September 16, 2019
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Improvised Explosive Devices

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General Assembly: Disarmament & International Security Committee

Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices

Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs, properly so-called, have entered the lexicon relatively recently as a result of the ongoing asymmetric warfare in the Middle East. But the concept of “homemade”, as opposed to mass-produced, bombs is nothing new. Soldiers have long made crude hand grenades out of whatever materials were available: gunpowder, metal fragments, a container, and a fuse. But even outside the realm of organized warfare, materials for making explosive devices are anything but scarce. Farming, construction, sanitation, and transportation are all common industries making routine use of chemicals and containers that are easily weaponized.

In the modern era, IEDs are often stereotyped as roadside bombs deployed by insurgents against occupying militaries. Generalizing from this specific use-case, it is broadly true that improvised, as opposed to manufactured, explosive devices are often tools used by those with fewer resources against their better-equipped adversaries. But the use of these weapons is also situational. Many state actors use weapons that are highly recognizable, and which leave distinctive evidence that can be used to identify the maker (and possibly the user) of a particular explosive device, be it a hand grenade or a guided missile. Almost by definition, IEDs are ad hoc constructs, and accordingly can be extremely difficult to trace. Making use of weapons which by their very nature obscure their point of origin can be highly attractive to both state and nonstate actors. Still more insidious is the use of someone else’s components, obscuring not only the attacker’s identity, but affirmatively finger a rival.

IEDs can take almost any form, dictated either by the materials available for its construction or by the characteristics of the particular target of the device. Any type of vehicle, from a donkey-cart to a city bus, can be packed with far more explosive material than can be personally carried by an individual, and taken surreptitiously to any destination a vehicle can access. Wreckage of any kind can conceal enough destructive force to cause grievous harm to the unwary. Detonation of any device can be triggered by direct contact, as in a land mine, or by a timer, or by various types of proximity sensors, or even remotely by any number of means, wired or wireless. There are as many types of IED as there are people with grievances – real or imagined – to use them.

Detection and disarmament of such myriad threats is challenging at best. It is unlikely that perpetrators will be caught in the act of planting a bomb. Detection of those already deployed requires equipment and trained personnel, which must be distributed appropriately to have any effect. Frustratingly, because there is no single characteristic common to all IEDs, equipment designed to detect one type will completely miss another. Worse, these weapons are indiscriminate, and there is no way to protect innocent bystanders. Whether used as tools of terror, of resistance, of sabotage, or of subterfuge, IEDs pose a threat all out of proportion to their numbers.

Can the use of IEDs be effectively prevented? How can perpetrators be identified and apprehended? What steps can be taken to mitigate the damage caused by IEDs? Member nations are called upon to work together to develop effective strategies to counter this threat to global peace and security.

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Submitted Position Papers

SASADelegates 11/25/2021 00:01:32 107.77.194.118

Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Unmun Kaur

Unmun Kaur
Brazil
Disarmament and international security committee
Improvised explosive devices
Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

Improvised explosive devices or IED is the use of a homemade bomb or device to destroy, harass, or incapacitate people,e and these are used mainly by many criminals such as terrorists, suicide bombers, Vandals, or many other people. They consist of many different components: the initiator, the switch, the main charge, the power source, and the actual container that the IED is held in. Many materials used are fertilizer, gunpowder, hydrogen peroxide, and other explosive materials like fuel oil. The effects depend on the size of the IED, the construction, and the placement. For example,l, somethings in a small package or letter would be less explosive than something in a delivery truck. After a big IED goes off, there’s always the possibility of multiple different types of explosions, such as the Olympic Park bombings or the London bombings, and the Madrid train attacks.

Do the United States and Brazil have teamed up in the past against IEDs. We’re on an island where the two groups of marines shared, the US and Brazil Marines planted training and the simulated IEDs on a road where each group would demonstrate their detection and disposable tactics. Every service member who participated in the counter IED course also participated in combat training due to its relevance to IED detection. They are also taught to identify changes in their environment to assist in locating an object. In September, in Brazil, robbers planted 14 to 20 explosive devices at strategic points to lead robbers who held hostages escape in vehicles since they lined a route With the IEDs. Siri, where the robbers had strapped innocent by standards to the roofs and the hoods of the getaway vehicles, and 20 of the armed robbers, knocked over three banks in the center of a city. If there had been a ban on the things that we’re able to make the bombs happen in the first place or much more of a restriction on the items, maybe this wouldn’t have happened.

Brazil is against IEDs and would do anything to help make the accessibility for these ingredients to make these homemade bombs harder to access and try to band them all together and make it harder for people to buy these items. For example, fuel oil is used in our cars or furnaces, so we would hope that if we band most of the other materials or made them more challenging to buy than the more common materials, we wouldn’t have to do anything. We also would like to generate longer prison sentences for people who are malicious intent on using these IEDs.

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FHCDelegates 11/24/2021 23:51:46 68.56.182.0

Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Benjamin Laidlaw

Benjamin Laidlaw
Forest Hills Central
Argentina
AWSs and IEDs

We feel as follows that the violent incidents of automated weapon system malfunctions, is the result of outdated weapon systems technology, and we deem it necessary to propose a international mandate to install a failsafe for all unmanned land, air, and sea, armed systems, in order to protect the lives of civilians, and to prevent unnecessary death of armed forces. The result of failure to follow these regulations, the procedure is to charge whomever is responsible for upholding these regulations, with whatever damage, or death, that occurred in the the event of a malfunction.

