugees allows citizens to return to their country of origin if they want to. In order to return them to the country, UNHCR would have to analyze if the country is safe to return to, how they are gonna be transported, and where they are gonna live. Resettlement is another topic that has to be addressed as many of these refugees do not have anywhere to live. The Sustainable Resettlement and Complementary Pathways Initiative(CRISP) is a mechanism that works with countries to educate trainers and get assistance to provide protection and a secure place to live for these refugees. Governments should be given funding and assistance to help support community sponsorship and complementary pathways that will be provided to the refugees who require extra assistance and health care.

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FHEDelegates 11/21/2023 18:49:03 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Ananya Arulmurugan

The repatriation of refugees has been a prevalent issue on the world stage for a while, and it is more crucial now than ever to find a solution to this pressing topic. It is important to recognize the various challenges refugees face throughout the process of repatriation, including education, job searching, and funding. The World Bank estimates that there are over 30 million refugees globally. These refugees need to be safely repatriated to their own country if it is safe. In the past, the UNHCR has successfully repatriated refugees in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi. While these missions were overall a success, the refugees faced many challenges and human rights violations. National opinions on refugees are decreasing and therefore it is important to change the citizens’ views on asylum seekers from other countries. Another important concern to address is the treatment of refugees once they are back in their home countries. Recognizing that there are too many refugees for a few countries to deal with is also pertinent to this discussion. the distribution of refugees needs to be handled more equally so it does not result in a few countries taking the burden of 30 million people.
In the UK there are currently about 78,687 asylum seekers which is a 19% increase from the previous year. The United Kingdom is eager to find a safe repatriation process to be able to accommodate refugees whose situations are more dire. The United Kingdom believes that it is especially critical to recognize the funding portion of this problem and that it is crucial to ensure the stability of the home country before starting the process of repatriation. The UK thinks it is very important to find a way to improve on the current repatriation policies in a way that further champions human rights
The United Kingdom acknowledges that this issue is very multifaceted and requires a comprehensive solution to solve it truly. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees identifies 3 possible long-term solutions for the refugees. Voluntary repatriation is the best solution, it involves the refugees in question going back to their home countries and resettling. However, it is also important to acknowledge the other two options in case, the refugees’ home countries are not safe. Those two solutions are integration within the host country and resettlement in another country. The United Nations High Commissioner has connected each of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to a problem that refugees face. This identifies some of the challenges that refugees face such as inequality in host countries, consumption and production patterns with host and home countries, and sustainable peace in the home countries of the refugees. documentation should be required of all refugees who wish to enter another country. documentation of refugees helps decide the eligibility of repatriation. A fund should also be dedicated to helping home countries recover from their disaster. This fund should be used to provide food, shelter, and other essential resources to refugees. It should also include resources for education, healthcare, and other necessities. Governments should also work together to assist those in need. The UK also has various non-profit organizations to help these efforts such as Amnesty International and Asylum Aid. both of which are dedicated to improving the conditions of refugees’ lives.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/21/2023 17:06:05 64.147.198.201

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Isabella Frederick

In recent years the issue of the repatriation of refugees has become increasingly prominent. The UNHCR named 8 “ongoing emergencies”, where people from various countries have found their situations in their native countries unlivable due to the threat of the violation of human rights. This has left millions of people displaced from their native country and unable to return. With immense amounts of refugees struggling to seek asylum and repatriation it is extremely important that we find a way to deal with this issue of displacement. Germany firmly believes that it is the right of nations to grant protection to people in need of a safe home until their situation in their native country is fixed or improved greatly. Too many people are facing human rights violations linked to race, religion, nationality, political conviction, or a social group to not take immediate action. The UNHCR has worked tirelessly to improve asylum laws and grant people safe living environments as long as possible, but there is still so much more to be done and we must come together to create a plan that will improve this situation.

Germany’s constitution grants protection to refugees after the completion of the process to seek political asylum or asylum due to human rights violations. Although Germany grants this protection, it will not be granted if the person applying for asylum is currently in a safe third country such as a nation in the EU, Norway, or Switzerland. Along with this, the political persecution or violation of human rights has to specifically or systematically target a person or group to qualify for asylum in Germany. Due to the extremely large amount of refugees due to the 8 ongoing emergencies, Germany does not grant a 3 year residence permit to everyone. We intend to grant the refugees with extreme situations in their native nations with extended residence permits to ensure that they are being protected in a time frame that would allow the native nation to improve its situation. If someone does not meet the requirements to receive asylum in Germany they may have the opportunity to be granted subsidiary protection. This is when someone is not individually threatened by the situation in their nation, however, is still threatened with human rights violations due to the extreme conditions within the native country. This would grant these refugees with a residence permit of 1 year.

