September 16, 2019
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Ebola

ECOSOC: World Health Organization (WHO)

Topic: Ebola

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a virus that attacks the immune and vascular systems, and can cause death between 6 and 16 days after the onset of symptoms. There are four types of the virus which can affect humans, and the mortality rate ranges from 25% to 90%. Ebola causes flu-like symptoms including fever, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, and blood hemorrhaging. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with bodily fluids or infected surfaces; it is not airborne. The EVD incubation period, the time between infection and the onset of symptoms, is between 2 and 21 days. However someone with the virus cannot spread it until they begin to develop symptoms. Similarly, the likelihood of infection is correlated with the severity of symptoms, meaning that individuals are most infectious at the end of the disease and in death; dead bodies can also transmit the virus.

At present there is no proven drug, cure, or vaccine for Ebola, though scientists are working to develop both a vaccine and more effective treatment methods. Ebola patients are cared for with re-hydration and managing specific symptoms. This reduces a patient’s chance of death, but even with this approach the mortality rate is often nearly 50%. Given the lack of effective treatment options, the Ebola response has largely focused on containment. Contact tracing is the practice of identifying and monitoring anyone who may have had contact with the virus, so that they can be isolated and treated if symptoms emerge. Medical equipment and training are needed in order to care for someone with Ebola without contacting the virus. Burials also must be performed by qualified professionals, while still being consistent with the family’s wishes. Survivors of Ebola need follow up care. The virus may still be present in some bodily fluids, particularly semen, for a year or more after recovery. There is some evidence that Ebola survivors are immune, at least to the strain which they had, though this has not yet been formally proven.

Ebola outbreaks have impacted some places where people tend not to have much trust in authorities. This undermines quarantine and contact tracing efforts; families of infected people have sometimes been reluctant to bring them for treatment, isolation, and safe burial. This has been exacerbated by foreign aid workers not always adhering to local burial customs. Furthermore, an Ebola outbreak and the response to it often cause significant social disruption. For example, hospitals and primary care facilities being used for Ebola response means that routine healthcare services are interrupted. For these reasons, EVD response can be more effective if it works with, and is accountable to, existing community organizations and local leadership.

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World Health Organization

Ebola

Canada

Kierra Polizzi- FH Northern High School

 

 

More than 11,000 people of died of Ebola since it’s discovery in 1976 in two different parts of Africa. Central Africa Democratic Republic of Congo and South Sudan. The alarming symptoms include fever, aches and pains, weakness and fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hemorrhaging, bleeding or bruising. Keeping in mind that it is rare but often fatal. Having studied, it was found that the hosts who have the infection do not survive to transmit the virus to other animals. Thus making finding the source difficult. Although, it was found that African fruit bats likely are involved and are possibly the source animal. Taking into account the reduced medical equipment in the infected area, DRC nurses used the same five needles and syringes for 300 to 600 patients a day. The transmission of infected blood from person to person was the reason for the early outbreaks.

Canada has not had any confirmed cases of Ebola. Nevertheless, they have prepared in case a situation were to arise. Although it is very unlikely due to the medical resources and knowledge of the disease. Canadian officials recommend avoiding any non-essential travel to infected areas such as Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, and South Sudan. They also offer and recommend a vaccine to prevent the disease. Canada also donated 1,000 doses of experimental Ebola vaccine to West Africa and $5 million to the cause.

Canada has remained active in preventing and abolishing Ebola. Being the first to respond to the biggest outbreak in history. The Public Health Agency of Canada mobile lab worked onsite to help diagnose and treat patients more efficiently. Citizens were eager to help when the Canadian Red Cross created the “Join the Fight Against Ebola” campaign; looking for doctors, nurses, and other volunteers to contribute, they got over double the volunteers than they needed. The Public Health Agency of Canada also deployed French-speaking emergency management, epidemiology, and border health specialists to work with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention team in Guinea in March 2015. As well as people they also donated $110 million in financial assistance and their experimental vaccine to the WHO.

Canada embodies their beliefs in action. And calls upon other countries to do the same. Whether it is researching for a cure, sending medical professionals to the place of need, restricting travel to and from contaminated places, and donating money and supplies to better treat victims. Canada urges all countries to help in any way that they can and restrict travel so that it does not spread to non-contaminated populations.

 

  • Canada
  • Kierra Polizzi

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Committee:  World Health Organization

Topic:  Ebola

Ebola is a virus that’s extremely rare, but extremely deadly.  The virus was discovered in 1776 in Yambuku, Zaire, and has continued to become a well known disease that draws the interest of scientists, doctors, and common people.  In fact the most recent and devastating outbreak is in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Thankfully, Belgium has not experienced Ebola, and we hope that other countries can eliminate the disease as well.  In order to do this we need to set in place safe and sanitary procedures.