This is necessary in order to prevent anyone dying because of poor technology.

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FHCDelegates 11/24/2021 23:50:17 68.56.182.0

Country: Niger
Delegate Name: Stephen Wolf

DISEC – Niger – Wolf
Delegate: Stephan Wolf
School: Forest Hills Central
Country: Republique du Niger
Committee/Topic: DISEC: Improvised Explosive Devices

Improvised explosive devices are a symbol of a new kind of asymmetrical warfare. Without clear front lines and combatants with uniforms, munitions that cannot be easily regulated by governments pose a grave threat to the foundations of society. Niger has suffered many terrorist attacks from Boko Haram in our fight to develop. These weapons are often used to target civilians over troops so as to cause low morale which is truly despicable. The developed nations of the world have developed incredible counters to the threats of roadside IEDs and techniques to counter human based devices, yet these have not trickled down to less fortunate nations. In order for developing nations to stand any chance against this threat, it is of utter importance for this to change.
Niger has been engaged in combat against Boko Haram on a large scale since 2009 and along with our neighbor Nigeria, been subject to hundreds of bombings using IEDs as their primary weapons. The conflict is not in Niger’s favour and even with the help of Chadian troops, Boko Haram continues to advance and harass our populations with the assistance of their asymmetrical warfare based upon the improvised explosive devices. This conflict has led to Niger’s economy being on the brink of collapse and a shortage of important and basic resources in parts of our country. Our country can not realistically continue to exist at the rate this conflict is moving at. We require the assistance of the United Nations if the future of our nation and nations similar in circumstance continue down the road currently set. Africa has become a battleground of the world and with Boko Haram specifically targeting Western ideas inside our nations, it would only make sense for said Western nations to come to our aid.
We believe that the means to stop the prevalence of IEDs in nations is the assistance of United Nations peacekeepers akin to those deployed in Mali with the purpose of keeping stability and helping to set up checkpoints to prevent the transportation of IEDs across suffering nations. We also support the spread of military equipment used in conflicts such as Afghanistan and Iraq as military assistance towards nations still fighting insurgency due to the lack of need by nations such as the United States. Furthermore, military assistance via training and support towards the armed forces of smaller nations can assist the fight against non state actors. IEDs cannot be outright prevented, but if the groups who use them can be stymied, we can lessen the explicit damage they cause and return to developing instead of declining.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 22:56:27 107.5.237.114

Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Anay Moitra

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are weapons constructed and deployed in ways other than conventional military action. These weapons take thousands of lives every year, according to a review of selected international media reports, and have inflicted physical injuries, damaged critical infrastructure, and spread disruption across numerous affected communities. The worst part is that these weapons are not manufactured through government control but are privatized, meaning traditional arms regulation approach might not yield results. IEDs are known to be used by non-state armed groups and rogue individuals. They target civilians and maximize societal disruption and terrorization. In 2015 alone, suicide attacks with IEDs occurred in 10 percent of member countries, so the proliferation of IEDs is unmistakable. Since about half of the world’s countries have been affected by these attacks, the Disarmament and International Security Committee must find a solution with haste that decreases the threat of such weapons.

Germany has dealt with IEDs by witnessing homemade landmines first-hand. In 1996, Germany banned the use of landmines, thus lending further impetus to the global prohibition of anti-personnel mines. Since then, Germany has been at the forefront of dealing with IED threats. The country played a role in the Oslo Process which banned cluster munitions and is an active participant in the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines and the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. To further fight this issue, Germany has joined the Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices Centre of Excellence. One of 26 NATO Accredited Centres of Excellence, this committee is also staffed by Spain, the Czech Republic, France, Hungary, United States, Greece, Turkey, Romania, Sweden, Netherlands, and Portugal. By collaborating with various other countries, Germany hopes to reduce and eliminate IED threats.

The questions raised by the use of improvised explosive devices are of great significance for the shaping of German security and defense policy. In the committee, Germany will cooperate with like-minded countries to open negotiations on a resolution that reduces and eliminates threats from homemade explosive weapons. The resolution must include a clear step-by-step procedure, that Germany plans to discuss in committee, for achieving international extermination of such devices. The world has seen the destructive power of IEDs, so it needs to come up with a solution to stop it.

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SASADelegates 11/24/2021 22:19:11 47.40.175.240

Country: India
Delegate Name: AJ Macon

AJ Macon
India
Disarmament and International Security Committee
Improvised Explosive Devices [IEDs] Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

Improvised explosive devices have created much harm in the past, as their elusiveness paired with their poor workmanship does the damage it was intended to do. These factors simply up their attractiveness to those trying to cause as much chaos and confusion in battle zones, as well as domestic zones, as possible. Technologies to detect and disarm these IEDs can only work so well as their lack of uniformity allows them to slip under the radar. Unfortunately IEDs are nothing new, and only keep developing ways to increase damage as well as slip under the lens of officials.

India has an intimate history with IEDs, as more often than not these devices were used as agents of destruction during insurgencies (based on border disputes with a number of state and non-state actors.) Trying to combat these issues as best as possible, India has been working to develop more efficient ways at identifying as well as disarming IEDs with as little devastation as possible.