Germany finds this system to be highly effective. It does not exclude people in refugee situations, granting residency permits containing different time limits depending on the severity of the individual’s situation and the likelihood of a change in their native country. Along with a good system for granting asylum to refugees in need, Germany aims to make the repatriation of these refugees much easier and much less forced. If an individual does not qualify for any of the categories granting temporary residency to people, yet are still in a situation where it is unsafe to return to their native country, they will also be granted a residency permit. These permits are often extended to ensure that the native country is safe for the individual to return to. Germany looks forward to working with everyone to come up with a repatriation plan that will ensure the safety of these refugees.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 08:35:53 216.11.121.174

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Venezuela
Delegate Name: Jack Novak

Country: Venezuela
Committee: ECOSOC
Topic: Use of The Death Penalty

The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is firmly against the use of the death penalty. Of the members of the United Nations, 54 still maintain the death penalty both in law as well as practice. The remaining members have either completely abolished the death penalty or only use it in severe crimes. Venezuela sees the use of the death penalty as a direct human rights violation and wants to work urgently to get countries like China, who execute more people per year than the rest of the world combined, to be held accountable in a respectful and encouraging way. We wish not to condemn any aforementioned nations, rather offer insightful thought and suggestions and concepts. The death penalty is innately and inherently inhumane and carries out reinforced racial and economic biases as well as a form of political silencing in countries who wish to silence protestors. Most of all, it’s such a permanent act that can’t be reversed and in the US for example, at least 195 people since 1973 have been wrongly put to death for crimes they did not do. This is simply unacceptable and action must be taken. Venezuela wishes to work with the rest of the committee to find alternatives that are effective forms of punishment, reliable, and most of all, humane.
Venezuela was the first country (still existing) to abolish the death penalty all the way back in 1864. The Maduro regime does carry out orderly execution of the opposition regime however,and this is the only exception to the abolishment. Rather than the death penalty for punishments, Venezuela does enforce lengthy prison sentences. However, we as a country also don’t believe in life sentences. Article 43 of the Venezuelan constitution states :”The right to life is inviolable. No law shall provide for the death penalty and no authority shall apply the same.”
Venezuela advocates for members of the UN to come together and formulate alternatives to the death penalty and to punish nations who inhumanely and unlawfully enforce the death penalty at severe rates. If some countries are unwilling to give it up, formulating strict guidelines in which said countries must abide by and follow through on these agreements could be a great alternative. Venezuela is very pleased to work with the rest of the committee and find a middle ground for all nations involved.

Biography:
https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/first-abolition-of-death-penalty
https://bjs.ojp.gov/content/pub/pdf/wfbcjsv.pdf
https://www.humanrightscareers.com/issues/facts-about-death-penalty/
https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/policy-issues/international/executions-around-the-world
https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/policy-issues/sentencing-alternatives

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 08:02:31 216.11.121.174

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Algeria
Delegate Name: Adrian Vasicek

Refugee Repatriation
The issue of repatriation of refugees is a prevalent one for the country of Algeria. Algeria has many Sahrawi refugees located within the country. This is due to past and current Western Sahara political conflicts. While in the past Algeria has had issues with the safety and well-being of refugees, the government now works with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in order to prevent violence and to provide for the refugees. The government also works with the refugee’s country of origin in order to decide when repatriation is necessary and fit. While refugees cannot work in Algeria, they can attend schools and have access to medical care. The government would like to swifty relocate the refugees back to their home countries, as Algeria cannot continue to support the refugees and has been struggling to keep refugees safe. It is important to Algeria that refugees can return home, as we cannot support them or give them jobs. Algeria notes that the returning of the Sahrawi refugees isn’t the best course of action at this time, due to the Western Sahara Conflict still happening. Returning the refugees to a war zone would not be safe and would not benefit anyone; Algeria still hopes that the conflict is resolved soon so the thousands of refugees located in the camps can return home.
The country of Algeria would see fit for the committee to focus on the continuation of repatriation of refugees to their home countries. The main concerns of continuing this are the ability of the refugees to reintegrate into their home countries, the stability and safety of the home country for refugees, and if the return of refugees will cause the country of origin to restart conflicts. Algeria has received aid from the EU humanitarian funding and others. However, due to the invasion of Ukraine and the Covid pandemic, the amount of money needed for aid has increased. At this time is it not appropriate for Algeria to provide funds to other countries as Algeria is using all of its funds for its current refugees. In all, Algeria is open to working with other countries throughout the world to support the reintegration of refugees. As well as, working to protect refugees from torment of their home countries.
While Algeria cannot provide funds to this specific issue, it can provide solutions that would help other countries and benefit the refugees. Looking at things such as job availability in home countries and schools would be beneficial. If the home countries allow all to access education and to work for fair wages, the refugees would be likely to quickly reintegrate into society. Another solution that Algeria supports is preventing violence through UN laws and assistance, as well as, outlining punishment for attacks on ethnic groups and other minorities.
Algeria wants to work to help the repatriation of refugees. As not only would it benefit Algeria but it would support the rights of refugees. Having safety for refugees allows them to return home in a swift fashion and relieves countries of funding that they have to put into camps to support refugees. This funding would help countries housing refugees, who it isn’t safe to return home, further support the refugees and build communities. The end goal is for all refugees to be safely returned home and be able to support themselves and their country.

