September 16, 2019
Username:

Central African Republic

General Assembly: Special Political Committee

Topic: Central African Republic

The current civil war in the Central African Republic (CAR) can be traced back to the 2004 CAR Bush War when 2003 a coup led by General Francois Bozize ousted the country’s first democratically elected president. Two peace treaties were agreed upon in 2007 and 2011 to no avail. In 2012 the CAR Civil War broke out in response to breaches of the latter treaty and opposition to the President Bozize who was elected under fraudulent conditions. In 2012 rebel militia groups united as an anti-government coalition called the Seleka and began taking control of cities throughout the country and finally the capital, Bangui. The Seleka was shortly disbanded but the resulting fractured groups have continued to play a role in the conflict known as ex-Seleka militias. Since then the war has been characterized by the struggle between the ex-Seleka militias and the anti-Balaka militia. The ex-Seleka militias are bound to their roots as largely Muslim, nomadic people with control in the north and east while the anti-Balaka are Christian, agricultural people. In 2014 the country was de facto partitioned into the two regions controlled by the ex-Seleka militias and the anti-Balaka militias. Since then, cities and regions outside Bangui have been split into individual fiefdoms ruled by militia warlords.

United Nations peacekeeping efforts have been present in CAR since 2014 under the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the CAR, or MINUSCA. As of 2021 there are almost 16,000 MINUSCA personnel present throughout the country. The European Union has also sent troops to the region and other African nations have utilized their own peacekeeping forces in attempts to control violent outbreaks and various transitions of power in the government. The war has become particularly volatile in recent years following increased involvement from Russia in the form of weaponry and military training in support of the central government. Concerns came to a head in early September 2021 when an aid worker was killed by a landmine. Despite the fact that CAR has been one of the most dangerous countries in the world for foreign aid workers since 2017, this event has renewed international attention and the need for intervention as it highlights the use of guerrilla tactics putting civilians in even more danger.

To address this civil war it will be necessary for the international community to take into account the difficulties linked with the current governing body, peace keeping efforts, and the humanitarian conditions faced by the population at large. The Central African government has greatly expanded regional control over the past few years, however, this expansion has not had a positive effect on human rights conditions or lessened violence. The government’s expanded power can be linked to their support from the Russian government and expanded usage of landmines. Meanwhile, peacekeeping efforts have faced smear campaigns making false claims that they implemented the use of landmines despite their direct efforts to remove landmines. Finally, one must consider the humanitarian conditions faced by Central Africans. Central African Muslims in the anti-Balaka regions have faced religion-based violence and been forced to flee their land. Meanwhile, the population in general is one of the poorest in the world and only three percent of the population has access to running water, a problem only worsened by conflict as water resources have been compromised by militia groups.

Submit a postion paper

You do not have permission to view this form. You must be logged in. If you are an Advisor, please request an Advisor Account or Login. If you are a Delegate, please request Delegate login access from your Advisor or Login.

Submitted Position Papers

SASADelegates 11/24/2021 23:28:03 68.188.252.62

Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Peter Schrier

Peter Schrier
Brazil
Special Political Committee
Central African Republic
Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

The conflict in the Central African Republic is placed alongside the Israel-Palestine crisis because they are equally dire and seemingly hopeless to the citizens of countries directly involved. While the Israel and Palestine situation is far more publicized, the civil war in the Central African Republic is just as worthy of discussion. The C.A.R. is experiencing attacks against its feeble system of democracy. In an attempt for the rebellion troops of the country to gain power, they are keeping vital items such as food and medicine from the citizens of the C.A.R. While the fact that the C.A.R. is of the poorest and hungriest countries in the world, with the absolute lowest life expectancy of any country in the world, and has seemingly absolute zero semblance of a stable government to help their citizens is obviously the most important and prescient issue, what is on the horizon is almost as worrying. How can the C.A.R. be helped?

Brazil has done an extremely large amount of peacekeeping and humanitarian work in poorer and less stable countries similar to the C.A.R. There were Brazilian troops in Haiti for more than a decade, helping Haiti form a democracy and help them through their devastating earthquake in 2010. Based on the knowledge of their Haitian peacekeeping operations, Brazil would likely be willing to get involved with the C.A.R.’s conflicts in a positive way. While things could possibly be different due to current Brazilian president, Jair Bolsonaro’s frequent breaking of Brazilian precedent, it would be more than likely than Brazil would help out.

Brazil should first and foremost help in getting the country fed and healthy. Obviously Brazil cannot do this alone, so it will need help from other countries in terms of money. Then, we should figure out how we can all come together to end the civil war and form a democracy in the C.A.R., ideally not just through extreme brute through force.

Read More

FHCDelegates 11/24/2021 23:53:51 68.56.182.0

Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Andrew Shier

Country: Argentina
Delegate: Andrew Shier
School: Forest Hills Central High School
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Situation in the Central African Republic
Situation in the Central African Republic
Until the final communique is sent out of Buenos Aires, and a final law drafted, the nation of Argentina will always support the world’s striving towards a more peaceful, democratic, independent world. The Argentine Republic is deeply concerned with the ongoing crisis in the Central African Republic and feels deeply for the millions suffering under the yoke of war, crime, and poverty. Argentina is horrified to report that more than just a civil war is ongoing, but a ruthless, self-reinforcing cycle of sectarian violence, poverty, and retribution is plaguing the nation. Political violence begets political violence, and we have sadly watched this unfold in the CAR, hopelessly unable to stop it. From the overthrow of the democratically elected François Bozizé in 2004 to the fraudulent elections and resulting civil war of 2012, the legacy of colonialism and the dangers of democratic backsliding are clear. Now, despite many attempts at peace, and multiple formations and reformations of various combat groups, the civil war and sectarian violence in the nation are still ongoing. However, it would be a dangerous mistake to assume that this is a political war. In some ways, it certainly is, with ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka forces both advocating for different ways of governing the country, however, the unacceptably high levels of violence in the CAR that have left almost 2.29 million without food, and a further 1.4 million as refugees is a result of Christian-Muslim sectarian violence (1). Though anti-Balaka began the cycle of sectarian violence, targeting Muslim civilians in retribution for Seleka’s conquest of Bangui, the Seleka forces soon retaliated, targeting Christian communities and civilians, plunging the nation into a seemingly irreversible cycle of retributive violence. This is absolutely unacceptable and must be stopped (2).
Argentina has always stood firmly against unnecessary violence, especially deliberate attacks against civilians and any violence that targets specific religious or ethnic groups. Argentina has supported the utilization of European and western organizations and NGOs, as in UNSC Resolution 2134, to mitigate the damage of the conflict on the civilian population. It has endorsed the use of BINUCA to expedite the election process and to be the main enforcing entity of the United Nations policy in the Central African Republic, and as such now supports MINUSCA as the umbrella organization to make decisions for UN policy on the subject. Additionally, Argentina has supported the authority of the overarching state in the operations of the United Nations and believes strongly that one faction not be given primacy over another. Finally, Argentina has supported an arms embargo with the Central African Republic, so that weapons used to prolong the conflict are not being actively trafficked.
In any resolution passed by the body, Argentina would like to see a concerted United Nations effort, headed by MINUSCA, to end the war with as few civilian deaths as is possible. Argentina would like to see the body condemn any nation that would try to align themselves with one faction or the other and as such sacrifice the neutral integrity of the United Nations as a peacekeeping force. Argentina stresses the composition of an elite police force, along with forensic government efforts, impermeable to corruption. This would scale back the culture of impunity that has engendered much of this conflict, and ensure that any criminals of war or guilty parties complicit with murder, bribery, terrorism, or any other malfeasance, would be held accountable to face justice. Argentina supports the use of NGOs to head humanitarian efforts and to provide aid to the suffering people of the nation at war with itself. Argentina supports the enactment of a total arms embargo, observed by all member nations, to limit the flow of arms into the Central African Republic. Finally, Argentina calls for the action of the European Union to be a proactive part of any solution in the area. Argentina understands that the above solutions cannot be the complete and comprehensive solution to the issue, and so will be open and excited to hear the input of other nations, and the introduction of other perspectives, so as to end this conflict in a peaceful and sensible manner.