 

Belgium’s safety from Ebola is most likely due to our distance from the main sources and outbreaks in Africa.  Another reason is Belgium’s less abundant population of the wild animals like fruit bats, which can cause the deadly virus.  Although Belgium could still be exposed to the disease through travelers and immigrants who catch the virus elsewhere, it is unlikely to begin or mature in Belgium.  As long as we can keep our borders and our airports safe we can stop the disease. In this case we fully support the creation of preventative measures. In fact up until January of 2016 we had preventive procedures for Ebola at our national airport.  Adding on to that, after a large outbreak in 2014 associated with West Africa, a conference, funded by the Belgian International Development Department, included 250 international researchers and health experts that began work on creating treatments and vaccines to combat the virus.  This conference has also considered stopping Ebola at the source by improving health in impoverished areas of Africa.

Overall, on behalf of Belgium, I can say that Ebola needs to be prevented for the safety of our people.  We are willing to support preventative measures such as vaccines and treatments for Ebola, although there has to be guidelines.  Belgium has never experienced Ebola and we hope to keep it that way, as well as help others make it that way through education, vaccination, and controlled transportation.

 

  • Belgium
  • Jackson Bowles

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When discussing the mass amounts of life’s misfortune that the Syrian Arab Republic has had to deal with throughout the last decade, it may be considered a grand pardon from the universe that the nation has remained unaffected by the Ebola Virus. The delegation of Syria believes that the main reasons the country has not been affected by the disease are general location and situational premises. 

Although the nation is relatively close to the continent of Africa and specifically Sudan, the closest discovered case of Ebola to Syria, it can be reasoned that the Middle East has not been struck with this illness because of far proximity. Additionally, it is noted that most of the cases of the Ebola Virus reported outside of Africa have been from doctors assisting the medics in affected areas and then going back to their home countries.

 

Because of the nation’s preoccupation in a civil war, it can most likely be attributed that Syria has not received an outbreak of the disease because the vast majority of its doctors have not been able or wanted to travel to countries in Africa dealing with Ebola outbreaks because of the medical attention necessary at home. Continuing, the Syrian Arab Republic has yet to be struck by Ebola, and would look favorably upon keeping it that way. The highest level of action the nation could possibly take at this time are things such as prohibiting air travel to African countries drastically hit by the virus or vice versa, to ensure the safety of the Syrian people. 

  • Syria
  • Luna Samman

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Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever, commonly known as Ebola, is a rare, yet fatal disease. On average,

the disease carries a fifty-percent fatality rate. In recent years, it has climbed to a staggering

ninety-percent. So far Ebola has been most prominent in underdeveloped countries such as

Gabon, Uganda, and The Democratic Republic of Congo. The most recent major outbreak

occurred from 2014-2016 in mainly West African countries. This outbreak was the largest and

deadliest of all time, killing almost twenty-five percent of the population. Today, a more

complicated outbreak is underway in the eastern side of The Democratic Republic of Congo.

Underdeveloped countries do not have the money, resources, or programs to attack the virus, and

thus the Ebola often spreads amongst poorer citizens. Ebola disrupts order and handicaps

countries from moving forward with innovation, technology, and social welfare. The World

Health Organization must attack this devastating virus head-on

Being an island country, Sri Lanka has not been had to deal with the detrimental burden

of Ebola. We have proudly reported zero cases of Ebola within the past ten years This is due to

the many multiple preventive measures which Sri Lanka has instituted. For example, we have

ensured that the multiple departments of our Ministries of Health remain interconnected. This

ultimately has helped with coordination, planning, and discussion. Furthermore, we have

implemented airport screening programs to ensure that travelers do not bring the virus along with

them. An additional measure we have taken is applying in-depth guidelines for medical

procedures and the handling of body fluids. As a result of our thorough preventive measures, Sri

Lanka has been able to maintain a healthy, functional society. Without being intrusive, the

initiatives have been able to allow the public to go about their normal day while also sustaining a

clean environment

Within recent years, our country has implemented numerous preventive initiatives to

prevent an Ebola outbreak. Over time, these programs have proven to be extremely effective in

preventing an epidemic. Thus, Sri Lanka has confidence in plans that help maintain

interconnected Health, Surveillance, and Hospital departments. By making sure these

fundamental three departments are constantly sharing knowledge of current and future events,

we can prevent outbreaks and keep our citizens healthy. Within Sri Lanka, this has proven

successful and is shown in our zero reported cases of Ebola.

In order to prevent outbreaks within third world countries, we must look further than

short-run programs. These developing countries face financial, infrastructure, and environmental

 

issues, Together, these all ultimately come back to one sole issue – money. Without funds, these

countries lack the ability to raise the standard of living, improve the economy, or sustain

wide-scale governmental programs as simple as refuse collection. Therefore, the disease spreads

quickly and without any stop. By funding these countries, we can help create wealth and thus

help them institute measures to improve the numerous issues they face. Over time, we will see

developing nations create healthier, sustainable communities in which health is of the highest

priority. By using the IHR, The International Health Regulations, we can help raise funds for

these nations to use and combat disease – specifically Ebola.

