September 16, 2019
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Women's Economic Empowerment

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ECOSOC: UN Women

Topic: Women’s Economic Empowerment

Economic empowerment for women is a key component of the United Nations Sustainable Development goal on achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls.  Women’s economic empowerment is not an issue limited to the developing world, but one that impacts women globally, as gender differences in laws affect all regions of the world. As of 2017, women are more likely than men to be unemployed, and there are 104 economies that have laws which bar women from holding certain occupations.

Women make up nearly half of the world’s workforce, but there is still a global wage gap of 23% – meaning that women make $.77 for every $1.00 that men make. This is especially prevalent in nations with developing economies and places where informal economy is common, as women are much more likely to work in an informal sector setting. Women are often subject to unpaid labor, as many cultures place emphasis on a woman’s role as a caregiver and homemaker. This often results in women taking on a double burden, as they are often still responsible for their paid work. The policies that stem from this phenomenon play an important role in shaping gender equality, because policies may expand women’s choices and opportunities, or restrict them to more traditional roles. Women tend to be less likely to have access to higher education, thus decreasing opportunities for better paying jobs, or jobs that are more desirable and less centered around hard labor. Even when women are able to enter the workforce, they are often working unprotected from sexual harassment in the workplace. Women across the globe have also faced difficulties in securing the right to control their own financial institutions and affairs such as banks, credit cards, loans, and owning property. The World Bank cites access to credit as a means of significant economic opportunity for women. However, in 148 countries, women are less likely than men to have a formal bank account and less likely to formally borrow money. A lack of financial education and literacy also leaves women ill-prepared to take initiative to secure these financial assets.

OCED research shows that increasing female employment has the potential to boost GDP while also closing the wage gap substantially. It is the role of the committee to determine the best methods to do so. So far, the Beijing Platform for Action and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women have served as the guiding United Nations resolutions in addressing issues related to women’s economic empowerment. The UN Women program promotes women’s accessibility to employment, reducing the hours spent in unpaid work, and engaging with women in need at the grassroots level. How can the committee continue to economically empower women?

Useful Links:

UN Women Facts and Figures:
https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment/facts-and-figures

OECD on Gender and Development:
https://www.oecd.org/development/gender-development/

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Submitted Position Papers

FHCDelegates 11/24/2021 23:57:52 68.56.182.0

Country: Niger
Delegate Name: Marrissa Bertocchini

Delegate Marissa Bertocchini
Forest Hills Central High School
Republic of Niger
UN Women: Women’s Economic Empowerment

Women since the rise of the early 17th century ideals have not been equal to their male counterparts in any relation or situation. In financial subsistence, the United Nations estimates that women as a whole make up just about half of the global workforce, yet they still have a tremendous wage gap of about 23%, insinuating that women make approximately seventy-seven cents for every dollar that a man can make do the equivalent amount of work. This is incredibly imperative to resolve as the economic empowerment of women leads to highly successful nations and without women we would all suffer in many ways. Women are a necessity and we should treat them as they deserve.

As of recent times, the Republic of Niger has made immense progress in equality and empowerment of women. As of February 2021, 25.9% of parliamentary seats were held by women. While huge steps have been taken to progress in equality of all genders in Niger, there is still much work to be done for Nigeriens.

Many of the young women of Niger are forced into child marriages that they are not interested in. In 2018, 12.9% of women of a wide range of ages reported that they experienced physical and/or sexual assault from a romantic partner within the 12 months of the year. In December of 2020, 50.8% of indicators that were directly needed to monitor previously implemented SDGs from a gender perspective were openly available to those nations and representatives who needed it. The Republic of Niger recognizes that there needs to be more of a joint effort in the fight against gender inequality.

The Republic of Niger would appreciate the opportunity to fully acknowledge the nation’s flaws in the aspect of financial equality. Niger is a very cooperative nation with others who want to join in the fight for gender equality. Any amount of support and cooperation from the other nations of the world would be greatly appreciated to further accelerate the process. The Republic of Niger would look highly upon introducing further pushing evaluations of gender effects of any previously implemented SDGs. We would also further encourage the creation of a specialized committee to meet annually and address gender inequality with all willing nations of the world.

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FHCDelegates 11/24/2021 23:56:02 68.56.182.0

Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Sydney Brown

Sydney Brown
Forest Hills Central
Argentine Republic
UN Women: Women’s economic empowerment

The economic empowerment of women around the world is vital for the equality of women. 47.7% of the workforce is women yet globally on average women average there is a 23% wage gap between men and women doing the same job. “The gender pay gap occurs worldwide and in nearly all industries and professions, regardless of objective factors that should influence income,” according to the World Economic Forum. Women should not have to fight to get paid the same as men. They should not have to fight for equality. The economic empowerment of women would help with equality and make it a better world for them. It would help further advance other countries and help globally. We need women in the workforce and in our economies so everyone should help with the effort of economic empowerment for women.

Though full equality of women has not been achieved there has been progress in the Republic of Argentine. In Argentina 100% of frameworks that promote, help, and watch gender equality with a focus on the violence women go through are in place. And as of February of 2021, 42.4% of seats in parliament were held by women. Even though Argentina has taken great steps in achieving equality for women there is still much to do. “The adolescent birth rate is 49.9 per 1,000 aged 15- 19 as of 2018 , the adolescent birth rate is 49.9 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 as of 2018, down from 54.4 per 1,000 in 2017. In 2018, 4.5% of women aged 15-49 years reported that they had been subject to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months. Also, women and girls aged 15+ spend 23.4% of their time on unpaid care and domestic work, compared to 9.2% spent by men,” according to UN Women. Women so clearly have a position of power under men and Argentina needs to change it.