Read More

FHCDelegates 11/24/2021 23:52:11 68.56.182.0

Country: Niger
Delegate Name: Nico Gandarias Sáez

Nicolás Gandarias Sáez
Forest Hills Central High School
Republic of Niger
Special Political Committee: Central African Republic

The origin of the Central African Republic war goes back to 2003 when general Francis Bozize ousted the first democratically elected president leading to the George Bush 2004 CAR Civil War. Two peace treaties were signed in 2001 and 2011. In 2012 rebel militia groups united as an anti-government coalition called the Seleka and began taking control of cities and finally the capital, Bangui. After that the Seleka dissolved but its different militias still have an important role. The war has been characterized by the struggle between the ex-Seleka militias and the anti-Balaka militia. The ex-Seleka militias are bound to their roots as largely Muslim, nomadic people with control in the north and east while the anti-Balaka are Christian, agricultural people. Since 2014 the country has been divided in two parts controlled by the two sides. The UN and other entities have tried to send peace forces but CAR is one of the most dangerous countries in the world for people who visit it.

Niger is not affected by this situation, but we hope that people in CAR find peace. We have bigger economic and political problems in our country so we won´t send any money for help but we can help in other ways if it is required.

We propose to send more peace forces and to try to get both sides into an agreement maybe having to divide the country into two different new independent nations if it is necessary for affording peace.We think that communicating with both of the sides in the war is key to find this agreement and that independence would probably be the best solution.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 22:44:33 68.61.119.98

Country: Nigeria
Delegate Name: Sara Plante

The Central African Republic (CAR) has been locked in conflict ever since a coup in 2003 removed its first democratically elected president. After years of civil war marked by bush warfare and militia conflict, the country divided into separate regions in 2014 led by the Muslim ex-Seleka militia (in the North and East) and the Christian anti-Balaka militia. The cultural and political differences between the groups have made peace treaties and efforts for de-escalation difficult. The sustained violence has created a humanitarian crisis, displacing over 1.5 million Central Africans. Refugees have fled to the neighboring countries: Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, and the Republic of the Congo. Central Africans face food insecurity and lack access to clean water and health care. The UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the CAR (MINUSCA) has sent many aid workers to help reconstruct infrastructure and decrease the severity of humanitarian issues caused by violence.

Nigeria has not offered military aid to either the ex-Seleka or anti-Balaka forces nor humanitarian aid to the Central African people. Even though Nigeria lacks the resources to do so, it encourages MINUSCA (and any foreign nations with the resources) to increase humanitarian aid to CAR citizens. The Central African Republic is ranked as the most concerning country on the Global Hunger Index, and less than 3% of the population has access to clean water. Nigeria believes the removal of external incitement will decrease the harm against Central Africans and allow the humanitarian workers to provide more aid without the threat of conflict or danger. Despite Nigeria’s acceptance of Russian military aid, it believes that, in the case of the CAR, Russia’s involvement should be removed to discourage violence. With a population almost equally composed of both Christians and Muslims, Nigeria finds extreme importance in the cooperation of ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka groups to come to a peace agreement to restore order and decrease ethnic and religious violence sparked from political conflict.

Nigeria urges the committee to pass a resolution that prioritizes the welfare of the Central African people by increasing aid from MINUSCA. Nigeria is in full support of any resolution that would address the food, water, housing, and healthcare insecurities facing CAR citizens. Also, the international community must do all it can to decrease the militarization of the militia groups by removing any military training or weapons trading. Even if large efforts can be made for the humanitarian relief of CAR, the political and military struggle must cease for the people’s safety and stability to be ensured.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 23:40:35 68.61.119.126

Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Jesse Yang

Since the year 2004, the Central African Republic has been in a perpetual state of war. The 2004-2007 Bush War concluded with a peace agreement between rebel groups and former President François Bozizé. This glimmer of hope was shattered by 2012, when the Central African Republic Civil War began. A unified rebel group known as the Séléka began taking control of the country, due to breaches of the 2007 peace treaty by Bozizé. The Séléka forces quickly swept through the CAR, capturing the capital city of Bangui and forcing Bozizé to flee to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A transitional regime was established, but quickly lost power as the Séléka disbanded. The provisional government was then put under attack by anti-Balaka militia, a Christian group who attacked Bangui, trying to overthrow the Muslim president and ex-Séléka militia. This attack sparked years worth of conflict between ex-Séléka, anti-Balaka, and other militia groups. Despite actions taken by the UN, such as establishing the peacekeeping operation MINUSCA, or Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the CAR, and tens of thousands of soldiers being sent to the Central African Republic from the EU, AU, and UN, the Central African Republic has remained an extremely dangerous country, with the central government having little control outside the capital city of Bangui, and rebel fiefdoms vying for land. Faustin-Archange Touadéra was elected president in 2016, and his rule has seen increasing Russian support of the central government, whose mercenaries have helped the government gain back control of much of the country from rebel rule. However, this takeback has involved many civilian injuries and casualties, and Touadéra has been using this opportunity to crack down on opponents and consolidate power. Rebels have been moving into more rural areas and conducting guerilla warfare, putting more strain on civilian communities. As it stands in the present, the CAR is one of the most dangerous countries in the world, and immediate action is required from the Special Political Committee to stop the conflict and create a stable regime in the Central African Republic.
The United States of America has been the largest humanitarian donor to the CAR over the last five years, giving hundreds of millions of dollars to support long-term peace and stability in the country. It has also provided assistance to strengthen UN aid in the CAR, through the peacekeeping operation MINUSCA. However, the USA has remained politically neutral, with its embassy in Bangui supporting the “democratic process” rather than “any specific party”, regarding the previous presidential election of 2020. Unfortunately, the current rule of President Touadéra has seen the use of Russian mercenaries to drive out the rebel forces, which has also led to the murder of civilians, control of the diamond industry, and enmeshment in the CAR’s government.
The United States of America urges a ceasefire to be called between the rebel groups and the central government in order to end the prolonged suffering undergone by soldiers and civilians alike. While domestic infighting between religious and cultural groups stands as a barrier to peace in the CAR, the USA will increase funding to MINUSCA, and urges other countries to follow suit; This will lead to an increase in their presence, so MINUSCA may prevent any further skirmishes. The USA also advocates for the removal of Russian influence in the CAR government, eliminating the corruption and mercenaries that have been pervading the country. MINUSCA will oversee the ceasefire and establish a neutral provisional regime, for the purpose of allowing truly democratic elections to be held once again. The organization will also help distribute necessities to the civilians of the Central African Republic, many of whom have lacked access to running water, stable sources of food, and times of peace.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 23:05:48 67.172.84.179

Country: Haiti
Delegate Name: Kendra Rhein

The Central African Civil Wars have resulted in numerous casualties, destroyed infrastructure, and the killed chances of citizens to access clean water, health care, and nutrition. While the Central African Republic Civil Wars are causing a humanitarian crisis that needs to be addressed, these issues can be attributed to the political unrest the Central African Republic continuously encounters. Such unrest is indicated through the rising violence of the Séléka and Anti-balaka, diminishing the control and power of the central government, an issue further exasperated by the appearance of militia members in government positions. One such occurrence of this widespread governmental corruption is the former presidency of Michel Am-Nondokro Djotodia: a leader of the Séléka, as well as the overthrow of Christian president François Bozizé Yangouvonda, which lead to Djotodia’s presidency. The particular reasons for the conflict stem from the warring religions or the militias: the Christian Anti-balaka, and the Muslim Séléka, as well the fight to control diamond mines, and cattle wars contribute to the hostilities in The Central African Republic.