Sri Lanka is confident in our ability to fight this epidemic together as the World Health

Committee. One of our committee’s goals in the past years for society has been,“The enjoyment

of the highest attainable standard of health” as “one of the fundamental rights of every human

being without distinction”, and this is what we must achieve across the world. By combining

short-run programs with long-run solutions, WHO will be able to combat Ebola faster and more

effectively than ever before.

  • Sri Lanka
  • Kumaran Nathan

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The Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as the Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in

humans. The Ebola virus is transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids of a person who contracted or died from EVD

contaminated objects, such as needles. EVD has an incubation period of 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without

any carrier status. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection or further spreading of

the virus. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have

been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of the virus on individuals and communities. Its treatment involves early,

aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Despite this, work still has to be done, both locally and internationally, to prevent

the malicious spread of the Ebola virus disease.

Saudi Arabia has historically been a pilgrimage site for the Islamic faith. The Hajj pilgrimage takes place in Mecca

every year, considered to the be the holiest city for all of Islam. Last year, roughly 2 million Muslims came to serve their

religious duty in the city, of which 100,000 were from Nigeria. Nigeria has, unfortunately, been a hotspot for Ebola outbreaks in

the most recent decade, such as the 2014 outbreak in Lagos. Other countries, like the DRC, also have significant numbers of their

population traveling to the Hajj. Following the Ebola outbreak in DRC's eastern North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Saudi Arabia has

suspended Hajj visas to the DRC and has further limited the quota for countries in West Africa, such as Nigeria and Guinea.

Despite this limitation, Saudi Arabia has also donated $35 million in medical examination equipment to West African countries.

The Saudi Ambassador to the United States, Adel bin Ahmed Al-Jubeir, stated, “It is our mutual responsibility as citizens of the

world to help those who are suffering.”

These events strongly resemble the national policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabia believes that in

order to limit the spread of the Ebola virus throughout the world, emigration from West Africa, Central Africa, and other hearths

should be restricted. Since Saudi Arabia has no political control over these regions, the government has decided to reduce

immigration to our country instead, particularly during the Hajj. The government is also taking steps to secure the layout of

airlines and airports, since they’re the primary way in which Ebola can spread internationally. And to be clear, the government of

Saudi Arabia does not want to be seen as a nation that is unwilling to compromise on a solution. We believe that with

international cooperation and collaboration, we can bring an end to this global apocalypse.

 

Clearly the prevention for this disease is not 100% certain, but Saudi Arabia is willing to put forth the effort to make it

happen. We plan to invest money into medical equipment, healthcare, and the supply of vaccines. However, we are heavily

against the use of “safe” burial practices because they go against the burial practices of the Islamic faith. We also discourage the

mobility of possible undiagnosed patients in certain African nations, to limit the spread of Ebola. We encourage other nations to

restrict immigration temporarily from these countries, so that we can put all of our combined efforts into one location. This can

also further establish unity and cooperation among the United Nations, which is necessary to combat this international issue.

 

Works Cited

 

"Saudi Arabia Disease Outbreak News." World Health Organization, www.who.int/csr/don/archive/country/sau/en/.

"Saudi Arabia Suspends Hajj Visas for DR Congo over Ebola." Aljazeera, 26 July 2019,

www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/07/saudi-arabia-suspends-visas-people-dr-congo-ebola-190726143929586.html.

"Saudi King Abdullah Donates $35M to Help Fight Ebola in West Africa." The Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 11

Dec. 2014, www.saudiembassy.net/saudi-king-abdullah-donates-35m-help-fight-ebola-west-africa.

"Suspected Ebola Victim Dies in Saudi Arabia." BBC, 6 Aug. 2014, www.bbc.com/news/health-28678699.

  • Saudi Arabia
  • Sriyan Madugula

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Ebola is a disease that has recently been in the spotlight for it’s danger to our society. Many have gotten sick, but not too much has happened in Hungary. Hungary believes that Ebola is a problem that could be fixed in another nation. Although there are ways to reduce the chances of death, no real cure has been found. In 2014-16, there have been 28,652 cases reported and 11,325 deaths. As we go on, that number only seems to be increasing. Hungary would like to support any upcoming plans to deal with this epidemic.

Hungary has been experimenting with Ebola which has recently caused an exposure to the disease. In 2018, we had a laboratory worker who had an accidental exposure to this disease. The employee got sent an experimental vaccine and other ways of treatment from the World Health Organization.  We have good medical programs that could hopefully help the spread of Ebola slow down or even stop.

Hungary believes that the UN could help with citizens being aware of the disease and help out in funding more medical programs. We have already asked for help before from the UN with our laboratory and has helped us a lot. The UN has been helping out this case recently and we believe with an increased input in money, Ebola could be stopped before it enters more areas such as Hungary.

“Global Ebola Response.” United Nations, United Nations, ebolaresponse.un.org/.

“2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 8 Mar. 2019, www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html.