Work Cited
“Algeria.” European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations, https://civil-protection-humanitarian-aid.ec.europa.eu/where/middle-east-and-northern-africa/algeria_en#:~:text=The%20political%20conflict%20in%20Western,aid%20essential%20to%20their%20survival. Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
“Algeria.” The World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/algeria/. Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
“Algeria – United States Department of State.” U.S. Department of State, 20 Mar. 2023, www.state.gov/reports/2022-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/algeria/#:~:text=The%20constitution%20provides%20for%20freedom,the%20exercise%20of%20these%20rights. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.
“Global Focus.” Global Focus, https://reporting.unhcr.org/operational/operations/algeria. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.
“Western Sahara Conflict.” Wikipedia, 3 Nov. 2023, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Sahara_conflict. Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 07:57:00 136.228.39.189

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Melanie Milam

Committee: ECOSOC
Topic: Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Ghana
Delegate: Melanie Milam
School: Williamston High School

The Repatriation of refugees all over the world can be a major problem, especially for the receiving country—things like language barriers, housing, education, and jobs. There are many complications for the refugees, like proper medical care, housing, prejudice, and racism. The number of refugees has increased by almost 2 times the amount from the past year. There are few adequate places for them to live because there’s such a high number of refugees. The UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) was created to help the quickly rising refugee crisis. The UNHCR works to help people who are forced to flee their homes by providing basic things like health care, clean water, shelter, and human rights. Voluntary repatriation is one returning home once conditions in their countries have improved. This is helpful because it gives the refugee asylum while their home isn’t safe to be in, and on the receiving end, the country that the refugee is entering doesn’t have to provide for them for a long time.
The Ghanaian government previously worked with the UNHCR to help refugees coming into their countries after their switch back to democratic governance when they began receiving many refugees. While working with the UNHCR Ghana has been able to give many asylum seekers what they need. Ghana has organized the GRB (Ghana Refugee Board), The GRB plays several roles in helping the refugee crisis by doing things like considering applications, registering refugees, managing the refugee fund, and searching for non-governmental organizations for mutual support. As of today, Ghana houses its refugees in camps. These camps fail to provide basic things like healthcare facilities and schools.
Ghana would like to resolve this problem by making the camps that most refugees are living in more suitable by making sure there is sustainable health care, schooling, shelter, food, and water. This can happen by creating more governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote the refugee crisis and raise awareness of what is happening and what needs to be done. By giving these refugees a chance to rebuild their lives and begin making money and fending for themselves, they can start contributing to countries in very good ways.

Sources

https://www.grb.gov.gh/Refugee%20Camp

Homepage

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 07:42:08 136.228.39.189

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Belgium
Delegate Name: Allison Bennett

Allison Bennett
Williamston High School
The Kingdom of Belgium
Human Rights Council
Repatriation of Refugees

There has been a heavy increase in the amount of international and domestic disputes within recent years. The United Nations established the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or UNHCR, to handle the intensely growing worldwide refugee crisis. The UNHCR deals with most of the current refugee emergencies, however there is an ever-growing issue involving human rights with the increase in domestic disputes. While the UNHCR has taken initiative to support voluntary repatriation, meaning the return of refugees to their home country, on their own free will, once conditions in the home country have become safe, there are still many concerns regarding human rights Refugees all over the world face critical human rights issues that are ongoing, including but not limited to; hunger, homelessness, lack of clean water and medical resources. For these reasons, as well as others, the Human Rights Council, HRC, must help the UNHCR with this cause.
The Kingdom of Belgium has an organization called Myria, an independent public institution that focuses on three mandates: promoting the fight against trafficking and smuggling of human beings, informing the authorities about the nature and extent of migratory flows and protecting the fundamental rights of foreign nationals. Myria is the Belgian independent National Rapporteur on trafficking in human beings. Myria works to ensure that the basic rights of foreigners are respected, through field observations and by carefully following the complex legislation that regulates this issue, giving recommendations to public authorities and civil society. Myria ensures that the human rights of detained refugees are respected in situations of deportation and re-entry. The Belgian government has allowed Myria into places where foreign refugees are held, like detention centers and inadmissible centers and given the organization the right to be informed by the Complaints Commision of any complaint made by a detained foreign refugee.
The Kingdom of Belgium has previously cooperated with the UNHCR and other humanitarian organizations in providing assistance to asylum seekers, refugees and other people of concern. The Kingdom of Belgium has the Access to Asylum law, which provides the grating of refugee or asylum status, with the government providing protection to refugees, including specific protection that goes beyond the asylum criteria established in the 1951 Convention relating the the Treatment of Refugees and its 1967 protocol. The Kingdom of Belgium accepted refugee resettlement through UNHCR, including persons under the EU Emergency Relocation Mechanism, and conducted a voluntary return program for migrants in cooperation with the International Organization for Migration. The Belgian government also provides temporary “subsidiary” protection to individuals who did not satisfy the legal criteria for refugee status, but who could not return to their country of origin due to the risk of serious harm.
Sources:

GLICA. Https://Glica.Org/Glica-Conferences/Glimun-2023-Conference/Glimun-2023-Committees/Repatriation-of-Refugees/.
“Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities (Complete Handbook).” UNHCR, www.unhcr.org/media/handbook-repatriation-and-reintegration-activities-complete-handbook.
“Global Report 2022.” Global Focus, reporting.unhcr.org/global-report-2022.
“Repatriation, Detention and Deportation.” Myria, www.myria.be/en/fundamental-rights/repatriation-detention-and-deportation.
Department of Education, Multicultural Programs. “Roads to Refuge.” Refugee Settlement: Repatriation – Local Integration – Resettlement, www.roads-to-refuge.com.au/settlement/settlement-global-response.html
“Belgium – United States Department of State.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, 20 Mar. 2023, www.state.gov/reports/2022-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/belgium/

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/20/2023 20:36:58 73.144.146.79

Topic: 2023-Repatriation of Refugees
Country: Ethiopia
Delegate Name: Casey Nelson

11-13-23
Submitted To: Human Rights Council
From Ethiopia
Subject: Repatriation of Refugees

The nation of Ethiopia recognizes refugee repatriation as an issue of great significance. Due to the growth of armed conflicts in neighboring countries such as Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea, a large number of refugees have found refuge in Ethiopia. In addition to this, an armed conflict broke out in northern Ethiopia, although this conflict ended close to a year ago it left Ethiopia with a large number of Internationally Displaced People (IDPs), along with the large droughts and floods that also this displacement. Refugees in Ethiopia are currently facing many struggles, things like lack of education, employment, and access to clean water are only some of the things refugees in Ethiopia struggle with.

Ethiopia would like to find ways to safely and effectively send refugees home, but Ethiopia simply cannot provide adequate care for all the refugees. Unfortunately, Ethiopia is unable to provide aid to countries with similar problems, Ethiopia wants to work with refugees and countries of origin to find out the best way to get them home safely. Another thing Ethiopia wants to work on is making sure refugees that are still in Ethiopia have adequate care, things like making sure refugees have access to food and water are very critical in making sure they make it home.

Ethiopia would like to work with the countries these refugees are from to figure out how they can return safely. Ethiopia is interested in finding out ways to help get refugees home, pursuing things like providing transportation across borders as well as guaranteeing education and jobs in their home countries can be effective ways to help get refugees home. Other incentives like housing could also help them go home.

The nation of Ethiopia recognizes Article 14 of the Declaration of Human Rights, that everyone has the right to seek refuge in another country. Ethiopia also acknowledges the 1951 UN refugee convention which stated that a refugee cannot be returned to their country of origin if it is unsafe. Ethiopia will fully comply with these precedents, the only concern with the refugee convention is that the nation of Ethiopia is becoming unable to keep all the refugees, and if they can’t go home and they can’t stay in Ethiopia; Ethiopia would like to call on aid from other countries that could assist and lighten the load of refugees.
The nation of Ethiopia is optimistic about this committee’s ability to come to a decision that not only helps our nation and the refugees we have but other countries that may be facing similar issues as well as setting a good precedent for how situations like this can be handled in the future.

Sources Used
“Ethiopia Refugee Crisis Explained.” USA for UNHCR. The Un Refugee Agency, www.unrefugees.org/news/ethiopia-refugee-crisis-explained/#:~:text=On%20January%2017%2C%202019%2C%20Ethiopia,permits%20and%20other%20legal%20documents. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.

Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/ethiopia/#people-and-society. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.

March, and Sarah Miller. “Nowhere to Run: Eritrean Refugees in Tigray.” Refugees International, 28 Apr. 2023, www.refugeesinternational.org/reports-briefs/nowhere-to-run-eritrean-refugees-in-tigray/. Accessed 21 Nov. 2023.

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