Argentina would most like to see the economic empowerment of women furthered. We recognize that we as a country still have work to do, but we would like to say that we have full intentions of doing so. We are willing to work with countries with the same goal in mind and have serious intentions of helping with the equality of women. We would like to see a resolution that addresses the inequality of women, and would look favorably to a specialized organization that talks about inequalities and sets up funds to help solve them. Argentina wants to help women around the world to be equal and we believe all countries should have this mindset.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/24/2021 22:34:49 107.194.174.41

Country: Estonia
Delegate Name: Audrey Bricker

UN Women
Women’s Economic Empowerment
Estonia
Audrey Bricker

The fact that women worldwide make almost only ¾ of what men make is a troubling statistic that needs to be remedied immediately. There is a direct positive relationship between the number of economically empowered women a country has and it’s GDP. Women have the power to help countries develop but often are pushed into traditional gender roles which usually make them unable to pursue higher education or professional jobs.

Although Estonia currently has the highest gender wage gap in the European Union at over 29% in certain economic sectors, the number has been decreasing, with help from multiple recent legislations. The 2004 Gender Equality Act and the 2008 Equal Treatment Act made gender discrimination in workspaces illegal. Because of this, the gender wage gap overall has decreased by more than 9% in the past eight years. Estonia exceeds in including women in the labor forces, though. The World Bank estimates that in 2019 4.07% of the male labor force was unemployed and 4.84% of the female labor force was unemployed in Estonia. This means that women and men hold almost the same amount of presence in the Estonian workforce, and is a sign of improving economic empowerment.

Estonia will support a resolution that promotes the education of women and girls, actions that reduce the gender wage gap, and the promotion of a woman’s place in society into higher level jobs. As President Toomas Hendrik said, “Estonia has taken upon itself to concentrate on women’s human rights, gender equality, and the empowerment of women also in development cooperation.” Empowering women economically is of the utmost importance.

Works Cited:
Unwomen.Org, 2021, https://www.unwomen.org/sites/default/files/Headquarters/Attachments/Initiatives/StepItUp/Commitments-Speeches/Estonia-StepItUp-CommitmentSpeech-201509-en.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov 2021.
Sm.Ee, 2021, https://www.sm.ee/sites/default/files/content-editors/Ministeerium_kontaktid/Valjaanded/gender_pay_gap_estonia_recommendations.pdf. Accessed 23 Nov 2021.
“Estonia’s Gender Pay Gap Narrowed Again Last Year”. ERR, 2021, https://news.err.ee/1608185428/estonia-s-gender-pay-gap-narrowed-again-last-year. Accessed 23 Nov 2021.
“Unemployment, Female (% Of Female Labor Force) (National Estimate) – Estonia | Data”. Data.Worldbank.Org, 2021, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.FE.NE.ZS?end=2019&locations=EE&start=1991&view=chart. Accessed 25 Nov 2021.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 22:05:00 174.210.195.96

Country: Tunisia
Delegate Name: Alekya Vudathu

UN Women
Women’s Economic Empowerment
Republic of Tunisia
Alekya Vudathu
Forest Hills Eastern

For a long time, women have been oppressed and considered nothing. From day one their position has been seen as a traditional role, the homemaker, or a caregiver. As people kept seeing women in this position it was hard for society to see a change in their social role. This is all the more reason as to why women empowerment is the key to a stable United Nations. Women are treated unfairly in many ways: socially, economically, educationally, and more. As time progressed the country thought that equality would be restored; however, seemingly it hasn’t. Economic inequality is present in numerous ways. Women and men might have the same job yet women will be paid significantly less, the global wage gap is 23%. Alongside this many countries suffer from poverty, which leads to financial issues and illiteracy; two-thirds of the illiterate are women. This stunts the possibility each woman has in their future with attaining a job and decreases the number of economic opportunities she could’ve possibly had. The United Nations Sustainable Developments goal is to help empower women and girls and achieve higher economic possibilities than there is now.

Tunisia is a strong representation of women’s economic empowerment. For example, the latest World Bank Enterprise Survey showed that Tunisia outperformed other MENA (the Middle East and North Africa) countries in terms of women’s entrepreneurship. Since the enactment of the Personal Status Code (PSC) in 1956, Tunisian women have played a greater role in their country. More women occupied higher management positions in the civil service and the private sector. 49.5% of the firms in Tunisia had women who partake in ownership. The country ranked 4th in terms of gender equality in the MENA region. Tunisian women have a literacy rate of 72% and hold 36% of parliamentary seats. However, there are still some socio-cultural barriers and inequalities with opportunities and jobs that women continue to face. While women represent 67% of higher education graduates, they are only 24.6% of the employed population. Unemployment affects women (22.5%) twice as much as men (12.4%) and this inequality are even more exacerbated in places within the country (Gabès, Kasserine, Jendouba, Kébili, Gafsa and Tataouine) where the female unemployment rate is at 35% on average. Although women did have a higher standard and got paid more than men the participation rate between men and women is drastic, with women at 24% and men at 70%. In addition to this economic imbalance, Tunisia’s increase in female participation came to a stop in 2000 and has since then stagnated at a relatively low level. Up until 2020, women’s equality has been stable however all of a sudden it dropped to an alarming state. Tunisia has been good at maintaining women’s economic empowerment however the more awareness that is brought to our country the more we will succeed.