“Hungarian Scientist Exposed to Ebola, WHO Says | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 20 Apr. 2018, www.cbc.ca/news/health/ebola-exposure-scientist-1.4628526.

  • Hungary
  • Yun Kang

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Ebola

Country: Australia

 

The Ebola crisis in the DRC has raged for a year and a half and killed over 2,000 people. The mortality rate of this Ebola outbreak has been greater than 60%, with just 1070 of the infected surviving. This is the second-largest Ebola outbreak in history, rivaled only by the West African outbreak a few years ago. There are significant improvements in the situation compared to the outbreak in West Africa, the most important being the availability of new vaccines and experimental treatments. And on a global scale, nations worldwide have had chances to create emergency response plans and tighten security around their borders to prevent disease from spreading across borders. Unfortunately, the political climate in the DRC has made it difficult, if not impossible, to administer the new treatments and bring an end to the outbreak. Mistrust of aid workers has led to violence against them, forcing many organizations, including Medecins sans Frontieres, to leave the site. 

Although there have been no cases of Ebola in Australia, this outbreak is a global issue. In this modern and globalized world, no country’s issue is its own, especially when it comes to disease. Travel in and out of affected areas poses an enormous risk in spreading diseases across borders, particularly for larger nations such as Australia. To combat this, Australia has developed a set of strict guidelines to follow when dealing with an Ebola-infected individual. Australia has not yet had to use it and hopes to mitigate the issue in the Congo before the epidemic spreads to other nations.

Thus far, Australia has donated AU$4 million to the WHO Contingency Fund for Emergencies and AU$9.5 million to the Cash Window of the World Bank’s Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility. These contributions are to ensure effective mobilization of the WHO in response to outbreaks and to improve national and international responses to outbreaks when initial containment proves fruitless. Australia is willing to pull further donations from the Indo-Pacific Security Initiative, but, as with the last outbreak, Australia will not be willing to send in health workers to aid with the crisis. The government of Australia cannot consciously encourage doctors and nurses to enter such a dangerous situation, not simply because of the risk of infection, but also the violence that has been perpetrated against such people. 

 

Australia believes that the issue that needs to be overcome in this situation is not the disease itself but the complex political situation. The world possesses the medical power to treat this outbreak, although additional funding is still necessary. The biggest problem, though, is mistrust and violence. The conflict of armed groups makes it extremely dangerous for health workers to simply be in the area. A cease-fire, then, is a must in this situation, even if just for six months. Additionally, mistrust of the government and misinformation have turned ordinary citizens against health workers, making it much more difficult to keep the outbreak under control. An aggressive public awareness campaign is necessary to change this – health workers must work closely with local leaders and the community to ensure that the Congolese are involved in the process. These changes, along with additional funding from present nations will change the climate of the DRC and promote positive progress in facing this epidemic.

 

  • Australia
  • Aileen Liu

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Ebola

Country: United States

 

Yu. G. is a man we know so little about that we refer to him by his initials. Mr. Yu. G. was a storekeeper in a cotton factory in the town of Nazra, Sudan; he crashed and bled out from every part of his body on July 6th, 1976. The violent death that Mr. Yu. G succumbed to spread to his two coworkers, their mistresses, and eventually a hospital in the neighboring town of Maridi where it wreaked havoc and killed patients left and right. The killer in this case is the Ebola Sudan virus, hemorrhagic fever with a 50% fatality rate. Luckily, as the staff of the hospital ran away from the hospital of death and stopped the cycle of infection, Ebola Sudan killed its hosts instead of moving to Khartoum, Cairo, London, Paris, New York, Tokyo, and eventually consuming the world.

An unknown schoolteacher who worked at the Yambuku mission took a vacation to northern Zaire in September 1976. After crossing the Ebola river and somewhere near the Obangui River he bought some fresh antelope meat at a roadside market which he ate later that night. That school teacher became sick, and when he got injected with medicine at the Yambuku Mission Hospital, the needles weren’t cleaned and simultaneously the virus ravaged fifty-five villages surrounding the hospital. This virus melted the body from the inside into a slime of blood and virus particles. The skin becomes soft and rips, blood leaks from every crevice of the body, and the brain becomes sludged with dead blood cells. Sister M. E. from the Yambuku Mission Hospital contracted the virus and spread it to Nurse Mayinga at the Ngaliema Hospital in Kinshasa who wandered around the city of Kinshasa for two whole days before the government took notice. The virus that was sampled from Sister M. E. body is the Ebola Zaire virus, the even more lethal sister of Ebola Sudan which has a staggering 90% fatality rate, and the world is fortunate that Nurse Mayinga didn’t infect anyone during her stay in Kinshasa.

Lastly, the Hazelton Research Products’ Quarantine Unit in Reston, Virginia, United States had an incident of illness among lab monkeys imported from the Philippines. This virus traveled airborne from room to room and killed every monkey it touched, yet even though six workers who euthanized the monkeys ended up testing positive for the virus, the humans did not suffer from any symptoms. This virus, the Reston virus, could have been so much worse. Proximity to Washington D.C. and the ability to spread through the air is a serious threat. Imagine a disease with the infectivity of influenza but the lethality of Black Plague in the Middle Ages. If the Reston virus happened to mutate to transfer to humans, this could have been a species-ending pandemic.