Currently in a similar situation to that of the Central African Republic, the Republic of Haiti has enlisted the services of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations internally. Continually relating the vast history of coups, political corruption, and uprisings, The Republic of Haiti has obtained a unique perspective and situationally experienced viewpoints on the crisis of CAR due to its coups, gang relations in politics, assassinations of public officials, and attempts at democracy.

The Republic of Haiti is opposed to unrepresented leadership and forced coups. Therefore, in no uncertain terms will the Republic of Haiti be inclined to seek an increasingly democratic take on the Central African Republic Crisis. The Republic of Haiti also seeks to address the humanitarian and human rights crises by the approach of instating aid to assist the developing nation, as well as returning deserters to simplify and rebuild the government and economy. A resolution favoring the rebuilding of a government free of the Séléka and Anti-balaka forces, and the expansion of humanitarian aid to protect the people would be strongly regarded by The Republic of Haiti. Continually, The Republic of Haiti seeks that the UN increasingly fund the MINUSCA forces and other peacekeepers to improve moral and ethical thinking: lending itself to a peaceful solution as indicated in Resolution SPECPOL/4/1.1.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 21:46:45 68.55.152.55

Country: Colombia
Delegate Name: Hannah Bhaskaran

Specpol
Columbia
Central African Republic
Hannah Bhaskaran
Forest Hills Eastern

As proved by historical evidence, civil wars are the bloodiest versions of human conflict to ever occur. The Central African Republic (CAR) has been the home of such a conflict since 2003 when politician Francois Bozize staged a coup for the presidency. Bozize’s rise to power was met with disdain from some (CAR) citizens, who consequently revolted during the Central African Republic Bush War. After the Bush war claimed 10,000 lives, multiple peace agreements were signed. In these agreements, both parties agreed to disarm- and the CAR planned to integrate rebels back into African society. Various rebel groups, however, accused the government of failing to abide by the agreements. These groups united under the name Seleka and currently clash with anti-balaka groups in what seems to be a continuation of the Bush War. The groups’ tension is fueled by differing political stances, ethnic backgrounds, religious beliefs, and property disputes. Colombia wishes to calm the strife in the CAR, whilst not getting directly involved in the conflict.
Colombia is experienced with civil wars, as we are currently attempting to quell our own. The Colombian conflict began as certain far-left groups fought amongst themselves for political influence in 1964. These guerrilla groups, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the National Liberation Army (ELN), and the Popular Liberation Army (EPL), cause daily strife in our country and are a massive drain on military resources. Although multiple peace treaties have been signed, conflict still churns. For this reason, Columbia empathizes with the Central African Republic government and hopes that tensions will soon ease. Unfortunately, Columbia is quite occupied with our own civil unrest and does not have resources to spare for the CAR. However, we hope to aid in creating a long-term solution for Central African unrest and will put forth ample effort in this committee.
Columbia urges the CAR government to seek common ground with its rebel groups. Perhaps a sense of national pride will unite the different groups and a lasting agreement will be forged. Additionally, it may be wise for the CAR government to follow through with its vows on each agreement to prevent further turmoil.

Read More

KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/24/2021 22:41:27 174.81.239.197

Country: Pakistan
Delegate Name: Andrew Stoll

Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Central African Republic
Country: Pakistan
Delegate: Andrew Stoll
Humanitarian efforts have been stunted and stalled in many politically unstable countries and the Central African Republic is no different. The crisis which has been ongoing since 2004 has claimed the lives of countless people and recently the life of a humanitarian worker. Despite many treaties and agreements the conflict in the region has not shrunk and in fact has grown and become more violent with the addition of Russian support to the Central African Government. Currently the conflict has forced nearly a million people to relocate from their homes and the United Nations estimates that 60% of them are children. The United Nations also estimates that 2.5 million people are facing hunger in the country with only 3% of the population having access to clean drinking water.
While the country of Pakistan is not directly affected by the ongoing conflict in Central Africa it seeks to promote peace and stability within the region. The country of Pakistan is also well aware of the religious tensions in the region and would like to see a permanent ceasefire between the Selekas and Balakas and an end to religious conflicts in the region.
The country of Pakistan is the third biggest contributor of military personnel with 1314 personnel currently deployed in the country. We hope that seeing our contributions to security and stability in the region will inspire other countries to send personnel and support as well. The country of Pakistan is interested in working with the neighbors of Central Africa in order to prevent the conflict from expanding into other regions and in order to better coordinate peacekeeping efforts.

Read More

SASADelegates 11/24/2021 21:54:30 108.204.238.166

Country: India
Delegate Name: Arjun Singh

Country: India
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Central African Republic
Delegate: Arjun Singh
School: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

The civil war in the Central African Republic has been one of the most violent and tragic wars of this century. Tensions between Muslims and Christians within the Central African Republic have been high since its independence from France in 1960. In December 2012 Muslim Seleka forces staged a coup d’etat to oust president François Bozizé and installed Michel Djotodia. During the coup, Seleka forces viciously murdered and raped the civilians of Bangui. In response, the African Union and France sent troops to disarm the Seleka. At the same time, a coalition of discontented predominantly Christian civilians formed a group called the Anti-Balaka to protect themselves from the Seleka. With the Seleka mostly disarmed, the Anti-Balaka set its sight on overthrowing president Djotodia and getting revenge on the Seleka. Anti-Balaka forces started massacring Muslims. Since 2013 417 of the country’s 436 mosques have been destroyed. Also, 80% of the Muslims living in the country have fled to Chad and Cameroon (Forbes). The United Nations has had peacekeeping forces within the Central African Republic for more than 20 years. The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) has grown to 15,000 strong and is currently the most extensive and most expensive peacekeeping mission.

As a current member of the United Nations Security Council, India has voted for all legislation supporting further aid by UN peacekeepers in the Central African Republic. The Central African Republic is just one of many places facing the issue of radical Islamic terrorism. The Indian people have also experienced years of religious conflict and are sympathetic to the people of the Central African Republic. As a postcolonial state, India has faced many of the same struggles the Central African Republic has. The delegation of India believes developing countries must provide input and assist the Central African Republic with becoming a more stable nation.

The delegation of India is appalled by the situation in the Central African Republic. International involvement is necessary. French troops and the African Unions MISCA troops have been unable to handle this situation and have shown a clear bias in supporting the Anti-Balaka. Neglectful actions such as mass disarmament have led to the ethnic cleansing we have seen over the past few years. Increased UN involvement allows the international community to vote more directly on solutions that can be implemented by peacekeeping forces. SPECPOL must work towards long-term solutions decided on by the international community to keep the people of the Central African Republic safe and give them hope for a better future. Many of the issues faced by the Central African Republic are the results of its abysmal Human Development Index and various issues resulting from poverty. Factors such as improving women’s education, decreasing pollution, increasing food availability, and providing better infrastructure are possible targets for the committee.