It is of the utmost importance that this committee not only comes to a unanimous conclusion on what to do about IEDs, but does so with little argument. These devices have harmed all member nations of the United Nations in some way (as well as those outside of the United Nations.) Attempts to stop the production of these devices along with aiding countries who find themselves torn apart by the use of IEDs is important as well. India mourns those it has lost to IEDs, and hopes that there will be an end to the unnecessary loss of life [at the hands of these devices.]

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 23:08:43 68.48.94.197

Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Bergen Grochoski

IEDs are common explosive devices that are used by insurgents in nations that are struggling with civil wars and uprisings within their nations. These explosive devices can cause issues in said nations because of their ease of production and the difficulty they provide when it comes to tracing the source of the bombs. These devices are also hard to detect because of the wide variety of IEDs that can be developed. In 2014 around 65,400 civilians lost their lives to IED’s so this is an issue that has affected the lives of many.

DPRK does not support banning the use of IEDs when it comes to warfare. DPRK feels for the nations facing rebels within their countries and the negative impacts that these weapons have on the well-being of their citizens. DPRK feels that banning IEDs would be hard to enforce because of the anonymous nature of their production and deployment. We also believe that the nations currently using IEDs in warfare will ignore the UN’s banning of these weapons. DPRK also believes that holding people accountable for the use of IEDs would be difficult because the majority of the people perpetrating these attacks are nonstate actors.

DPRK doesn’t consider the banning of IEDs to be of any significance whatsoever. DPRK hopes that the committee will acknowledge that the banning of IEDs will not solve the problem in countries where IEDs are currently being used.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/24/2021 22:43:03 47.225.164.78

Country: China
Delegate Name: Tanvi Kulkarni

Every year, land mines, explosive remnants of war, and improvised explosive devices claim nearly 10,000 casualties, mostly civilians, and children in conflict areas such as Afghanistan, Libya, and Yemen, but also alarmingly in places like Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs have been a part of warfare since the 20th century and have been infamous for their massive civilian destruction. As a victim of IED destruction, the People’s Republic of China expresses its concern for the citizens and strives to protect them and their safety.

China supports the consideration and formulation of reasonable and feasible solutions to the abuse of Improvised Explosive Devices( IEDs) by non-state actors within the framework of CCW. China and Belgium, as co-chairs of the Working Group of the Improvised Explosive Devices Disposal Standards, have worked out IEDD Standards aiming to remove obstacles to the peacekeeping operations and minimize the humanitarian casualties, especially to provide expertise to the affected countries to improve their disposal capabilities. China stands ready to work with the rest of the international community to continue its constructive role in seeking a proper solution to the problem of IEDs through experience exchange and technology cooperation. In 2015, China along with the United States released a statement on countering the threat of improvised explosive devices. Both countries collaboratively devised several possible mechanisms to counter this threat. China urges the UN to implement some of these methods worldwide.

The aforementioned methods include engagement between governments, and between governments and industry. This is essential to combat the threat posed by IEDs. China seeks to promote greater engagement and collaboration between government authorities and industry, including companies, associations, and other stakeholders, to develop and refine supply chain security approaches and measures, and to spread awareness in the private sector of the importance of supply chain security. International cooperation is also a part of the proposed plan and China believes that all nations threatened by IEDs should be well educated on how to counter them. Therefore, China is dedicated to encouraging innovative and effective approaches to increase supply chain security in their respective homelands and to encourage others in their regions and in the global community to do the same. China also encourages workshops (similar to ones previously conducted by China) regarding this issue.

The war against IEDs is a long one, and China firmly believes that the most effective long-term solution to the scourge is not defeating or directly engaging IEDs at all, but resolving the conflicts that make them attractive. Conflict resolution is the only approach with the promise of long-term effectiveness.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/24/2021 22:17:56 67.167.161.66

Country: Viet Nam
Delegate Name: Thien Truong-Phan

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are deadly devices that detonate in varying sizes, causing damage that can be lethal. IEDs are not made in factories with regulated materials, but rather by people with whatever they can get their hands on. This can be anything from small, store-bought fireworks to military grade gunpowder. IEDs can cause great amounts of damage, especially in places that have large groups of people, such as train stations or during riots. IEDs have killed ten times more civilians than landmines because they are so much more common. IEDs are not only made by civilians though. Soldiers in history have made crude explosives to use during warfare when the stock of handheld grenades are depleted. They don’t only prove risks to the recipient of the explosive, but also the maker. Most explosives are made of highly reactive substances since most require a chemical reaction to detonate. This means that the maker is in risk of detonating the device at all times while making it. IEDs can cause large amounts of problems to everyone and should be restricted.

Vietnam has taken measures to stop people from using and creating devices that can explode and cause damage to people or buildings. Vietnam has passed a law that made it illegal to produce homemade bombs. Breaking this law will result in fines or imprisonment depending on the circumstance and severity. Vietnam is also actively searching for individuals or groups that use IEDs to cause damage or wreak havoc in public places, riots, and/or private institutions. In Vietnam, there are also gangs that use explosives. Whether they get official explosives or make them, Vietnam is actively trying to capture and break apart these gangs. Vietnam’s military has also made improvised explosives during the Vietnam War by the Viet Cong. They made numerous kinds of IEDs, anything from small land mines that took off your foot all the way to road mines big enough to take out trucks and humvees. Vietnam has denounced the production of IEDs in war but not banned it.