I am not giving a history lesson for the sake of giving a history lesson. Ebolavirus is designated in the United States as a level 4 hot agent and a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), yet we don’t even know its origins. Any form of Ebolavirus has the capability of decimating the globe, and the United States is one of the most vulnerable countries to get infected cases as we are both a hub of travel and commerce. During the peak of the West African Ebola crisis in 2014, there were 4 lab-confirmed Ebola cases in the United States. Eric Duncan contracted Ebola in Liberia before traveling back to Texas, where he infected 2 nurses and subsequently passed. Additionally physician Craig Spencer was diagnosed with Ebola in New York City. Furthermore, 7 Americans were evacuated from West Africa to the United States with only 1 of them passing away.

On August 1st, 2018, yet another Ebola outbreak, the 10th in fact, was declared in the North Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This outbreak poses unique threats to the world as the North Kivu province is a place of conflict, making medical intervention exceptionally difficult. The World Health Organization (WHO) has already reported 42 attacks on medical facilities and 85 confirmed deaths of medical personnel in the region. By November 2018, 200 had passed, and by May 2019, the death toll has surpassed 1000 in the DRC, rapidly making the Kivu outbreak the second-worst in history. As a result of a confirmed case in Goma, WHO made what the United States believes is the correct decision by designated the Kivu Ebola outbreak as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). To emphasize the gravity of this, only 4 PHEICs have been declared previously. We need to take this crisis seriously otherwise we may see an uncontrolled lethal virus run rampant.

Somehow the most recent Ebola outbreak in the Congo does not have the same hold on the media that the 2014 West African outbreak did despite having the same PHEIC designation. Media organizations must be held responsible for reporting accurate information without creating mass hysteria. The over-dramatization of the 2014 West African Outbreak was very evident in American news media, and Ebola was used as a tool to discriminate against all Africans, even if they are from a country thousands of miles away from West Africa. Regulations must be put in place to find a balance between the appropriate dissemination of dissemination without restricting any free speech rights whatsoever. After nurse Nina Pham was found free of Ebola, then-President Barack Obama hugged her to dispel any rumors or myths about Ebola lasting indefinitely. The public must know that Ebola is a disease, a dangerous disease, but a beatable one nonetheless.

As a direct result of the United States’ closeness to the West African Ebola outbreak, the United States has arguably the best containment and treatment procedures for a future Ebola epidemic not just for American cases, but those of foreign nations as well. Operation United Assistance saw 4000 American troops being sent to West Africa to build treatment centers to combat the epidemic. Every soldier had to undergo a mandatory 21 day quarantine upon arrival. The CDC implemented guidelines to hospitals on what equipment to use and how to train personnel. Although the United States acknowledges the guidelines were not as comprehensive as they could have been, we fully support enhancing these guidelines and applying them to all nations. Additionally, the CDC developed two sets of teams identified as CERT (CDC Ebola Response Team) and FAST (Facility Assessment and Support Teams). CERT teams can be sent to hospitals that have a patient infected with Ebola and FAST teams are sent to trains hospitals that express interest in treating Ebola patients. In 2014, JFK, Neward, O’Hare, Dulles, and Hartsfield-Jackson International Airports screened passengers for fever as they consist of 94% of travel from Africa into America and Homeland Security made it mandatory from passengers from West African countries to travel through those airports. Lastly, many states in the United States made a 21 day quarantine mandatory for all people who had direct contact with Ebola patients, even if asymptomatic. If the current outbreak in Kivu were to expand the United States would look favorably upon reinstating that policy on the federal level.

Regardless of how effective containment methods may be, we must prepare for cases that slip through the cracks. The United States has the capacity to isolate and manage 11 patients in 4 separate biocontainment units across the country. This number may not seem like much, because it isn’t. The United States only created as many containment wards as we needed in 2014, and we are wholeheartedly behind creating dozens more if the Kivu crisis worsens. What is arguably more important though is the development of treatments for Ebola. Two experimental treatments already exist: the antiviral drug brincidofovir, which was given to Duncan, Mukpo, and Spencer, and the transfusion of plasma from Ebola survivors as a form of passive immunotherapy. The World Health Organization has already expressed interest in the deployment of plasma transfusions into affected countries and the United States is willing to contribute resources to assist in doing so.

Based on all the aforementioned information, the United States recommends a holistic course of action to combat this dire public health threat. First, resources, both human and monetary, must be contributed to contain Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This includes the stopping of Ebola at points of entry in other nations. This first step is the most critical as once the virus escapes to more developed and urbanized areas, its spread will accelerate. Second, the public must be accurate educated on the scope of the Ebola outbreak overseas and their realistic risk of contracting Ebola. Misinformation and mass hysteria must be avoided to not impede the government action of any nation. Lastly, funding must be approved to further test existing treatments and develop new treatments. Rigorous guidelines must be put in place before any treatment is deployed to the affected areas so resources are not wasted on ineffective drugs.