Read More

ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/24/2021 21:56:22 68.61.117.199

Country: China
Delegate Name: Jenny Qi

United Nations General Assembly Special Political Committee
Central African Republic
Republic of China
Jenny Qi, Forest Hills Northern High School

Undoubtedly, there has been civil unrest in the Central African Republic over the past 18 years, stemming from the ousting of President Dacko 2003. With only three percent of the population able to access running water, civilians are directly affected by the conflict in the Central African Republic. The CAR Civil War, started in 2012, is expressed by the conflict between militias, namely the ex-Seleka with Muslim roots and the anti-Balaka with Christian roots. In 2014, the CAR was partitioned into two regions controlled by the two militias, and peacekeepers have been active under a UN peacekeeping mission called the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in order to ensure the protection of CAR civilians. With over 11,000 peacekeepers from the UN and troops from France, Rwanda, and Russia to date, conditions for civilians and both foreign and local troops remain dangerous due to the popular use of guerrilla tactics. As a result of increased Russian support in recent years, the CAR government has expanded their regional power favoring the usage of landmines, something that the peacekeepers have made efforts to eliminate.
Despite The Republic of China’s absination from signing legislation directly related to the Central African Republic Civil War, China has played a supporting role in the Central African Republic’s fight for peace and civilian safety. Though the Republic of China abstained from voting for the mandate renewal for MUNISCA in 2021, it was later clarified that the Republic of China supports the renewal of the peacekeeping mission, and regrets the inadequate consideration of the CAR conflict. In recent years, the Republic of China has openly supported the CAR’s mission through donated military vehicles and sending medical teams to the military. In 2018, the Republic ofChina dispatched police to conduct training to help build capacity of presidential guards. The Republic of China also commends the efforts taken by the international community in improving the security and wellbeing of the CAR, and wishes for the lifting of the arms embargo at an early date. In addition, the Republic of China vigorously supports MINUSCA as it has provided security to many Chinese nationals trapped in the conflict.
The Republic of China believes that the first steps to establishing peace and civilian wellbeing in the Central African Republic is for the international community to provide aid through providing supplies and aid to troops such as military vehicles, medical support, and military training to further increase safety of citizens. The Republic of China additionally wishes for the lifting of the arms embargo against the CAR in hopes for creating more favorable conditions in improving security conditions whilst promoting economic growth.
The Republic of China acknowledges that the Central African Republic conflict requires a solution that is largely supported by the international community in order to aid military efforts in the CAR. The Republic of China looks forward to collaborating with other countries in order to resolve this conflict.

Sources:
https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/zwjg_665342/zwbd_665378/t1847865.shtmlhtt
https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/03/1087472
http://www.news.cn/english/2021-11/13/c_1310307750.htm
https://www.usip.org/publications/2019/12/amid-central-african-republics-search-peace-russia-steps-china-next
https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/02/1032091
https://www.un.org/press/en/2021/sc14590.doc.htm
https://minusca.unmissions.org/en

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 21:31:10 70.91.225.142

Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Aastha Patel

Special Political Committee
Central African Republic
Federal Republic of Germany
Aastha Patel
Forest Hills Eastern

The ongoing civil war in the Central African Republic between Ex-Séléka and Anti-Balaka has left the nation in a state of violent chaos. Violence erupted in the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2012 when the rebel group, Séléka, accused the government of failing to abide by peace agreements. In 2013, the Séléka group ousted President Francois Bozize and forcibly seized power. New fighting began between Séléka and militias opposed to them called Anti-Balaka. Much of the tension is over religious identity between Muslim Séléka and Christian Balaka fighters. Years of conflict and instability have destroyed infrastructure and government institutions, leaving millions of Central Africans without access to clean water, health care, and nourishment. As of 2018, armed groups control more than two-thirds of the country and violence continues to spread into previously stable regions. Over the past few years, the Central African Republic has expanded greatly, however, this has not led to a positive effect on the citizens or lessened violence. The Federal Republic of Germany urges the committee to find a solution to control violent outbreaks and transitions in power in the government.

The Federal Republic of Germany calls upon other nations to help in increasing peace-making efforts. Germany desires to bring unity and peace, as well as increasing humanitarian aid to the people of the Central African Republic living in poverty. Germany is providing the Central African Republic with 8.5 million euros to improve the living conditions of the people because only three percent of Central Africans have access to running water. Furthermore, many water access points have been destroyed by violence or contaminated by dead bodies. Additionally, Germany is supporting the World Food Programme with 1.5 million Euros for refugees who are currently living in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Germany has also aided 3.5 million euros to support an emergency aid operation for food aid and security by the World Food Programme in the Central African Republic. Moreover, Germany has donated five million euros to aid sustainable food security, rehabilitation of infrastructure for water, sanitation and hygiene.

According to the United Nations, one in four Central Africans are displaced in and outside the nation, the same rate currently seen in the Syrian refugee crisis. Overall, 1.1 million central Africans have been displaced. About half a million have been driven into neighboring countries, while over 600,000 are displaced within the Central African Republic. Germany urges neighboring nations to support refugees by accepting them into their countries. Germany also urges nations to help with the food crisis in the Central African Republic by, but not limited to; food security and food donations, as the Central African Republic currently ranks worst on the Global Hunger Index. With a score of 50.7, it is the only country classified as extremely alarming as half the population does not have sufficient food. The Federal Republic of Germany urges nations to aid Central African children with humanitarian assistance and education, as 1.4 million children are currently in the need of humanitarian assistance and a third of all children are currently out of school, as education is one of the most effective ways to move children out of poverty. Germany would also like to find a solution that provides protection to humanitarians in the Central African Republic as it has become the most dangerous place for them, as nine were killed in the first quarter of 2018. Lastly, Germany would like to find a solution to bring back power to the government of the Central African Republic, becoming a democratic nation. For help, Germany can provide aid through monetary donations and any type of air transport.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 21:08:37 68.61.117.153

Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Sarah Dixon

In the Central African Republic, fighting between rebel groups, ex-Séléka militias and anti-Balaka militias, with the national government struggling to gain control has led to a state of disaster. The Central African Republic has a long history of internal war and political unrest, which has left its citizens in an unfortunate situation. The hostilities and violence between the rebel groups and the instability of the government have led to the displacement of over 717,000 people and the necessity of humanitarian assistance to 2.8 million people. The Central African Republic’s security and school systems have quickly deteriorated in recent months and children have suffered as a result. Without the preoccupation and stability of schools, such children have been left to the fate of military recruitment, abduction, rape, or even death. Despite the promulgation of the 2020 Child Protection Code, which criminalizes all of the aforementioned activities in the Central African Republic, the situation continues to remain dire. With recent Rwandan and Russian military intervention for the Central African government, the situation has begun to improve. The situation in the Central African Republic requires the full support of the United Nations to these military initiatives to secure the safety and protection of the Central African people and stability of the Central African government.

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea maintains a limited opinion on the situation in the Central African Republic; however, the DPRK supports the Russian intervention in the Central African Republic. Russian military instructors have aided the Central African government with the mission to stabilize the war-torn country by strengthening the national security units of the Central African Republic and expanding the economy and global reach in the process. With this Russian support, the Central African government has been able to greatly expand its regional control over recent years, which proves the success of the Russian initiatives. The DPRK also supports the Chinese influence in the Central African Republic. The DPRK appreciates the long-standing alliances with China and Russia and will support their positions on the conflicts in the Central African Republic.