The country of Tunisia is expected to encourage and promote a spirit of innovation, by protecting women from the violence and discrimination of the status quo, guaranteeing their economic rights, and offering them equal opportunities in employment and at school. Tunisia had a great track record regarding women’s economic empowerment however the recent rouble they are suffering from can be fixed if the UN comes together and integrate their awareness programs and emphasizes to societies that women also can be leaders.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/24/2021 21:57:33 24.7.72.143

Country: France
Delegate Name: Mary England

Committee: UN Women
Topic: Women’s Economic Empowerment
Country: France

Gender inequality is a large issue in society and always has been. Empowering women’s economic rights is key to closing gender caps. Several women are not even given the chance to work and the amount of female unemployment is greater than that of males. The Agenda for sustainable development has gender equality at the top of their list. The more women that work the more economies grow. Countries that have a large percentage of female employment have shown to have a boosted GDP. Out of employed women, the majority work informal jobs compared to men. Another gap in gender inequality is wages. Women are paid about 23 percent less than men. Women also participate in unpaid labor that stems from traditional and somewhat old fashioned ideas of a woman’s place. Often employed women are also susceptible to harassment and drive women away from economic empowerment.

France is working to decrease gender gaps and increase the economic empowerment of women. Poverty affects women before men. France believes that women are key in the development of economies. France has partaken in the Global Survivors Fund which supports victims of domestic and sexual violence and encourages them to reenter society. They donated 6.2 million Euros to the fund in the past two years. Gender equality is a priority for France and wants to aid in helping solve issues that prevent a growth in the gender gap. The Affirmative Finance Action for Women in Africa (AFAWA) is supported by France in hopes to assist female entrepreneurs that can allow for the growth of empowerment for women.

France is looking to lead by example. To start, France would like to see an increase in the amount of women in higher power positions to help build awareness for this topic. The European Union framework has different strategies that they have on their agenda. The biggest way to defeat gender equality is communicating without drawing gender stereotypes into the equation. Policies can be enforced that provide social protection systems such as pensions and paid maternity leave. Another large step includes the recognition of unpaid labor as work. Lastly, education is key to shifting women’s economic empowerment. By granting equal access to education women can learn new skills that put them at an advantage to getting better jobs and entering the labor force. As mentioned earlier there are also several funds such as the AFAWA that varying countries can support.

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SASADelegates 11/24/2021 21:47:17 71.89.181.65

Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Audrey Wong

Audrey Wong
Brazil
UN Women
Women’s Economic Empowerment
Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

To truly provide equality for men and women, women must be empowered, both emotionally and economically. In 2018, women were statistically more likely to be unemployed than men, with 6.2% women and 5.5% men being unemployed. This has remained largely unchanged to the present day. Globally, women are paid $0.77 for each $1.00 that men make. This is a huge disparity and just provides more evidence that economically empowering women is of the utmost importance. There are many proven benefits to economically empowering women, including the fact that women’s economic equality is good for business; companies with three or more women in senior management score higher on all dimensions of organizational performance. Additionally, when more women are working, economies grow. Gender gaps cost the economy 15% GDP, something that can be easily fixed. There are many international commitments that support women’s economic empowerment, such as the Beijing Platform for Action and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The Beijing Platform for Action reinforces the work of feminists around the world and has been making a global impact since its creation in 1995.
In 2015, Brazil reaffirmed its unwavering support for the economic empowerment of women. President Dilma Rouseff said: “I bring you a message of unwavering and firm commitment to implementing the Brazil Plan of Action.” Previously, Brazil has expressed support to commitments such as establishing a new plan for the care provided to victims of sexual violence by public safety and health professionals and granting six months of maternity leave for military women. On average in Brazil, women will earn 23% less money than men workers, even though the education level of women is higher. This is very surprising and horrifying, as it is only enforcing the fact that women have to work much harder to earn the same rewards men do for doing the same thing. Working towards economic equality is at the forefront of Brazil’s problems, and must be dealt with accordingly.
The delegation of Brazil knows that there are many actions countries can take to bridge the gender wage gap, and empower women economically. At the current rate, we will not achieve a world with no gender wage gap until 2069. This is an extremely long time period and only proves that this problem must be dealt with promptly. One solution to bridging the wage gap is to establish a national minimum wage for low-paid jobs. For example, Germany recently established a minimum wage, attempting to tackle its gender wage gap. Implementing action like Germany’s globally could only help the disparity. Education is also extremely important if this committee would like to economically empower women. Enforcing the idea that gender roles are not as prominent, and women should be able to get a job if they want, is of the utmost importance. Brazil is looking forward to working with this committee and coming to a consensus on economically empowering women.
Works Cited:
“Brazil Commits to Realizing Women’s Rights on All Fronts.” UN Women, https://www.unwomen.org/en/get-involved/step-it-up/commitments/brazil.
“Economic Empowerment.” UN Women, https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment.
“Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value.” UN Women, https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/csw61/equal-pay.
“Facts and Figures: Economic Empowerment.” UN Women, July 2018, https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment/facts-and-figures.
“The Gender Gap in Employment: What’s Holding Women Back?” InfoStories, https://www.ilo.org/infostories/en-GB/Stories/Employment/barriers-women#persistent-barriers.
“Working for Less in Brazil.” Human Rights Watch, 28 Oct. 2020, https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/03/08/working-less-brazil#.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 21:03:22 68.32.56.125