 

The delegation of the United States is looking forward to cooperating with all delegates knowing that children are the future of our planet, and the insecurity of their nutrition is a crisis that affects all nations.

 

  • United States
  • Sohan Vittalam

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Zachary Scholton               Democratic People’s

Kalamazoo Central High School       Republic of Korea

 

WHO Topic 1- Ebola

A disease known for killing many, Ebola makes it’s biggest target in undeveloped nations. Due to the impurity of government, several nations are left without a good ruler to lead them through the crisis.The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea stands firm with its belief that Ebola is a simple problem with a solution at any nations disposal. It is up to each Nation to defend their own peoples’ lives, as they are the only source of power the people can trust. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is willing to help with those government plans with expectations for reimbursement.

 

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has taken the most action out of any nation during this crisis. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has found a solution to this issue, which is to minimize the exposure of The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s people to the virus. In the rare case of an infection in The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the medical professionals in the Nation are equipped to handle the situation quickly and orderly. This has made Ebola non-existent in the Nation. Shown in any data given, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has had no people to ever get infected with Ebola. Several actions have been made by the United Nations to combat the spread of Ebola. This, however, has not affected The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s people because aid was denied. The aid would much better be used in other nations, although the aid shouldn’t be provided to any.

 

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea suggests that all actions made on Ebola are done by National governments, not by the United Nations. This is due to influence pushing for westernization commonly infiltrates efforts made by the United Nations. Western nations have a habit of overstepping their responsibilities while acting on behalf of the organization. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has a role in finding the cure. Scientists in our nation have the cure to Ebola, a vaccine making anyone immune. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is very open to working with foreign governments in curing the world. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea hopes to work with Russia, China, and several other nations in its efforts to make the Earth safer by means that don’t corrupt the local governments of every Nation. In doing so, the Ebola crisis may be solved once and for all.

  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Zachary Scholten

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The Ebola virus, a contact spread disease, was discovered in 1973 in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, outbreaks have occurred throughout the continent. This includes the largest during 2014 and the most recent in the DRC. As of November 3, 2019, the death toll in the DRC was 2,185. Horrific symptoms, a 25% to 90% mortality rate, and death in as few as 6 days display how high of a priority prevention should be. The often fatal virus not only quickly devastates communities, but tragedy significantly intensifies when countries are not prepared, and communities are misinformed.

During the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreaks in West Africa, it swiftly became apparent that many regions were unprepared an ill-equipped to contain the epidemic. Nigeria avoided unnecessary tragedy thanks to the responsible actions of individuals such as Ameyo Adadevoh, a Nigerian physician who resisted foreign pressure to release patient zero prematurely. More leaders followed her action including many local, trained volunteers who enabled Nigeria to be declared Ebola-free by The World Health Organization in just 93 days from the original discovery of the disease. Nigeria’s quick recovery from the outbreak was thanks to the Nigerian Field Epidemiology Training Program, a CDC program that trains individuals to detect and prevent outbreaks. In Lagos, a strong FETP program remains, ready to address future threats. Despite official programs effectively combating outbreaks, local beliefs are obstacles for combating the spread of the virus. Contamination is frequently viewed as a frightening, metaphysical effect. During past outbreaks, cases of local religious leaders “healing” victims continually leads to everyday people fearing the enigma with Ebola instead of taking proactive steps to protect themselves.

 

Nigeria encourages the UN to increase the funding and resources being put into programs to quickly take action against current and future Ebola threats, as well as inform everyday people on the virus. Nigeria proposes the use of technology and social media to spread awareness and reduce stigma in communities throughout high-risk areas. Lastly, because of the importance of trust when foreign groups become involved in local matters, Nigeria further suggests the UN work with local leaders when taking these steps.

  • Nigeria
  • Genevieve Woodby

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The Ebola Virus (EVD) is a deadly virus that attacks the human immune system. The Ebola Virus Disease was likely unknown in humans until 1976, when two outbreaks occurred at the same time in West Africa.  Since then, there have been several serious outbreaks of the disease. Beginning in 2014, there was a two year outbreak of the disease, again in West Africa. This was the most extensive outbreak as well as the most difficult for the global health community to control.  Almost 30.000 persons were infected, and over 10.000 died before the disease was finally controlled. Four years later there was a smaller but just as deadly Ebola outbreak in DR Congo, near the Rwanda / Burundi borders. This outbreak killed a higher percentage of those infected, even though those sickened were only 10% of those taking ill in 2014.  The virus in both cases were forms of what was found to be the Zaire Ebola strain.