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea supports the Russian position in the Central African Republic and, therefore, promotes the relationship of bilateral cooperation between the two states. The Russian intervention has allowed the Central African Republic to head towards peace and stability after years of unrest and violence. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea does not wish to contribute to the situation in the Central African Republic with resources but will vote in support of Chinese and Russian initiatives.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 18:31:50 68.32.199.245

Country: Tunisia
Delegate Name: Braxton Orban

Since Francois Bozize’s 2003 coup removed the Central African Republic’s (CAR) first democratically elected president and began the 2004 CAR Bush War, the Central African Republic has struggled with civil warfare. Despite peace treaties signed in 2007 and 2011, internal warfare broke out in 2012; the belligerents are the ex-Seleka militias, the remnants of anti-government rebel groups, and the anti-Balaka militia. The animosity between these groups is also fueled by ideological and cultural differences, as the ex-Seleka are predominantly Muslim and nomadic, while the anti-Balaka are Christian and agricultural. Since the outbreak of the civil war, most cities in the CAR have been controlled by individual militia warlords. Human rights have greatly decreased throughout the country in the past decades. According to World Vision, a global humanitarian aid organization, over 1.1 million Central African civilians have been displaced, over 14,000 child soldiers have been recruited, and humanitarian assistance is greatly needed. In order to resolve this conflict, The Special Political Committee must find a solution which assures a true end to the rampant fighting in the country, establishes a fair government, and improves the living conditions of those affected by the violence.

As an African country, the Republic of Tunisia recognizes the long history of political instability in the Central African Republic’s history and seeks an end to the violence. Continuing its long tradition of assisting the United Nations’ peacekeeping efforts with its neutral military, in 2021, Tunisia sent 120 troops to the CAR to further the UN’s efforts in the nation, strengthening the MINUSCA presence in the country. In addition, the Republic of Tunisia is a member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), which provides great humanitarian assistance to the Central African Republic. Tunisia believes that the OIC’s efforts should be expanded, and that it serves as an example for the application of humanitarian aid in this region.

After over a decade of fighting, the Central African Civil War needs a solution that prioritizes citizen safety and an end to the violence. Tunisia also hopes to reestablish a democratic leader. Tunisia encourages countries that are economically capable to provide humanitarian assistance to the people of CAR and accept refugees and asylum seekers who are fleeing from the violence. Additionally, Tunisia would like to hold a democratic election with the goal of ending the individual rule of cities and reuniting the CAR under a single leader. Finally, the Republic of Tunisia would like to improve the well-being of the people by bringing clean water and resources to the country. It is imperative that the Special Political Committee reaches a resolution which improves the Central African Republic by helping its people and ending its conflict. Through this resolution, peace and well-being can be brought to this nation.

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/24/2021 17:53:41 170.103.23.221

Country: Viet Nam
Delegate Name: Isaac Webb

Country: Vietnam
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Central African
Delegate: Isaac Webb
School: Williamston High School

The biggest issue regarding this topic is the civil war happening in central Africa. There have been efforts to help calm the war in Africa such as the United Nations peacekeeping efforts that have been present in CAR since 2014. Despite the fact that CAR has been one of the most dangerous countries in the world for foreign aid workers since 2017, this event has renewed international attention and the need for intervention as it highlights the use of guerrilla tactics putting civilians in even more danger. the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the CAR, or MINUSCA. As of 2021, there is almost 16,000 MINUSCA personnel present throughout the country. The European Union has also sent troops to the region and other African nations have utilized their own peacekeeping forces in attempts to control violent outbreaks and various transitions of power in the government.

Vietnam does not have any input in the situation in central Africa. Vietnam does not want a conflict to happen and would like to solve the problem but has very few resources that they would be willing to give to help as they do not have many ties to central Africa. Vietnam would be interested in helping the removal of landmines in central Africa. The cost of a landmine is between $3 and $75 while the cost of removing it is between $300 and $1000. The use of the M1150 by the United States has shown great use in the middle east removing and destroying mines.

Vietnam would poteshaly be interested in resolving or helping fix some of the issues in central Africa. There are some countries that we would look more favorably upon working with and resolving these issues. Vietnam would be open to working with Russia, Cuba, India, and Laos. Vietnam would also be interested in working with japan south Korea the United States of America as well as China

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/24/2021 14:32:21 170.103.50.152

Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Kayla Turner

Country: United Kingdom
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Central African Republic
Delegate: Kayla Turner
School: Williamston High School

The political crisis in the Central African Republic is one familiar to this committee, and we have seen countless situations played out before us in which pervasive political instability undermines a country’s humanitarian status. It becomes all too easy to forget the urgency of this crisis as violence drags on over many years, and the death of an aid worker in September reminded us of the need to address this situation. Vacuums of power have instigated violence between militia groups which often ends in the fatalities of civilians, such as the 2016 Bria massacre in which 85 bystanders were killed. The refugee crisis arising from the forcible displacement of CAR peoples and inhumane circumstances which provide a push factor to relocate. This means there are not only 630,00 displaced within the CAR, but also a vast number of refugees from CAR seeking asylum internationally. The political instability, regional alienation and ethnic and religious violence all contribute towards alarming living conditions and violations of human rights. The most pressing issues the UK has identified are the recruitment of child soldiers, lack of sanitation and clean water, food shortages and demographic genocide. The main reasons for the persistence of these issues is the barriers to access, safety issues and lack of permanence caused by erratic power shifts in the governance of CAR.

In 2021, the UK supported a UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2588 in an attempt to sanction the actors in CAR by restricting the resources govern to them. This includes an arms embargo, travel ban and freezing of assets for the Central African Republic. However, this resolution has not been fully successful as Russia, Rwanda, France and Chad have allegedly supplied arms, training and military support to various groups within the country in what some have called a proxy war. The UK was also alarmed by the exemption with the UN’s resolution to allow mortars and low caliber weapons to be exchanged freely and greatly favors a solution in this committee reaching near complete disarmament to protect the citizens of the CAR. In the past, many peace treaties and deals have been signed and then quickly disregarded, such as the 2011 between CPJP and UFDR or the 2017 Rome agreement by the CAR to recognize the authority of municipal militia groups. The failure of these treaties and ceasefires arises from the inability of the UN or CAR central government to enforce terms agreed upon, and therefore a new approach must be considered which could mutually benefit all actors and foster continuity. The UK has worked closely providing funding for MINUSCA and support for the UN Human Rights Council to address humanitarian crises in the CAR. In 2015, the UK signed legislation reserving $7 million in aid specifically for CAR residents and refugees and would be amenable to providing further assistance so long as reasonable plans for the political future of the country are reached.

A multi-faceted approach must be taken to resolve the conflict in the CAR. Political instability being the driving factor in the humanitarian crises there, a strong, constitutional, humanitarian government needs to be fully established before permanent solutions to humanitarian issues can be solved. The UK has a strong commitment to disarmament and integration of militia factions into a stable, single government entity but recognizes that this may not be realistic at this time. Therefore the UK is also open to exploring solutions of gradual integration of governing bodies at a municipal level into more centralized organizations with weapons training to provide for the defense of individual districts who could fall to violent attacks by opposing religious groups. Solutions on the problem of refugees can be modelled after past actions by neighboring states Cameroon, Chad, DR Congo and Republic of Congo who accepted an influx of refugees from the region and further can be assisted by the UNHCR. Finally, the humanitarian issues in CAR though pressing will be difficult to address whilst the political situation remains volatile. The UK would suggest aid in the form of supplies, and not monetary aid which could be used towards arms buying, be provided conditionally to regional militias and authority figures in CAR as a means of negotiating disarmament and establishing geographical boundaries. The UK will unfailingly stand by its allies and commitment to conflict resolution, but is open to working with any delegation which offers a viable solution to this crisis. The UK would be most interested in working with groups most directly involved in the region, namely France and Russia, who could provide critical insight into the issue.