Country: Colombia
Delegate Name: Palak Rekhani

As stated by The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), “investing in women’s economic empowerment sets a direct path towards gender equality, poverty eradication, and inclusive economic growth.” Economic empowerment is defined as increasing women’s ability to participate safely and equally in economic decision-making at all levels from the household to international institutions through access to decent work, pay, and resources. Yet, women still remain disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination, and exploitation. The World Bank reports that “globally, over 2.7 billion women are legally restricted from having the same choice of jobs as men.” This issue can be found in any region, but according to the Gender Inequality Index, it is most prominent in Yemen, Afghanistan, and Congo. The United Nations has made countless efforts to alleviate the pervasiveness of gender inequality. In 2021, the UN Women Strategic Plan 2022–2025 was established to support the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and guide UN Women in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. Another international commitment to support women’s economic empowerment is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which is described as an international bill of rights for women that provides the basis for realizing equality between women and men in political and public life as well as education, health, and employment. It was adopted by the General Assembly in 1979 and now more than 185 countries are parties to the Convention. These programs promote women’s ability to secure decent jobs, accumulate assets, and influence institutions and public policies determining growth and development. Colombia believes that economic equality should be a fundamental human right that is necessary for the United Nations to commit to accelerating as a factor for social change. After ​​Colombia’s fifty-year-long internal armed conflict in which 49.7 percent of victims were women, the 2016 peace agreement with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia put women and gender equality at the forefront of peace implementation.

In the last two decades, Colombia has made significant progress regarding the promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment, demonstrated by important signs of economic growth and human development indicators. However, there are still significant gaps to reduce in the economic and political spheres. According to the World Economic Forum’s 2020 Global Gender Gap Report, “Colombia ranks twenty-second out of 153 countries and third in Latin America in gender equality, having closed 75.8 percent of its gender gap. The global average stands at 68.6 percent.” Further, Colombia was the first country in the world to formally acknowledge the economic contribution of unpaid care work. As a result, “the gender disparity in labor-force participation has plummeted by roughly a third since the year 2000.” Colombia’s high rank reflects the country’s progressive agenda and success in narrowing educational attainment. Colombia has ratified all current international treaties on human rights and women’s rights and has been drafting laws that promote gender equality. Several laws have been passed to discourage discrimination against women, like Law 1257. The Law 581 or “quotas law” arrange that women must hold 30 percent of top-level positions in all branches of public power. Colombia also implements initiatives such as the Autonomous Trust Fund to promote and finance women in business. Additionally, in the government’s ‘Commitment to Colombia’s Future,’ many measures exist to boost women’s economic empowerment and use it for social change. The International Monetary Fund estimates that closing such gender gaps in employment can increase GDP by 35%, benefitting society as a whole.

Colombia hopes to continue its progress in women’s economic empowerment and help other countries do the same. Colombia believes that the United Nations will be able to achieve this by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies, and practices that do not recognize the leadership, lower access to economic resources, or high domestic burden of women. Instead, these should be replaced with newer legislation, policies, and action like high impact equity and inclusion programs that help with venture financing, income generation, and higher education. Governance and participation in public life, women’s economic empowerment, peace and security for women and girls, and humanitarian action should be focused on. Columbia recommends mobilizing urgent and sustained action to prevent root causes of inequality by engaging with grassroots and civil society organizations to target marginalized groups including rural and low-skilled women. Colombia would support a resolution that joins together nations to promote economic equality and empowerment for all.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 20:29:59 107.5.180.147

Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Jaisal Chopra

United Nations Women
Women’s Economic Empowerment
The Federal Republic of Germany
Jaisal Chopra
Forest Hills Eastern

For a while now, women have been oppressed. In most countries and cultures, their only role has been considered the homemaker and caregiver. The economic area of life is a main part of life where women have been oppressed. They earn lower wages for doing the same amount of work. They are less desired for jobs they may be better at just because of their gender. They are also less likely to have the access to higher education which also leads to inequality in the future. When women have jobs, they are often underpaid and not protected from sexual harassment. According to the World Economic Forum’s most recent Gender Gap report, closing the inequality gap between men and women will take 108 years if we continue at the rate we are going at today. The United Nations has recognized the lack of equality between men and women when it comes to jobs, wages, and more. To take steps to achieve their goal of minimizing the difference between men and women, the UN has paid close attention to specific countries where this country is most prevalent. In Gujarat, for example, UN Women has taken action to empower women by helping women assimilate into council positions for their small villages.

According to the UN Women’s website, Germany has recognized the lacking areas in its borders in terms of women’s economic empowerment. Germany is “calling for women to play a more prominent role in politics, the economy and society, Germany commits to launching an initiative to bolster women’s professional qualifications in developing countries and promote women’s entrepreneurial empowerment.” Germany has also enacted the Act on Equal Participation of Women and Men in Leadership Positions in the Private and the Public Sector which has shown some development after their commitments. They have required at least 30% of seats on a company board to be reserved for women. The German government has a goal of eliminating violence against women, and with the aid from the penal code that criminalizes the act of trafficking in person, they have been able to approve a “reform of the penal code provision for rape and sexual violence and the Law on Regulating the Business of Prostitution and Protecting Persons working in Prostitution.” Germany is also supporting developing countries with their endeavors to foster women’s roles in politics, economics, and society overall.