Vietnam in the future is looking to eliminate all usage and assembly of IEDs in the general population. Vietnam plans to not only stop the people from making or using the IEDs, but also to persecute them. Vietnam will look for these people by using surveillance devices such as security cameras to catch people using IEDs in public spaces. Vietnam wants to terminate all gangs that cause the country problems, making Vietnam safer from IEDs and other problems like human trafficking and drug trade. Vietnam looks forward to working with its allies such as China and Russia to continue to crack down on IEDs.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 18:25:20 68.40.136.56

Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Nanda Murali

Improvised explosive devices threaten the safety of civilians across the world. Whether they are made with gunpowder, hydrogen peroxide, or fertilizer, IEDs are created for the sole purpose of destruction. The danger in their existence is their constant ambiguity – they can be homemade and kept hidden, made with vastly unpredictable materials. It is difficult to know what IED to expect. To combat this, explosive ordnance disposal operators have been deployed to detect and disarm (render it safe, or RSP) the devices. Within the United Nations, extensive efforts in this sector have been done, the3 most significant of which is the 1997 creation of the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS). The service works to eliminate the threats of mines and other explosive remnants of war, coordinating UN mine action and leading operational responses.

The United States believes strongly in the importance of personal freedom. However, it is also no stranger to IED attacks. In recent years, the emergence of terrorism and domestic violence has prompted a shift in American policymaking and opinions on the regulation of weapons.
The 1995 Oklahoma City bombing involved an IED with ammonium nitrate fertilizer, nitromethane, and stolen commercial explosives. It was detonated next to the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killing 168 people. The Columbine High School massacre of 1999 used large propane bombs placed in the school cafeteria, along with Molotov cocktails, pipe bombs, and two car bombs to attack first responders and news reporters. However, the propane and car bombs failed to detonate, preventing the deaths of hundreds of more civilians. In January 2011, a shaped pipe bomb was detected and defused before it harmed anyone, intended to cause destruction at a Martin Luther King Jr. memorial march in the state of Washington. In April 2013, two bombs were detonated close to the finish line of the annual Boston marathon race, and the FBI response indicated suspicion of pressure cooker bombs. The most recent attacks, the September 2016 attacks of Manhattan and New Jersey, solidified national concerns over the issue. Along with the United States, the military forces and law enforcement from Canada, the United Kingdom, Israel, India, and Spain are at the forefront of counter-IED efforts.

The United States of America urges that the General Assembly recognize that traditional arms and weapons regulations will not be effective in the issue of improvised explosive devices. Instead, any resolution passed should include these eight steps: (1) increasing domestic and international engagement, (2) effectively exploiting information and materials from IED attacks, (3) advancing our intelligence and information analysis, (4) maintaining our deployable counter-IED resources, (5) screening, detecting, and protecting our people, facilities, transportation systems, critical infrastructure, as well as the flow of legitimate commerce, (6) safeguarding explosives and select precursor materials, (7) coordinating and standardizing training and equipment, and (8) enhancing our operational planning. The United States strongly endorses the movement of these proposals in the Disarmament and Security Committee. By emphasizing these factors, the threat of IED attacks can properly be mitigated and the lives of millions of global citizens can remain protected.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/24/2021 16:56:03 24.88.67.253

Country: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Delegate Name: Alex Mochel

Country: St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Delegate Name: Alex Mochel
Committee: Disarmament & International Security Committee
Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices (IED)

The role of Improvised Explosive Devices in modern-day warfare has proved to elevate conflict to an unprecedented level of devastation to both military personnel and intentionally civilian life. To assess the use of improvised Explosive Devices in conflict we must first understand the true definition of IEDs and what they look like. Improvised Explosive Devices are devices designed to cause maximum damage on vehicles or inflict maximum death toll on civilian or military life. Examples of Improvised Explosive Devices can include entities such as car bombs, explosive vests, homemade bombs, and similar weaponry. Throughout the 20th century, the sciences of Improvised Explosive Devices have dramatically increased leading to numerous deaths and hostile conflicts around the world. Several peaceful countries around the globe although mostly devoid of these potentially damaging weapons are not entirely free of their harmful effect. Surging uses of Improvised Explosive Devices have risked an increase of immigrants leaving dangerous countries and flooding into new less equipped nations.
Improvised Explosive Devices in St. Vincent have been avoided with the actions of the military and strict entering policy. That being said difficulty is encountered when attempting to rid the complete risk of IEDs and bombs. The history of St. Vincent has been devoid of IED bombings but recognizes the potential harm observed globally. The use of Improvised Explosive Devices increases hostility and conflict internationally.
St Vincent and the Grenadines believe these issues that threaten such life must be irradicated at all costs. The war-torn nations in the middle east need saving from the increasing bombings and IED usage infesting their public. St Vincent’s lack of Improvised Explosive Devices is a direct result of the opinions of anti-war and pro-peace. St Vincent recognizes 4,200 suicide IED bombing incidents in 46 countries globally inflicting thousands of lives lost and St Vincent urges international bodies to prevent and irradicate these lethal tactics and calls for significant alleviation of these inhumane actions. Improvised Explosive Devices have led to increasing conflict globally. St. Vincent supports a future without improvised explosive devices threatening daily life in nations surrounding the globe. St. Vincent calls on the leading powers of the world to focus on the removal and teaching to restrain the population from supporting and creating such devastating devices. Finally, St Vincent supports the increase of aid sent to foreign nations with loss of life and infrastructure directly caused by these weapons.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 16:19:25 98.34.4.42