Works Cited
https://reliefweb.int/report/central-african-republic/solutions-conflict-car-better-understanding-lasting-peace
https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/violence-central-african-republic
https://humanity-inclusion.org.uk/en/country/central-african-republic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_African_Republic_Bush_War#2011
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/6/19/car-government-signs-peace-deal-with-rebel-groups
https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/central-african-republic-situation.html
https://reliefweb.int/report/central-african-republic/uk-boosts-humanitarian-aid-victims-conflict-central-african-republic

Read More

KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/24/2021 11:57:55 75.133.199.134

Country: South Africa
Delegate Name: Kyle Pardee

Delegation from South Africa
Represented by Kyle Pardee
Position paper for the Special Political Committee

The civil war in the Central African Republic (also known as CAR), has been going on for over 15 years. Multiple peace treaties have been attempted to be written, but have both failed. This war is putting civilians in the country and surrounding countries in danger with the dangerous weapons being used in the country. As an African country, the country of South America proposes the United Nations steps in to solve this issue in order to keep innocent citizens safe and to resolve this conflict.
The country of South Africa believes in peace and harmony, and this civil war has been going on for way too long. Countless lives have been lost due to this war, and its about time we as countries come together to end this war once and for all. The country of South Africa proposes an evacuation of all citizens in the Central African Republic in order to prevent any unnecessary injuries. They are to be moved to a safe location in the surrounding countries in order to allow soldiers to come in and contain all hostile groups, using force if necessary. After taking both groups into custody, we can peacefully create a treaty between the two groups in order to create a compromise between them. This will finally solve this issue and create peace and safety for innocent citizens.

Read More

FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 11:55:44 107.4.33.149

Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Anika Deshpande

Since the overthrowing of the president in 2003, civil unrest has plagued the Central African Republic (CAR). Francois Bozize assumed the role of president through a fraudulent election, to which several groups revolted, forming the ex-Seleka militias. The current civil war is defined by the conflict between the ex-Seleka militias and the anti-Balaka militia, which are composed of Muslim nomads and Christian agriculturalists, respectively. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), over 630,000 refugees have struggled in CAR against the violence and destruction that result from the warring factions. This has been accelerated by the increase in military technology supplied by the Russian state, making the nation’s civilians and foreign aid workers fraught with poverty and danger. The Special Political Committee must create a resolution that effectively centralizes the current warring factions, while also considering the plight of refugees and establishing regulations for the distribution of military technologies to the Central African government.

In 2018, the United Mexican States sent government officials to the Central African Republic to help negotiate new peace treaties between the ex-Seleka militias and the anti-Balaka militia through the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA). Mexico has also directly supported several resolutions that emphasize protection of human rights in the situation in CAR in the 42nd session of the Human Rights Council. The United Mexican States supports beginning repatriation processes and employing disarmament techniques to prevent the further escalation of the situation in the Central African Republic. Mexico supports the movement of refugees through the Mexican nation, but requires proper documentation, especially when refugees are attempting to pass into the United States.

Mexico asks that all countries work to reduce military support for either side of the Central African Republic’s civil war so that civilians may live in a safer environment. The current efforts to welcome refugees into neighboring countries, such as Chad, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo is highly encouraged to continue. The United Mexican States also hopes to help establish a strong central government under which both Christians and Muslims can coexist. A resolution that advocates the acceptance of Central African refugees, reduces financial and military aid to either division of the conflict, and highlights the protection of human rights will be the best path for the international community to take in order to restore peace in CAR.

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 21:29:40 69.47.15.28

Country: Greece
Delegate Name: Elleah Berger

Country: Greece
Committee: General Assembly, Special Political Committee (SPECPOL)
Topic: Central African Republic
Delegate: Elleah Berger
School: Williamston High School

The Central African Republic (CAR) has been plagued by war for many years. Remnants of the previous Bush War in 2004, where the first democratically elected leader was ousted by General Bozize, can be identified as causes for this current civil war. FInvolved in the present conflict is the ex-Seleka, a fracture group from the Seleka, a militia group that took over many CAR cities (including the capital, Bangui) in 2012 in retaliation to the government and the fraudulent election of Bozize to the presidential position. The ex-Seleka militia are Muslim nomads who are clashing with the anti-Balaka militia, Christian agricultiral peoples. The country was divided into an ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka region, and now the cities and regions around the capital are feudal territories ruled by militia warlords. Due to this drastic situation, many are fleeing and immigrating into the surrounding countries. The already severe clean water shortage and poverty rates have grown. This issue will worsen and continue to negatively affect the already unstable government and the people of the Central African Republic if the UN does not intervene.

In an attempt to de-escalate the issue, the European Union, which Greece is a member of, sent troops to the area. The EU has also sent troops to help with this issue in the past. From January 28, 2008 to March 15, 2009 the EU Common Security and Defense Police carried out a military operation in north eastern Central African Republic and in part of its northern neighbor, Chad. Both countries agreed to the operation, which consisted of protection for refugees and UN personnel, and the facilitation of humanitarian aid. The EU also gave financial support to an African Union military mission in the Central African Republic. Since 2014 the EU has been a main contributor in financial aid to the Central African Republic, and has given almost 1.6 billion dollars in support. This year the EU will give almost 25 million dollars in humanitarian aid to the CAR in the form of food assistance, emergency shelter, healthcare, water, education, and short term agricultural support. Cameroon, Chad, and DR Congo, neighboring countries of the CAR, are also being provided with support. Like the Central African Republic, their resources are also limited, and the hosting of about 709,000 refugees increases the stress on those resources and the countries. While the European Union has taken many steps to help the Central African Republic with this issue, more must be done.

Greece recognizes that this issue of militias taking over cities can be traced back to the instability of the Central African Republic’s government. The UN should provide support to stabilize the government, which would in turn make the CAR strong enough to solve this problem itself, as well as other problems that will occur in the future. In the meantime, troops and humanitarian aid should be provided by the wealthier UN countries who wish to help solve this destructive and deadly issue that will only worsen. The lack of fresh, clean water is a very severe issue that could be partially alleviated by the drilling of new wells funded by the UN and its nations. The EU and UN should continue to provide humanitarian aid, especially for food and water access. Greece expects to work with other European Union nations and any nations who wish to provide support in any way possible.

Read More

WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 20:34:46 69.47.90.29

Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Joey Bennett

The civil war plaguing the Central African Republic originates from the CAR’s Bush War, where the government of democratically elected President François bozizé fought with rebels until a peace treaty was achieved in 2007. The current conflict originated when a new coalition of rebel groups known as the Séléka, accused the government of failing to abide by the peace agreements. The Séléka captured numerous towns in 2012 and seized the capital, leading to bozizé fleeing the country. Shortly after, a group called the anti-Balaka began to fight the Séléka. The Séléka disbanded and a new president was appointed in September 2013. By the end of 2014, the country was de facto divided, with the anti-Balaka controlling the south and west, from which most Muslims had evacuated, and ex-Séléka groups controlling the north and east. Faustin-Archange Touadéra who was elected President in 2016 ran and won the 2020 election that triggered the main rebel factions to form an alliance opposed to the election called the Coalition of Patriots for Change, which was coordinated by former President Bozizé. Much of the tension is over religious identity between Muslim Séléka fighters, Christian anti-balaka, and ethnic differences among ex-Séléka factions.
Japan is deeply concerned for the safety of the 600,000 displaced persons in the CAR. The United Nations has already begun using programs such as the World Food Programme (WPF), which Japan has supported with over $1 million USD. Japan supports further efforts such as the WPF to ensure the displayed persons are fed and healthy. Japan has also donated 8.2 million US dollars to support additional United Nations plans and programs. Japan plans to continue supporting humanitarian efforts in order to keep those displaced by the conflict safe. Japan also raises the issue of the reputation of the UN Peacekeepers in the CAR, mistrust of the peacekeepers stationed in the CAR has made it almost impossible for them to do their job. An incident in April 2018 led to demonstrators laying the bodies of sixteen people killed in the violence in front of the UN’s headquarters in Bangui, they were accusing peacekeepers of firing on civilians. In order for the Peacekeepers’ mission to be successful, they must have a positive reputation with the general public. Scars like this make it impossible for them to be successful and we must ensure that something like this never happens again by creating stronger rules of engagement and better training of the peacekeepers.