Germany is a driving force in support of women’s economic empowerment. Germany hopes the international community can recognize this problem and take similar steps to eliminate the issue. Germany urges nations to set laws in place that criminalize any violence against women, and those that limit the opportunities that are given to women. Also, Germany proposes that the UN should work on integrating women into more leadership roles to the level that men and women are equally represented. Germany will support any resolution that sets laws to integrate women into society more equally and brings women into higher positions.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 17:24:20 174.241.29.122

Country: Nigeria
Delegate Name: Jade Tarango

UN Women
Women’s Economic Empowerment
Jade Tarango
Federal Republic of Nigeria
Forest Hills Eastern

“Over 2.7 billion women are legally restricted from having the same choice of jobs as men,” according to UN Women. This apparent and concerning gender gap constructs a barrier preventing women from reaching the same economic status as men in many countries. Women are often subjected to household work “leaving little time left to pursue economic opportunities. Without the same economic and career opportunities, nations are unable to further the journey towards gender equality. This issue is present particularly in North Africa, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa as women are much more likely to be in a position of vulnerable employment, as stated by UN Women. One main obstacle in preventing the growth of women’s economic empowerment is the disproportionate responsibility women hold to care for children, often serving as the sole or main caretaker of children. UN Women reports that women spend over 2 to 10 times the amount of time per day as men in order to care for children, the elderly, etc. The Federal Republic of Nigeria hopes to work towards a solution that provides careers and economic opportunities to women.

It is estimated that “Nigeria’s GDP could grow by 23%—or 229 billion—by 2025 if women participated in the economy to the same extent as men,” as reported by the Council on Foreign Relations. Despite this, the undeniable growth of the Nigerian economy is still prevented by legislation restricting women’s rights and opportunities. To combat this, the National Council of Women’s Societies was founded in 1959 in order to improve womens’ standard of living as well as increase the political power of women in Nigeria. One of their achievements include the implementation of educational campaigns for Nigerian women. Additionally, the UN adopted the Beijing Platform for Action in 1995 to guide actions on how to improve women’s empowerment. Ultimately, the Federal Republic of Nigeria would benefit great from steps to increase empowerment, as it would greatly benefit the economy and work to reduce gender discrimination.

One step to further the involvement of women in the economy is increased education for young girls. Often stopping their education prematurely, many women never get the chance to pursue and explore the careers and opportunities that a steady education provides. Additionally, increased pay would significantly help improve women’s involvement in politics, the economy, and more, as well as work to reduce the gender pay gap. Ultimately, the Federal Republic of Nigeria would look favorably upon a resolution that implements these ideas in order to increase women’s economic empowerment, which in turn will improve economic posterity as well as preserve women’s rights.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/24/2021 19:24:58 174.210.226.217

Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Brooke Orlando

Brooke Orlando
ROMUN
Russian Federation
UN Women

In 2021, women make eighty-two cents to every dollar a man makes globally. This is unacceptable. Sexism, motherhood penalties, and misogyny are the root of this issue. The Russian Federation is strongly pushing for an end to this issue. The stigma around starting and raising families for women is a leading cause of pushing them into part-time, low-income work. The lack of support from companies for these women is a major problem. We need to be paying for maternity leave, making time-off for family matters more accessible, and abolishing prejudice against women who are planning for families in the hiring process.
In today’s world, the wage gap is forcing women to choose between their career and their family. This should not be a choice anybody should be forced to make. Women can successfully hold a powerful position in the economy and raise a family simultaneously. The Russian Federation wants to break the stereotype that women are only valuable for being housewives and raising children. We want to achieve this through incorporating more representation of career-minded women and family-minded men in the media. We also believe in developing protection laws for women who want to start families, so they can pursue the jobs they want and keep those jobs when they have children.
Not only does this affect women who want to start families, but it prevents women who do not wish to start families from achieving the same thing. Assumptions are made that all women wish to get married and raise children, but this is not always the case. The Russian Federation wants nothing more than for the inequity with all women to come to a stop, and for the coming generations to understand that all women are capable of pursuing whatever career they may wish to have, and simultaneously pursuing any family goals they may have.

Works Cited:

Spiggle, Tom. “The Gender Pay Gap: Why It’S Still Here”. Forbes, 2021, https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomspiggle/2021/05/25/the-gender-pay-gap-why-its-still-here/?sh=f4fee0d7baf6.

“Equal Pay For Work Of Equal Value”. UN Women, 2021, https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/csw61/equal-pay.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 17:29:21 68.55.153.66

Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Komal Patel

United Nations Women
Women’s Economic Empowerment
Mexico
Komal Patel
Forest Hills Eastern

Empowering women increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, and ultimately allows an economy to flourish. Although there are higher numbers of women in the workforce in the modern day, they still continue to face challenges such as low salaries and gender inequality everyday. The UN has made significant progress in advancing gender equality over the decades, including landmark agreements such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). UN Women was created to address gender inequality issues, and works to empower women in the economy through “achievement of equality between women and men as partners and beneficiaries of development, human rights, humanitarian action and peace and security.” These causes require immediate action from UN Women in order to advance women’s economic empowerment in the modern world.

Mexico has made severe progress in the achievement of women’s economic empowerment in the country through strengthening national laws to increase gender equality and promoting an end to discrimination and violence against women and girls. In 2020, “less than half of Mexican women of working age participated in the labour market. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, this is the second lowest rate of all OECD countries, and much lower than the rate for Mexican men active in the labour market, which is 82%.” In order to empower women in the economy and promote activism against gender-based violence, Mexico launched the international “​​Orange the World: Raise Money to End Violence against Women and Girls” campaign with the goal of “gaining global attention and action to end the pandemic of violence against women” (unwomen.org). Mexico has taken significant steps to promote equality and close gender gaps including the introduction of gender quotas in legislature in 2002, 2008, and 2014.