Country: Tunisia
Delegate Name: Pranav Mudhas

With many advancements in the world of technology, weapons have been enhanced, making them more unstable and dangerous than ever before. Within that category, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have taken a new perspective. An IED is a “homemade bomb” that is created to destroy, incapacitate, harass or distract. Because they are improvised, IEDs can come in many forms, ranging from a small pipe bomb to a sophisticated device capable of causing massive damage and loss of life. IEDs can be carried or delivered in a vehicle; carried, placed, or thrown by a person; delivered in a package, or concealed on the roadside; this makes all IEDs incredibly dangerous. The United Nations must create a statement of how to effectively prevent the use of IEDs, identify and apprehend the perpetrators of IED attacks and mitigate the damage caused by them.

As a country that suffers from IED attacks, Tunisia recognizes the need for immediate action to counter the use of IEDs. Recently, an improvised explosive device cost the life of four Tunisian soldiers patrolling in the mountain region near the Algerian border. This IED was placed by an Islamist militant group, that has made a base in the mountainous Moghila area, near the impoverished city of Kasserine. The Tunisian army has been fighting this small but persistent militant threat for years. This is one example of a militant group using IEDs as an act of terror.

Tunisia welcomes the efforts of those working to remove land mines, despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Continued humanitarian action is necessary to save civilian lives and clear thousands of acres of land from danger. Organizational and regional efforts in this area, have had marginal progress with this and all the achievements so far have been outpaced by continuing challenges, and lives remain endangered around the globe. Further, the spread of terrorism limits the efficacy of these efforts, prevents the achievement of peace and stability, impedes the international community’s ability to offer humanitarian relief and aid and prevents the return of internally displaced persons to their homes. Tunisia calls on all Member States to abide by human rights and international humanitarian law, to refrain from using explosive devices, and to provide any maps detailing the location of such devices to facilitate their removal and urges The Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC) to create a way that IEDS can be effectively prevented, perpetrators can be properly identified and apprehended and the damage from IEDs can be mitigated.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/24/2021 16:04:54 67.39.250.5

Country: Afghanistan
Delegate Name: Marcos Calderon

Committee: Disarmament and International Security
Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices

IEDs have five parts while created which are a switch, an initiator, container, charge
and a power source. There are many types of IEDs used around the world that can be much more high risk than others. One thing in common is that all of them are risky one way or another. Many countries are constantly interested in IEDs since they can help with the country’s protection and attacks. Countries have invested in them since the very beginning, making a ton of money for them.
The Taliban’s choice of weapon includes heavily of IEDs. It has become the Taliban’s favorite weapon while attacking Afghanistan. In only five years the Taliban had planted over 16,000 IEDs around the country. It has come to the point where many don’t notice and are killed from the plantation of the IEDs around Afghanistan. During 2004 and 2009, an estimated amount of 7,000 Afghans were either killed or severely injured. In a successful attempt to assassinate one tribal leader, a suicide bomber wreaked havoc at a dog-fighting meet outside Kandahar, killing or injuring more than 100 bystanders. In September 2007, another strike near markets in Helmand province caused the lives of roughly 70 civilians. When the country voted for a new president on three consecutive days the largest number of IED attacks happened. The Taliban had promised to sabotage the election, and between 33 and 37 IEDs were put on each of the three days, killing or injuring at least 100 coalition and Afghan supporters. Several attacks on polling places and workers were made.
IEDs have granted not only the Taliban but Afghans an advantage over others. Data shows how IEDs are a huge cause of death in Afghanistan. Many of the attacks have been on purpose to hurt Afghans only making the charts go higher every year. It has been only 7 years with IEDs in Afghanistan and over 8,000 Afghans have died. According to the logs, 8,582 Taliban IEDs were discovered and cleared, but 7,553 exploded successfully.
Helping the Taliban with IEDs could cost a huge sum of money. The Taliban already have bought around 8,852 and usual IEDs cost around 20,000 making the Taliban already wasting 171,640,000 money down the drain. IEDs also can be “homemade” and considering Afghanistan as a rather poor country, the Taliban have most definitely wasted around 85,820,000. If the Taliban wanted to have 8,0000 more in the next few years, ultimately in total starting from 2004, they would be wasting more than 1,000,000,000 money for IEDs showing how much money they would spend and take from Afghanistan.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 15:27:18 107.5.179.225

Country: Colombia
Delegate Name: Sam Zaruba

Disarmament and International Security Committee
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
Republic of Colombia
Sam Zaruba