Read More

KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/23/2021 19:49:15 69.234.61.36

Country: France
Delegate Name: Anna Crum

The Central African Republic (CAR) Civil War started with the 2004 CAR Bush War where General Francois Bozize overthrew the country’s first democratic president. Bozize seized Bangui, declared himself president and dissolved parliament. A transitional government is set up and Bozize is named the winner after a run-off vote. In August of 2005 20,000 people were homeless due to flooding in the capital and in June and continuing into the future people of CAR fled to Chad relating to this forgotten disaster. In December 2006, French fighter jets fired on rebel positions to support government troops who were trying to regain control of areas of the northeast. In February of 2007 the People´s Democratic Front signed a peace accord with President Bozize. In September of 2007, the UN Security Council authorized peace keeping force in order to protect those in Sudan from the violence that was spilling into the country from Darfur. In February of 2008, Uganda Lord’s Resistance Army rebels raided CAR. In June of 2008, the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UDFR) and the Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD) signed a peace agreement with the government that would involve disarmament and demobilization of rebel fighters. In September of 2008 Parliament adopted an amnesty law seen as the last remaining obstacle to successful end of peace talks between the rebels and the government. Things took a bad turn in 2009, in January the National unity government unveiled; it included leaders of the two main rebel groups. Main opposition UVNF criticizes the changes to the cabinet as insufficient. Later that same year in February Ugandan LAR rebels crossed into CAR. In March French troops reportedly deployed in Bangui after rebels infiltrated the capital. In April the government and rebels continue to clash. The UN Security Council decides to create a UN peacebuilding office for CAR to work on the ongoing instability in the country. In August the UN reported that more than a million people were affected by the civil unrest in CAR. In February of 2010, Rights groups, opposition and France called for proof into claims – denied by the authorities – that rebel leader Charles Massi was tortured to death in government custody. An election is set for April 25 in 2010 but opposition does not approve of this date due to fear that the election may be rigged. In April the election was postponed and Bozize’s term was extended until the election could take place. In May the UN Security councils voted for forces to withdraw from Chad and the CAR.

In January of 2011 Bozize won another term. CAR is said to be in a chronic medical emergency due to epidemic disease, conflict, and economic downturn in December 2011. In march of 2013 Seleka rebels took the capital and seized power while Bozize fled. The Rebel Leader Nichel Djotodia suspended the constitution and dissolved parliament in a coup, later that year he was sworn in as president. In September he dissolved Seleka. In October during 2013 the UN Security Council approved UN peacekeeping forces to be deployed. The troops were in addition to, and meant to help, the African Union troops on the ground as well as the French troops controlling the airport. The next year in April the council authorized a force of 12,000 peacekeeping force troops. In May of that same year, 2014, French and Estonian troops took charge of the airport security in Bangui due to a mandate from the European Union. In July a tumultuous ceasefire is put into place between Muslim Seleka rebels and Christian anti-balaka while talks happen in Brazzaville. Later that year, in September, the UN formally took over and augmented the African Union peacekeeping mission that had been renamed MINUSCA. In January of 2015, a year of fighting could have ended but the CAR government rejected a ceasefire deal made in Kenya between two militia groups, they said that it was not involved in the talks. The UN also accused Christian militia of ethnic cleansing. In this same year, it was discovered that Seleka fighters were illegally supplied with guns made in China and Iran due to research commissioned by the EU. In 2015 the UN says that tens of thousands have been forced to flee their homes due to surging violence in the CAR. These people have to flee to escape killings, rape, and pillaging by militias. In May there is a judicial investigation opened by prosecutors in France into alleged child abuse by French soldiers. In December of 2015 a new constitution was approved in a referendum. After a peaceful pass off of parliamentary and presidential elections the court annulled the results of the parliamentary poll supposedly because of irregularities. In 2016 Faustin-Archange Touadera won the presidential election in a run-off. In April of 2017 Uganda withdrew forces from the CAR after fighting the Lord’s Resistance Army for five years. A month later there was an upsurge of violence, partially blamed on the withdrawal of foreign forces. In this same month several UN peacekeepers were killed in a number of attacks including those on a base and a convoy. Tens of thousands were left without support in July of 2017 when several aid agencies withdrew because of violence. The UN refugee agency says that continuing violence has caused the highest level of displacement since 2013, the start of the crisis. More than 1 million people had been forced to leave their homes. In November of 2017 the mandate of MINUSCA was extended another year by the Security Council. Numbers were increased to 13,000 troops and police. In the beginning of 2018 the situation in the country is getting worse according to the International Committee of the Red Cross as half of the population is in need of humanitarian aid. Later that year in July three Russian Journalists were killed. They were reportedly working on a documentary about Wagner, a mercenary company that is Kremlin-linked and believed to be active in CAR. In 2020 President Touadera won re-election but Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, his main opponent, disputed the result. As of 2021 there are almost 16,000 MINUSCA personnel present throughout the country. Recently, France has frozen military ties with CAR after massive miss information campaigns attacking the French government and suspending about 10 million euros ($12.1 million) in budgetary support for CAR. France has frozen ties with Malian forces until it’s coup leaders comply with international demands to restore civilian rule.

France has four goals that it would like to focus on with the Central African Republic (CAR) Civil War and the conflict in the country. Again and Again the UN has seen agreements signed then broken, deals made and then unmade. For the sake of the people of the Central African Republic as well as for the country, surrounding countries, and the world as a whole France wants stability in the country. Instead of plans falling through, France would like to see a stable government in the CAR with stable control. The people of CAR deserve a stable life, and the start of this is a stable government, without constant conflict or changes of power. France’s second goal is making sure that all countries, the EU, and the UN are doing their job and not hurting the people that have already been through the unspeakable travesties they have faced. There have been to many cases of abuse of power, child abuse, and even possible war crimes being committed. As the countries that are providing aid, we must make sure that we are helping in every way possible, always being part of the solution, and never part of the problem. France wants the massive anti-France campaigns in the country to stop. France hopes to work closely with the CAR in the future but as these unstable conditions continue, France cannot currently keep it’s military ties. France wishes for the disinformation to stop as well as for coup leaders to comply with international demands to restore civilian rule. France is looking to support the people of CAR. Finally, France also hopes for the leader or leaders of the country to share the same goals of peace and prosperity that France, and the UN as a whole, have. France hopes that with time and stability the lives of everyone in CAR will improve drastically and the country can become a strong ally.

Although France has not necessarily signed any legislation relating directly the the Civil War in the Central African Republic France has been involved in the fight for the people of the Central African Republic and peace. In December 2006, French fighter jets fired on rebel positions to support government troops who were trying to regain control of areas of the northeast. In 2009 French troops reportedly deployed in Bangui after rebels infiltrated the capital. French troops controlled airports and French along with Estonian troops took control of airport security in Bangui. France, as part of the UN and EU, has been involved in the decisions of the UN and their choices to use peacekeeping forces and set up MINUSCA to aid the country as well as the decisions of the EU to send in troops to support the country. Currently 2.9 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance due to violence in the Central African Republic. An estimated 581,362 people have been displaced internally. And there are 14,749 UN personnel there. 1.3 million children in the CAR are in need of humanitarian assistance and 14,000 child soldiers have been recruited on all sides of the conflict.