Although Mexico has made severe progress in women’s economic empowerment, there are many actions left to be taken such as the improvement of the availability and quality of childcare services to reduce the unpaid work burden, especially among mothers. Mexico also urges the media to also make a greater effort to eradicate violence against women in textbooks, teachings, and progrmammes. Through these implementations, women will be able to thrive in the economy with a decreased gender gap and more opportunities for women in the workplace. Focusing on these aspects of women’s economic empowerment will allow Mexico to world-wide advance progress toward gender equality and ensure a prosperous and diverse economy.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/24/2021 15:36:51 69.247.4.158

Country: China
Delegate Name: Camille Gerville-Reache

The strife towards women’s economic empowerment is not just a fight for women, but also every person and every nation. Recognizing economic empowerment is central to women’s rights, the United Nations has commissioned research surrounding the topic, revealing that OECD member countries lose an estimated 15% of GDP annually from gender gaps. Furthermore, organizational effectiveness and growth are more prevalent within businesses that hire female employees and leaders. Women create prosperity. However, inequalities such as gendered employment laws, unpaid care and domestic work, workplace harassment, and traditional, discriminatory attitudes prevent women from reaching full potential.

In order to combat inequities, the People’s Republic of China has provided preferential treatment in granting subsidies, loans, and tax benefits. China has also opened employment service centers, recruitment activities, assisted in re-employment efforts, and supported women’s federations. As a result, in 2019, women made up 43.7% of the workforce, proportional to being 48.7% of the population. In education, women make up 50% of university graduates, indicating future climbs in employed women. China has also placed special emphasis on supporting rural women, who are the majority of the agricultural workforce. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Rural Land Contracting ensures equality between men and women in contracting and operating land. The China Population Welfare Foundation was also enlisted to assist poor mothers participate in economic development. Employing women was a major factor in achieving China’s monumental goal of eliminating extreme poverty. 80 million people were below the poverty line in 1994, and all are above as of 2020.

China urges all nations to consider its policies to uplift women in the economy and thus achieve poverty reduction, an expanding economy, and women’s rights. Women’s federations and laws to enforce prevent discrimination in advertising, hiring, etc allow women to utilize the justice system. Preferential treatment and assistance for women (especially poor mothers and rural) eliminate many barriers women can face for entering the workforce. China hopes that working with fellow nations to resolve inequalities and empower women in the economy will bring prosperity for all.

Works Cited
“3 Things to Know on China’s Poverty Reduction.” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/zwjg_665342/zwbd_665378/t1872272.shtml.
“Women in the Workforce: China (Quick Take).” Catalyst, 18 Nov. 2021, https://www.catalyst.org/research/women-in-the-workforce-china/.
“Gender Equality and Women’s Development in China.” Permanent Mission of the People’s Republic of China to the United Nations Office at Geneva and Other International Organizations in Switzerland, https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegv//eng/rqrd/jblc/t210715.htm.
“Facts and Figures: Economic Empowerment.” UN Women, https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment/facts-and-figures.

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SASADelegates 11/24/2021 10:00:15 71.89.181.65

Country: India
Delegate Name: Abbie Wong

Abbie Wong
India
UN Women
Women’s Economic Empowerment
Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

The economic empowerment of women ties into having a society where gender doesn’t matter. Since women make up 57.4 percent of the workforce it should be imperative that they receive the same treatment. The discrimination doesn’t just stop at wages though, some women don’t even have jobs, men having a 6.43 percent unemployment rate and women having a 8.4 percent unemployment rate. With the wage gap the inequality of women gets more severe. Women make 77 cents for every dollar a man makes, resulting in higher chances of poverty when looking at the low paying physical labor jobs in underdeveloped countries.
In 2012 only 27 percent of adult women had a job, compared to 79 percent of men. Along with India’s rapid urbanization rural jobs have been decreasing and not enough rural women have transitioned to working in urban areas. India struggles with gender equality, India ranks 120 among 131 countries in female labor force participation rates. The economic contribution of women in India is at 17 percent which is less than the global average, and compared to the 40 percent in China, India is clearly lacking.
Ways to ensure that women have the necessary skills to take on higher skill jobs would be education. Education alone isn’t enough though, social norms also play a big part. We need families to see that their daughters are capable of holding professional jobs and in the household they should act with no sexism. Employers need to commit to supporting diversity in the workplace by hiring women and paying them the same wages as men if they do similar jobs. Safe transportation and zero tolerance of sexual harassment is also important in the office. Offering safe transportation available to women would help rural women reach urban jobs that would be more in the city.

Works Cited
Annette Dixon, World Bank South Asia Vice President. “Women in India’s Economic Growth.” World Bank, World Bank Group, 16 Mar. 2018, https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/speech/2018/03/17/women-indias-economic-growth.
“Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value.” UN Women, https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/in-focus/csw61/equal-pay.
“Female Unemployment by Country, around the World.” TheGlobalEconomy.com, https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/female_unemployment/.
“Male Unemployment by Country, around the World.” TheGlobalEconomy.com, https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/Male_unemployment/#:~:text=Unemployment%20rate%20for%20males%2C%202019,181%20countries%20was%206.43%20percent.
“Women in the Labor Force: A Databook : BLS Reports.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1 Apr. 2021, https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/womens-databook/2020/home.htm#:~:text=In%202019%2C%2057.4%20percent%20of,of%2060.0%20percent%20in%201999.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 09:39:23 68.37.183.106

Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Rachel Verbrugge

All across the globe women’s economic opportunities have been suppressed and unequal to the opportunities of men. In many developing countries women are confined to informal jobs such as homemakers and caregivers, and this results in the significant global wage gap of 23% between men and women and restriction of economic opportunities. The UN Women website states that women are “disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination and exploitation” and “Gender discrimination means women often end up in insecure, low-wage jobs, and constitute a small minority of those in senior positions”. Commitments made such as the Beijing Platform for Action, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and a series of International Labour Organization conventions on gender equality aim to increase gender equality. Restrictive gender roles in many countries result in women not having access to higher education, and those that do enter the workforce are likely subject to violence and harassment. Increasing the employment of women around the world would result in an increase in GDP in many countries, reduce the wage gap, and provide equal financial opportunities for women.
The United States has set a prime example for the rest of the world on the subject of improving the economic empowerment of women. The Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative (We-Fi) is a program initiated by the United States to provide the funding needed to support economic empowerment of women in developing economies. This is a partnership between 14 governments, and they have allocated $355 million so far for over 60 countries to scale up access to financial products and services, build capacity, expand networks, offer mentors, and provide opportunities to link with domestic and global markets. In addition, another global program called Women and Girls Empowered (WAGE) has enacted collaborative and inclusive programs to reduce gender-based violence in the workplace in Central Asia, El Salvador, Honduras, Moldova, and Timor Leste. The goals of this program are to “(1) Strengthen the capacity of civil society organizations to support women’s economic empowerment; (2) Provide women with the resources they need to succeed as equal and active participants in the global economy; (3) Engage in collaborative research and learning to build a body of evidence on relevant promising practices”.
The United States suggests that other developed countries join We-Fi partnership in order to provide the funding and educational programs with the goal of increasing economic empowerment among women. Additionally, evidence has shown that the lack of participation of women in the workforce in several developing countries is negatively impacting the economy. Countries with a more equal representation of genders have increased economic growth and a reduction in poverty. The United States Calls on other developed countries to establish programs like WAGE to encourage educational opportunities for women so they can receive a higher education as well as programs to protect women against violence and harassment in the workplace so that lack of safety is not preventing them from these opportunities.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 22:26:54 97.71.235.131

Country: Viet Nam
Delegate Name: Abby Grocki

Women’s economic empowerment is one step towards achieving gender equality. Women face severe discriminations around the world, many being in the workplace. As of 2017, women are more likely to be unemployed, while 104 economies have laws which prevent women from working in certain occupations. Women make up half the world’s workforce, yet still face unpaid labor and a global wage gap. Studies show that for every $1.00 a male makes, a female will make $0.77. Women are also less likely to receive a higher education, thus decreasing work opportunities with better salaries. Additionally, women are often subject to unpaid labor due to societal expectations of women’s role as a caregiver. Women also find themselves having trouble with control of finance such as credit cards, loans, and ownerships. Data shows that in 148 countries women are less likely to have a formal bank account and also less likely to formally request to borrow money. Finally, another large way in which women face discrimination is though sexual harassment. Sexual harassment diminishes womens’ respect in the workplace and should not be tolerated along with any form of discrimination towards women.
Vietnam does not struggle with excessive discriminating work issues, but still does face certain issues. Men in Vietnam have a higher employment rate by about 10% compared to the average global difference of 20%. There has been a Convention on the Elimination of Women Discrimination in the past that was signed on July 29, 1980, then ratified in Vietnam on February 17, 1982. However, in Vietnam the workforces with higher paying salaries are occupied by men. The choice of work that women choose to go into is not the reason why there is a pay gap. The issue is the limitation of choice. In addition, Vietnam was ranked 87th on the Global Gender Gap Index with a gap of 70.1 percent which is above the average rate of 68.6 percent. This does not create a gender equality economy, and needs to be improved as soon as possible.
Vietnam would be willing to work with the United Nations to create a code for a better working environment for women worldwide. Such a code would provide for the improved security in the workplace, better education, eliminating salary gaps between men and women, and available work of choice for women. Keeping in mind the limitations of funding, security and eliminating pay gaps should be government enforced laws that will provide security businesses that will then provide security. In conclusion, Vietnam does not wish to interfere with the national sovereignty of any other nations and will expect to find allies in Japan, Australia, and the United States.

Works Cited

“Facts and Figures: Economic Empowerment.” UN Women, www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment/facts-and-figures.
“Gender and Development.” OECD, www.oecd.org/development/gender-development/.
“The Labour Rights of Women in Vietnam – Jil.go.jp.” Vietnam , Japan Labour Issues , www.jil.go.jp/english/jli/documents/2019/017-08.pdf.
VIR, Vietnam Investment Review -. “Closing the Gender Wage Gap.” VIR, 1 July 2021, vir.com.vn/closing-the-gender-wage-gap-85215.html.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 21:34:23 69.47.155.77

Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Clare Cowen

Country: United Kingdom
Committee: ECOSOC
Topic: Women’s Economic Empowerment
Delegate: Clare Cowen
School: Williamston High School