Rebellion and displeasure with groups or individuals in power has only increased in complexity over time, and with technological advancements on the rise, creative ways to rebel are only becoming more plentiful. IEDs are explosive by nature, and pose a serious safety threat, not only to those targeted, but also innocent bystanders. Although amateurly produced, the effects are anything but. According to the AOAV (Action on Armed Violence), in the last decade (excluding 2017) IEDs “have been responsible for more civilian deaths than any other explosive weapon type in each and every year in the last decade.” In accordance with these staggering statistics, in 2015, the UN adopted a resolution proposed by Afghanistan for awareness raising, data tracking, and international assistance to affected nations. Plagued by constantly fragmenting paramilitary groups such as FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) and the ENL (National Liberation Army) Colombia is perpetually pressured by the threat of IEDs.
Looking for peace agreements, the government of Colombia is currently working with paramilitary groups in Colombia, who have been the source of the majority of IED attacks in recent years. In Colombia alone between 2011 and 2016, there have been 31 fatalities directly caused by IEDs (AOAV). As part of the general assembly on December 11 2015, Colombia adopted a resolution made by Afghanistan to promote international aid for countries affected by IEDs and to raise awareness about IEDs. Standing with this resolution, Colombia holds that nations should counter the threats posed by IEDs, as well as encourages countries to assist those in need in order to prevent future IED attacks. Colombia affirms that IEDs pose a threat to the safety of not only Colombia, but the entire world.
Recognizing that further progress must be made in order to lessen the threat of IEDs, and acknowledging the threat of these devices to public safety, Colombia urges member nations to recognize the issues posed by IEDs as well as aid countries in need of assistance regarding IEDs. Colombia also suggests that tighter restrictions over materials and chemicals used in the fabrication of IEDs be implemented in order to minimize the supply of them.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/24/2021 00:43:03 24.247.223.152

Country: France
Delegate Name: Tyler Ragan

Committee: Disarmament & International Security Committee
Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices
Country: France

Nine thousand and eighty nine is the number of civilians who died as a result of the detonation of an improvised explosive device in 2019, 48% of a 17,910 total civilian deaths due to explosives. Near untraceable, easily accessible, and having the potential to be equally as devastating as conventional explosives, IEDs present a unique challenge to those seeking to prevent their use. Anything seemingly innocuous as a farmer’s store of fertilizer can be turned into a weapon which takes life en masse. Even more disturbing is that unlike conventional explosives which are heavily regulated, by their very nature IEDs are limited only by the maker themselves. Disguised as a child’s toy, or hidden in debris, they can pose a devastating threat to civilians. France has long felt the effects of the IED, from combat against the Viet Minh during the first Indochina war, to modern day anti-terrorist missions in North Africa and the Middle East. As recently as early 2021, two French soldiers lost their lives to an IED in Mali. As a result, France has a vested interest in preventing the use of IEDs. However, this is not an easy task as IEDs are incredibly accessible and practically impossible to regulate. Because of this, France finds it best to fight IEDs at the source, preventing their creation by working with locals to secure possible sources of supplies used to manufacture IEDs.
France is an active participant in the fight against IEDs, coordinating the group of experts on IEDs within the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons alongside Colombia. France has co-authored with Afghanistan and Australia resolution A/71/187, calling for cooperation with local authorities in securing the precursory materials used in manufacturing IEDs along with munition stockpiles kept by national military forces in order to prevent the creation of IEDs. France also regularly contributes financially to the work of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research in order to assist in providing accurate information and statistics on the topic. France is a firm supporter of Amended Protocol II of the CCW, which among other things prevents the design of IEDs to look identical to harmless objects, and holds accountable non-state actors which are most likely to use IEDs.
Though France does find the direct combating of IEDs by their removal in the field partially effective, particularly in preventing civilian casualties, this can be costly in monetary resources, something that not every state has readily available. It too can be costly in human life, something that is irreplaceable. This is why France finds the easiest solution is to prevent the creation of IEDs in the first place by implementing stricter control on precursory materials and munition stockpiles. The best way to do this is through cooperation with local authorities, teaching them effective measures that can be taken to prevent certain materials falling into the wrong hands. France looks forward to working with like-minded states such as Colombia, the United Kingdom, and the Russian Federation to create a solution which addresses the problem at its roots and prevents the continued proliferation of IEDs by malevolent actors throughout the world.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 23:17:38 170.103.21.194

Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Micaela Story

As violence continues around the world weapon technology develops, the age- old threat of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) remains prominent. IED attacks kill thousands of civilians each year and are second in all-around weapons fatalities only to firearms. By nature, IEDs can be made from roadside debris or sophisticated bomb technology. Although IEDs are made from a variety of materials, their strength frequently unravels infrastructure and promotes terror. Considering the fact that IED’s are developed outside government oversight and are easy to create, the criminal network of development and distribution they travel through is extensive and difficult to track. The ever growing presence of the digital world only aids the distribution of knowledge and access of IEDs, allowing the violence to spread like a wildfire. Not only do IEDs restrict the development of countries, they also impede humanitarian aid. Overall, worldwide policy and cooperation surrounding the effects of IEDs is considerably lacking, with only a few countries having administered independent base guidelines.

The U.K. has made a modest effort to fight back against IEDs. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) has even gone as far as offering a $1.9 million reward for companies willing to successfully develop an invisible shield technology. To spread awareness about IEDs and encourage safety, the National Counterterrorism Security Office has published information regarding the definition, examples, effects, and technology of IEDs. They have also posted recommended security guidelines and measures to take to protect against IEDs. The U.K. has also created an Allied Joint Doctrine going into further detail about the responsibilities of its commanders and staff in countering IEDs. In addition, the U.K. spends millions a year and contributes lots of manpower into both domestic and international efforts to fight terrorism and reduce the risk of explosions in public areas.