 

Once into the body, EVD will start to cause vomiting, diarrhea and rashes. Then an infected person’s body will begin to bleed both externally and internally which is incredibly painful, and also how the disease will kill. This happens as quickly as 6 or 16 days after the symptoms appear. In 2019 alone, the number of reported EVD cases were at 3000.  Like many other illnesses, such as influenza, malaria, and typhoid fever, Ebola can have similarities in symptoms, causing high fever, bleeding, and intestinal distress. The only way a person can spread the Ebola virus to others is through direct contact of bodily fluids after they have developed symptoms. EVD is a deadly disease, and one of the most effective contagious viruses, and it needs to be stomped out completely.

 

The State of Qatar is willing and prepared to contribute to the fight against the virus.  In response to the outbreak in 2014 we donated 1,000,000 USD to fight Ebola. Given the fact that The State of Qatar has the highest GNI in the world our efforts have been partly financial. Another way The State of Qatar contributes is through scientific research of the EVD itself.  In 2012 The State of Qatar deployed experts to help contribute to the creation of an international team of researchers to help combat the virus. In 2014 The State of Qatar began to spread educational messages on how to stop the spread of the virus to people related to or anywhere near where Ebola infection was found.

 

As far as a resolution, the State of Qatar recommends that all countries and members of the WHO began to heavily educate their citizens about the flow and spread of viruses. Not only should they educate citizens in and near areas of an outbreak, they should continue to donate to the efforts of the WHO. Countries should also continue to research the origins of the EVD virus and ways to exterminate it. The State of Qatar strongly believes that the recommended actions of the WHO’s response plan should be closely followed. In conclusion, Qatar believes the WHO should continue to stop the spread of the outbreak, treat those infected by the outbreak, preserve stability in regions affected by EVD, continue to research EVD, and lastly to continue to prevent the transmission of EVD.

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease

  • Qatar
  • Kessonga Allen

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Ebola

Country: Equatorial Guinea

School: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

 

The Ebola Virus Disease(EVD), being identified in 1976, there have been multiple outbreaks in the history of Africa.  At the time of those outbreaks there weren’t many resources to prevent or reverse the virus but there were procedures such as keeping the patient hydrated and treat their infections if present. EVD is an extremely deadly virus that attacks the immune and vascular systems and has a fatality rate of up to 90%. Symptoms of the Ebola virus can occur 2-12 days after infection; although death from the Ebola Virus could occur in 6 to 16 days. The first of these outbreaks appeared in remote locations of central Africa; the Ebola virus is extremely prominent in countries such as Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. The Ebola Epidemic in December of 2013, beginning in Guinea, affected the lives of over 28,000 people. Common health care such as maternal and child care systems were unavailable due to the death of health care workers; 1 to 2 doctors per 100,000 population. This significantly raised the death rate of pregnant women to 11,000 of the 28,000 of those who died from Ebola. There have been outbreaks over the past four decades; due to this, doctors often suspect in people Ebola with any  evidence of it. There are four investigational treatments available to treat Ebola; two of those four vaccines are shown to significantly reduce death rates. 

In 2015, Equatorial Guinea hosted the Africa Cup Of Nations (AFCON) on February 8th. In the upcoming of AFCON, The World Health Organization (WHO) worked with FIFA and Equatorial Guinea to develop standard operating procedures for Ebola. This work supported the Ministry of Health establishing surveillance of Ebola in stadiums, airports, and healthcare centers throughout the country. The team also worked with Ebola infection, control, and prevention. “We were encouraged by how much had already been done in Equatorial Guinea… to establish and implement protocols for preparing, detecting and managing suspect and confirmed cases[of Ebola]” (Nicolas Isa, WHO Technical Officer).

 

Within the committee, Equatorial Guinea would like to create a resolution that would continue to make safe travel possible along with further assistance from the western hemisphere in research. Working towards more medications such as vaccines and treatments for Ebola. In the case that Ebola is found in the western hemisphere, quarantine-like measures shall be taken by temporarily limiting air travel of the infected regions to near-nothing  and working extensively on treatment.

  • Equatorial Guinea
  • D'Yanie Hinton

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Topic: Ebola

Country: Germany

Committee: World Health Organization (WHO)

Delegate: Rosalyn Li

 

      The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks. In 2014-2016, the largest Ebola outbreak since the virus’s discovery started in Guinea and moved across land borders, infecting 28,600 people and killing 11,300. Soon after, in 2018, there was a new outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which has infected about 2,800 known patients, killing more than 1,800 of them.[1] Both the virus causing the current outbreak and the 2014-2016 outbreak belongs to the Zaire ebolavirus species. After a person is infected with Ebola, they develop symptoms from 2 to 21 days after contact with the virus, averaging from 8 to 10 days. Ebola symptoms have similarities with many other illnesses, such as influenza, malaria, and typhoid fever. A person can only spread the Ebola virus to others through direct contact of bodily fluids after they have developed symptoms.[2]

 