It is extremely important in today’s society that women are economically empowered. Women should be equally included in existing markets, their access to resources, control over their time, and beneficial participation in decision making. By investing in the economic empowerment of women, a path is set towards gender equality. Despite the fact that women make enormous contributions to the economy, they remain largely affected by poverty, and often end up in low-wage jobs and financial insecurity. Over 2.7 billion women are restricted from having the same job choice as men, and 104 economies globally prevent women from holding certain jobs and professions, fueling the inequality between men and women. In eighteen economies, husbands can prevent their wives from working, limiting a woman’s independence and assisting the idea that women are dependent upon men. Globally, women earn about 77% of what men earn. 63% of women aged 25-54 are in the labor force, while 94% of men aged 25-54 participate in the labor force, which is unfortunate because when women work, productivity is boosted and economic diversification and income equality are increased.
The United Kingdom is deeply concerned with the matter of the economic empowerment of women. In 2010, the House of Commons Women and Equalities Committee conducted an inquiry on gender inequalities in the economy, and found that existing gender inequalities in the economy have been much ignored by Parliament, so Parliament has been working in the past eleven years to fix gender inequality in the economy. The government is currently encouraging women to start their own businesses, specifically businesses related to technology. There have also been recent movements sponsored by Parliament to help women get jobs with high productivity and wages. The House of Commons Women and Equalities Committee is assisting the government in funding organizations to increase the number of women in STEM apprenticeships and jobs, establish quotas for women in the Kickstart scheme, and train JobCentre Plus coaches on supporting applicants into gender ‘atypical’ jobs.
The United Kingdom is currently a part of the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. They are working with Australia and the Netherlands to close the wage gap and economically empower women. The British Parliament has written a plan to help empower women economically, including actions such as securing debates on women’s economic empowerment and highlighting the issue during related debates and engaging in oversight and scrutiny of National Action Plans and budgets that have an effect on women’s economic opportunities, such as the UK National Action Plan for Women, Peace and Security, and the UK National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2021 21:30:35 69.47.155.77

Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Nora Cowen

Women’s economic empowerment involves many aspects of the world’s economy and workforce. This idea focuses on women’s ability to participate equally in existing markets, their access to resources, control over their time, and beneficial participation in decision processes. 2.7 billion women are restricted from having the same choice of jobs as men, 104 economies have laws preventing women from holding certain jobs, 59 economies have no sexual harassment laws, and in 18 economies, husbands can prevent their wives from working. Globally, the labour force is made up of only 63% of women compared to 94% of men, aged 25-54. The wage gap is estimated at 23%, meaning women earn about 77% of what men earn. Men have a 5.5% unemployment rate and women have a 6.2% unemployment rate, meaning another unproportional statistic. All of this inequality towards women in the economy is unacceptable and the UN is working hard to move towards a more balanced system.
The Japanese government is working on creating an economy where “women shine”. From 1975, the Women’s Labour Force Participation has increased from 42.6% to 85.1 % in women aged 25-29. Also, the number of women joining the workforce increased by 3.3 million from 2012 to 2019. Japan is currently working on enforcing these policies surrounding women in the workplace: securing additional child care capacity for 140,000 children, increasing child care leave benefits from 50% to 67%, encouraging women education for women on maternity leave, providing women with leadership/executive training, and with the Tokyo Stock Exchange promote women’s economic success.
Japan has a goal for 30% of leadership positions to be held by women by 2020 and the government has pledged to donate 42 billion yen in assistance towards gender equality. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe has presented a plan to assist and endorse the G7 Guiding Principles for Building the Capacity of Women and Girls and the Women’s Initiative in Developing STEM Career (WINDS). This is a global organization that has trained 5,000 women and assisted in the education of 50,000 women. The Japanese government has fully supported the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 surrounding women’s economic empowerment, as well as the Act on Promotion of Women’s Participation and Advancement in the Workplace and the Development Strategy for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment. Both of these focus on increasing women’s participation and accessibility within the economy. Japan has also hosted the WAW (World Assembly for Women) which focuses on female empowerment.

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8949

Country: Kenya
Delegate Name: Owen Rizor

Committee: UN Women
Topic: Women’s Economic Empowerment
Country: Kenya
Delegate: Owen Rizor

Women’s rights are a huge case in Kenya, especially in the workplace and economy. Women are also limited in social environments and the political process. The normal stereotypes surrounding women are still prevalent in Kenyan culture.
In urban areas of Kenya, 40% of women are generally empowered. They have more of a change to earn an education and explore opportunities. In rural areas, it’s about half of that number. In rich households, 53% of women are empowered. In poor households, only 7% are empowered. Overall, 29% of Kenyan women can affectively participate in the economy, society, and political process. Kenya has enacted multiple laws from 2006-2020 to attempt to raise this number and lessen gender inequality.
The United Nations has 17 main goals. The 5th is working towards gender equality and women’s empowerment. The UN has acknowledged sexual violence, early marriage, FGM, and other issues that affect woman. They have also acknowledged the lack of women in government and how sexual crimes are still at a very high number: “1 in 5 women and girls between 15 and 49 report experiencing physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner within a 12-month period.” And that is only in relationships. When you combine that number with non-relationship acts of sexual violence, the number becomes much larger.
Kenya believes that there needs to be enforcement on laws banning acts of sexual violence. There is a lot of gender predjudice in almost all (if not all) the countries in the world. This explains why many sex offenders walk free. If we want to work towards gender equality, we must also fix our laws and judicial systems. We must also even out pay for male and female employees and give females proper places in work and political environments.

Works Cited

“Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment – United Nations Sustainable Development.” United Nations, United Nations, https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/gender-equality/.
“New Women’s Empowerment Index for Kenyan Women and Girls.” Africa, 13 Aug. 2020, https://africa.unwomen.org/en/news-and-events/stories/2020/08/womens-empowerment-index-for–kenyan-women-and-girls.

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