The U.K. is highly invested in protecting the lives of its citizens and is keen to see international unity to promote the safety of the world. IEDs are an international issue, and the U.K. would like to see countries struggling with violence to impose further restrictions upon materials that IEDs can be made out of and will support any country ready to crack down on terrorism. The U.K. feels similarly to its allies in that strong international guidelines pertaining to public safety and strategies to neutralize the threats of IEDs need to be universally adopted. The U.K. would like to see preventative technologies discussed as well as measures to protect defense administration of independent nations in their technological endeavors. The U.K. is looking forward to working with its allies like the U.S. and Australia who have similar views and policy on the matter.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/23/2021 22:08:48 67.149.88.10

Country: Central African Republic
Delegate Name: Vincent Holden

Country: Central African Republic
Delegate Name: Vincent Holden
Committee: Disarmament and International Security
Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices

In CAR, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a real issue, causing deaths. IEDs are usually homemade bombs, and can be made out of many things. IEDs are generally used in terrorist attacks, and can be very harmful and fatal. These are used commonly nowadays in multiple scenarios and situations.
Unfortunately IEDs are a problem for both soldiers and citizens with a quote from the (USAID), “Humanitarian access challenges—including the presence of armed groups, ongoing military operations, insecurity, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or mines—in CAR continue to impede the delivery of life-saving assistance to crisis-affected populations”. With this being said IEDs blocking valuable resources to people who are in desperate need of it in an already torn country is hurting us faster than we can recover.
A news report reporting on the real life account of a Danish Refugee council Aid is as follows “Earlier this month, a convoy driving across CAR’s volatile north-west struck an explosive device, killing an aid worker from the Danish Refugee Council. Even in one of the world’s most dangerous countries for aid workers, who routinely face violence and intimidation, the tragic incident stood out – highlighting a growing and unprecedented threat after years of civil war.” (BBC). This leads us to fear all help withdrawing from CAR as many places will not risk the lives of aid workers and we need that man power to help get resources to our people as the government only has control on the capital.
The Central African Republic believes that this situation needs to be handled better, and the goal is to restrict the amount of IEDs and have a faster crackdown ending the spread of IEDs being made (to the extent they can). To make things better and easier, it would be best for countries to focus on explosives in the field, it’s best for soldiers to learn how to counter IEDs, which can help train soldiers about terrorist threats and how to protect themselves and citizens. CAR is open to discussion about topics, and about finding other solutions to IEDs to cause peace.
Works Cited

“Use of Improvised Explosive Devices Increasing as Conflict Becomes More Urbanized, Secretary-General Tells Security Council’s Open Debate on Mine Action – World.” ReliefWeb, 8 Apr. 2021, reliefweb.int/report/world/use-improvised-explosive-devices-increasing-conflict-becomes-more-urbanized-secretary.

Losh, By Jack. “Central African Republic War: No-Go Zones and Russian Meddling.” BBC News, 23 Sept. 2021, www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-58641124.

https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/06.21.2021_-_USG_Central_African_Republic_Fact_Sheet_3.pdf

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 21:11:44 170.103.6.105

Country: Greece
Delegate Name: Addison Beckhorn

Like all countries, the security of its citizens is of utmost importance to greece. However, this security is being threatened by bombings using IEDs. IEDs, or Improvised Explosive Devices, have been used to attack and terrorize countries and their citizens. This includes the 7/7 London bombings in the UK, The 2004 Madrid Train bombings, and so many more. Every country has had its fair share of IED attacks and it remains to be a problem with an ever polarized world.
The Hellenic Republic is no stranger to bombings, many terrorist attacks involving bombs have occured, such at the december 2018 attack, where a TV brodcasting group’s office was bombed. [2] The Hellenic Republic has had a long history of politically motivated attacks, and it is of utmost importance that the issue of IEDs is resolved. [2] If the issue of IEDS is not resolved, attacks like the 2018 broadcasting attack could become more common. Terrorists could bomb any news outlet, any political opponent, and overall, attack democracy.
The solution that the Hellenic republic is, and has, been working on to counterattack these attacks is legislation such as adopting legislation like the EU Directive 2017/541, which criminalizes terrorist travel, training and provisions of material support. [1] The Hellenic Law enforcement agencies have been using databases, biometrics and watchlists to track and stop terrorism. [1] The Hellenic Republic has launched investigations, as well as operations, Such as their 2019 seizure of a weapons cache containing IEDs, and many thwarted attacks. However, the efforts of greece along are not enough to stop international bombings and terrorism, and all countries should work towards stopping bombings. An international agreement must be made ro make such operations and legislation a standard. The Hellenic Republic expects to find allies in achieving these goals in countries like Spain, The UK, and other countries that know the threat IEDs give firsthand.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 17:55:23 170.103.51.242

Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Hunter Sturm

Country: Japan
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices
Delegate: Hunter Sturm
School: Williamston High School