While France is open to exploring new solutions we do not intend to further our financial support or send more troops into the country to support Malian forces until the disinformation campaigns have stopped, as much as possible, and for the government to be open to opposition figures in politics. France wants the people to decide and for them to have choices and be able to voice their true opinions. France is interested in the possibility of integrating Anti-Balaka structures into the security structure at village level. France thinks this could reduce violence and increase stability in the country. France would also be open to limited groups from both sides being integrated into the state security system. This could encourage reconciliation and help unite the country. France believes that this should be one of the possible solutions to the conflict that could be applied. France is open to many possible alliances if goals align. France is also particularly interested in the stances of the US, Germany, the UK, and Russia.

Sources:
https://apnews.com/article/central-african-republic-africa-central-africa-europe-france-e00cbffd3052c79e003eac997a62f5ca
https://reliefweb.int/report/central-african-republic/solutions-conflict-car-better-understanding-lasting-peace
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13150044
https://www.worldvision.ca/stories/disaster-relief/central-african-republic-conflict-fast-facts
https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/violence-central-african-republic

Read More

RoyalOakDelegate 11/23/2021 19:23:42 68.60.150.144

Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Nina Hall

SUBMITTED TO: SPECPOL
FROM: Russian Federation
Subject: Central African Republic
Royal Oak High School
Nina Hall

Since the beginning of the civil war in the Central African Republic, the economy has deteriorated quickly and has remained one of the poorest countries in the world. The UN estimates that half of the population is dependent on humanitarian aid to survive. The Russian Federation raises the question of stability for not only the Central African Republic but the whole world’s political system and relations. This civil war dates back to 2003 and has only increased in hostility. The people of Central African Republic are without a doubt struggling and with the significance of humanitarian aid to the population, what solutions can this committee provide in order to decrease the tensions and restore economic and political stability in this country?
As tensions have increased in this past year the Russian Federation has offered support to the country with troops in order to protect the country’s capital, Bangui, from the increasing number of rebel forces. Along with the increasing tensions, the amount of refugees migrating out of the country has increased. The UN refugee agency estimates around 105,000 displaced peoples in the surrounding countries of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Chad and the Republic of Congo. Human rights are also being heavily violated as many have been forced to do inhumane things for food and the spread of disease is growing. But many member nations in the UN have called for a ceasefire and to “disengage the encirclement of Bangui.”
Humanitarian organizations need to act swiftly to circumvent incoming relief supplies and find alternatives to reach those in need. If organizations do not act swiftly, such innovative and costly efforts will be difficult. International stakeholders need to come together to provide significant funding and allow aid agencies to mitigate the worrisome consequences of a deteriorating security situation. The eruption of outrage from the elections may be the final blow to the country’s peace accord from 2019.
Furthermore, not only are the tensions within the country affecting stability and politics but the proxy wars that have pitted the Russian Federation and its allies from Rwanda against France and Chad. The G5 severely compromised the security and safety of the Central African Republic’s population through unfair elections they were championing. The elections that took place were unfair and unsafe causing increased tensions that were avoidable and unnecessary. Now the country has become geopolitical on top of the pre-existing tensions that the Russian Federation and other nations were working to de-escalate and resolve.
The Russian Federation believes that by working together to re-establish political unity across the Central African Republic, without the use of systems that have previously jeopardized this country’s safety and security, then we will be able to quickly and effectively resolve the tensions taking place. The Russian Federation reiterates the importance of calling upon stakeholders and humanitarian organizations in order to find innovative and effective solutions for relief and aid to the population of the Central African Republic.

SOURCES
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-55872485
https://www.refugeesinternational.org/reports/2021/2/3/the-central-african-republic-in-crisis-critical-measures-to-address-humanitarian-and-security-needs
https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/01/22/outside-powers-are-making-the-conflict-in-the-central-african-republic-worse/
https://www.rescue.org/press-release/irc-extremely-concerned-about-deteriorating-humanitarian-situation-central-african
https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/central-african-republic-surge-violence-and-displacement-threatens-thousands
https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/central-africa/central-african-republic/picking-pieces-central-african-republic

Read More

8933

Country: Central African Republic
Delegate Name: Haley Berry

Domestic crises of any stature are inevitable to occur within a developing nation. Conflict arises as a country arises, and is an ever present nuisance to the advancement of a civilization. Some nations fare better than others, and it would not be abnormal for the latter to request assistance from the wealthier nations who’ve dealt with such conflict and have the capacity to provide abettance.

The Central African Republic has a history tainted with violence and struggle since its inception in 1958. During these periods, the international community has responded with military assistance from entities such as Russia, Rwanda, and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA). However, efforts such as these have proved futile as fighting has worsened in recent years.

The government remains practically powerless as the Séléka increasingly gains control, and communal tensions grow. The Central African Republic’s future is solely dependent on the reconciliation of the Séléka and Balaka. This proposition proposes questions yet to be answered. How much longer will the fighting continue, and how much longer can the country withstand it? By what standards would compromise between the two groups be achievable? How may the reconciliation process be hastened by the international community?

Any reasonable answer to these questions lies within the context of UN intervention in both military and humanitarian aspects. As a developing nation with a feeble government, the Central African Republic has little grasp on the violence and fallout ravaging the country. This conflict has brought about negative implications for the wellbeing of citizens in the CAR. According to a 2020 report made by the Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI), “At the end of 2018, the humanitarian situation is worse than it was at the beginning of the 2013 conflict. The number of people in need of humanitarian assistance grew from 2.2 million in 2016 to 2.9 million, or 63% of the population…” The Central African Republic desperately requires foreign assistance if it wishes to successfully combat such circumstances. This point is further supported later in the report which reads, “Transformation is demonstrated using indicators, conferences, documents and legal motions. However, the reality is that deep structural, political and social constraints continue to hinder sustainable improvements to Central Africans’ livelihoods. To confront these challenges, to establish peace nationwide and to prevent the recurrence of violent conflict in CAR, external actors must commit to long-term engagement for the foreseeable future.” If change is to come to the country, international intervention on both humanitarian and military aspects is of utmost importance.

The stability of the Central African Republic is heavily dependent upon foreign aid in order to properly contain the current situation. To remove such help could have disastrous ramifications for civilians, as has been seen in affairs such as the recent removal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan. There are implications within the international community which burden dominant nations with the obligation to uplift its fellow nations in need. In the words of British diplomat Rory Stewart, “The question shouldn’t be what we ought to do, but what we can do.” What can be done must be done with swiftness if the CAR is to ever see some form of stability. The civil unrest found in the Central African Republic is not unique, and surely fellow nations will find themselves compelled to uplift the CAR in hopes that it will contribute to the overall wellbeing of the international community.

Bibliography:

Securitycouncilreport.Org, 2021, https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/S_2021_867_E.pdf. Accessed 22 Nov 2021.

Constituteproject.Org, 2021, https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Central_African_Republic_2016.pdf?lang=en. Accessed 22 Nov 2021.

infopoint. “UNRIC Library Backgrounder: Central African Republic.” United Nations Western Europe, 31 Dec. 2019, unric.org/en/unric-library-backgrounder-central-african-republic/. Accessed 22 Nov. 2021.

“UN Documents for Central African Republic.” Securitycouncilreport.org, 2021, www.securitycouncilreport.org/un-documents/central-african-republic/. Accessed 22 Nov. 2021.

“Central African Republic’s Message to UN: ‘the Only Thing We Want Is Peace.’” UN News, 23 Oct. 2017, news.un.org/en/story/2017/10/569122-central-african-republics-message-un-only-thing-we-want-peace. Accessed 22 Nov. 2021.

Bti-Project.Org, 2021, https://bti-project.org/content/en/downloads/reports/country_report_2020_CAF.pdf. Accessed 22 Nov 2021.

Read More

Start typing and press Enter to search