Throughout the world, Improvised Explosive Devices (that are more commonly known as IEDs) pose a serious threat. Commonly used by terrorists and those employing unconventional warfare tactics (insurgents, guerrillas, etc), IEDs are the perfect tool. They are often cobbled together, and use everyday materials and homemade items to inflict serious damage on military personnel and civilians. In the past 10 years, there were around 21,000 casualties from IEDs in Afghanistan alone. This issue is not central to Afghanistan alone, with numerous countries struggling from violence and the issues of IEDs and explosive ordnance.
Currently, Japan is helping to mitigate the harmful effects of IEDs throughout the world. In the past decade, they have donated around 19 million USD to help in the efforts to remove landmines in Somalia. As well as helping other countries via donations and science, they also receive help from other countries. In 2011, the NCIS (Naval Criminal Investigative Service) and explosive ordnance disposal technicians met with the Japanese Coast Guard. They were taught the basics on IEDs, including what they were and what to do if faced with the threat of one. In terms of actual policy, Japan has a firm belief on the regulation and management of IEDs and other explosive ordnance. They believe in Amended Protocol II (AP II) of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). As a country they follow and fulfill their obligations under both AP II and the Ottawa Convention.
In the future, further and stricter regulation is what Japan believes in. The removal of IEDs is the first priority, as it involves innocent citizens getting caught in the crossfire. The majority of IEDs impact civilians who are harmed or even killed when they explode. As well as cleaning up the issue, more regulation and control needs to be exerted. Once IEDs have been removed from places where they can harm people, there needs to be laws and regulations preventing more from taking their place. This could take the form of adding stricter restrictions on existing laws, and cracking down on terrorist and extremist groups who are predominantly using them as their weapons.

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9212

Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Eva Schwark

Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate: Eva Schwark

Talk of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has become less common in recent times. This is partially due to the reduced presence of Western nations in areas affected by IEDS. Afghanistan and Iraq are a few of the nations currently affected by IED attacks. IEDs are also present in some African nations, which the West has all but avoided for a long time. IEDs pose a serious threat to nations affected and are a significant cause of death in war zones, especially in nations troubled by conflict. Not only weapons of land, IEDs in the form of drones have become more popular over the years. Drones have the ability to get to less accessible areas, widening the range for offensive nations, groups, or other subsets of people to attack.
The Russian Federation firmly believes that the issues posed by IEDs can be improved upon by the development of Counter-IED efforts. These efforts should include training for IED detection and interception. They should also include funding for the development of IED detection and neutralization methods, such as sensors, visual detection (requiring training) and lasers.
Another main talking point on counteracting IEDs is getting to the root of the problem – production. The Russian Federation aims to continue its efforts to halt the production of IEDs by way of detecting and disrupting production sites. The fact that IEDs are easy to mass produce makes the detection of production sites easier as well, especially in targeted zones such as Iraq and Syria. When an IED of any form is detected, the detonated material should be collected for further analysis in order to pinpoint production sites and research the construction of the weapon itself. The Russian Federation is working actively on doing this, and urges any able nation to contribute their ability as well. The Russian Federation stands by action against the use of IEDs and looks towards a comprehensive resolution in order to expand efforts worldwide.

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8930

Country: Kenya
Delegate Name: Luci Perez-Simons

Committee: Disarmament and International Security
Topic: Improvised Explosive Devices
Country: Kenya
Delegate: Luci Perez-Simons

In Kenya, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a real issue, causing deaths, but none of the production of IEDs is made outside of government control. IEDs are usually homemade bombs, and can be made out of many things. IEDs are generally used in terrorist attacks, as well as mine action, and can be very harmful and fatal, because they are a bomb. These are used commonly nowadays in multiple scenarios and situations.
Kenya has lots of experience, and sadly, many losses because of IEDs. A bomb blast from an IED killed a policeman and injured 3 civilians (Waiske). In another accident, 3 people died, and 10 were injured because of an IED placed on the road while a bus drove on the road (Reuters). Kenya has seen that these devices are imposing a threat to the country, and other countries, like China, France, and more, who co-hosted a meeting discussing the threat of these (Security Council Report). Kenya has a lot of experience on this topic, and knows how much of a threat it can be to humanity’s future.
The UN does not like IEDs, for obvious reasons (lots of death caused by these, and only seem to cause harm), but because it’s not under government control, there is nothing specific they can do about IEDs to outlaw them (United Nations). Mine action, though, is of government control. The UN states that working together with other countries is what can help best. IEDs are already illegal from non-military groups, and the only thing more to do is to find a way to enforce this law more. Mine action is to clean lands and rid them from things, which can ultimately help much better, and that is what the UN recommends, as well as to train peacekeepers on how to handle situations dealing with IEDs.
Kenya believes that this situation needs to be handled better, and the goal is to not have IEDs being an issue and deaths not being caused from IEDs. To make things better and easier, it would be best for countries to focus on mine action. In battle/on the field, it’s best for soldiers to have counter IED training, which can help train soldiers about terrorist threats. Kenya is open to discussion about topics, and about finding other solutions to IEDs to cause peace.

Works Cited
Waiske, Andrew. “Bomb Blast Kills Policeman in Northern Kenya.” Anadolu Ajansı, 28 Jan. 2021, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/bomb-blast-kills-policeman-in-northern-kenya/2125863.
“Three Die, 10 Hurt after Bus Hits Suspected Explosive Device in Northern Kenya.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 24 Mar. 2021, https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-kenya-security/three-die-10-hurt-after-bus-hits-suspected-explosive-device-in-northern-kenya-idUSKBN2BG212.
“Arria-Formula Meeting on the Threat of Improvised Explosive Devices against Peace Operations.” Security Council Report, https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/whatsinblue/2021/03/arria-formula-meeting-on-the-threat-of-improvised-explosive-devices-against-peace-operations.php.
“Improvised Explosive Devices (Ieds) – UNODA.” United Nations, United Nations, https://www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/ieds/.

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