      The recent outbreak in DRC is finally slowing down, as 50 people were diagnosed with Ebola between September 25 and October 15, compared to 300 new diagnoses in 3 weeks during the outbreak’s peak. This was partly due to the development of two new Ebola drugs. One of the drugs is REGN-EB3, a combination of three monoclonal antibodies against Ebola made by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals of Tarrytown, New York. The second drug is mAB114 produced from a single antibody from the blood of an Ebola survivor, developed by the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The survival rate for people who received either drug shortly after infection was 90%.[3] In a trial of 499 people, only 29% and 34% of people who received REGN-EB3 and mAB114 died, respectively. In contrast, the typical mortality rate for Zaire Ebola virus species ranges from 50-90%. Most importantly, the recent development of a vaccine for Ebola has decreased mortality rates. The European Union has granted marketing authorization to Merck & Co’s vaccine for the Zaire strain of Ebola, Ervebo. The vaccine was designed at Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory, with help from a collaborative effort from response workers in Canada, US, Europe, and Africa. While the vaccine is still being used under the compassionate use protocol, more than 250,000 people have been vaccinated. Merck has committed to make the vaccine available to countries needing the vaccine at the lowest price possible, and has been donating the vaccine.[4]

 

      Germany is one of the biggest donor countries to the Ebola cause, providing €75 million (85 million USD) over five years to the World Bank’s Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility. It is also one of the largest government donors for GAVI, the vaccine alliance, which provides vaccines to treat Ebola in the Congo.[5] Furthermore, Germany has operated a Bundeswehr airlift to transport more than 500 tonnes of aid supplies. A training facility was also developed in Mali as preparation for epidemics. The facility can be used for rapid identification of highly pathogenic biological agents and played a major role in containing the Ebola infections in the country in 2014.[6] Similarly, Germany has been quipping and running a Severe Infection Temporary Treatment Unit in Liberia for the treatment and identification of Ebola patients.[7]

 

      There are three main parts to stopping Ebola outbreaks. First is diagnosing patients. The common problem is that many regions affected by Ebola are deeply troubled with high levels of social disruption caused by war and international civil conflict, resulting in distrust of healthcare workers. To solve this, social mobilization, health education, and psychosocial support must be provided on a normal basis to create trust. Furthermore, since patients’ crossing between borders and mass gatherings spread the disease more quickly, in extreme circumstances mass gatherings and market days should be cancelled, similar to Uganda’s response to their Ebola outbreak.[8] A second key portion of stopping Ebola outbreaks is efficient responses to isolate and monitor patients. Trained healthcare workers are needed to provide good treatment and care. A main reason the Ebola virus was able to spread so quickly and last so long during the 2014-2016 outbreak was the lack of healthcare workers. West Africa countries had a ratio of only one to two doctors per 100,000 citizens.

 

      The final component to stopping Ebola outbreaks is prevention, including healthcare infection control and safe burial practices. With the recent development of the Ebola vaccine, after the approval of the vaccine, all people should be able to gain access to the vaccine with a low price point. Health systems are crucial to the prevention of Ebola. Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, all countries affected by Ebola, are among the poorest countries in the world with basic health infrastructures severely damaged or destroyed as a result of civil war. Road systems, transportation services, and telecommunications are also weak in all three countries, allowing for the Ebola outbreak.[9] The international community needs to come together to help those in need.  For example, Germany developed a training facility to control epidemics in Mali. Not only would developing healthcare infrastructure monitor and cure Ebola patients, this infrastructure could also help train local health care workers. In the end, countries will be able to become more self-reliant and end Ebola outbreaks.

Works Cited

 

[1] “Ebola Virus Disease.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease.

[2] “Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5 Nov. 2019, www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/index.html.

[3] Maxmen, Amy. “Two Ebola Drugs Show Promise amid Ongoing Outbreak.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 12 Aug. 2019, www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02442-6.

[4] Branswell, Helen. “Ebola Vaccine Approved in Europe, in Landmark Moment for Global Health.” STAT, 12 Nov. 2019, www.statnews.com/2019/11/11/ebola-vaccine-approved-in-europe-in-landmark-moment-in-fight-against-a-deadly-disease/.

[5] “Germany Boosts Support for Tackling DR Congo Ebola Outbreak: DW: 23.02.2019.” DW.COM, www.dw.com/en/germany-boosts-support-for-tackling-dr-congo-ebola-outbreak/a-47658564.

[6] “Germany Extends Cooperation on Biosecurity to Include the Sahel Region.” German Federal Foreign Office, 16 Nov. 2016, www.auswaertiges-amt.de/en/aussenpolitik/themen/abruestung/projekte/-/218592.

[7] “Germany’s Contribution to Fighting Ebola.” Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the United Nations, https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/themen/german-contribution-ebola/910674

[8] Paweska, Janusz. “Why Is It Hard to Stop Ebola Spreading?” World Economic Forum, 20 June 2019, www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/06/why-its-hard-to-stop-ebola-spreading-between-people-and-across-borders/.

 

[9] “Factors That Contributed to Undetected Spread of the Ebola Virus and Impeded Rapid Containment.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 22 Sept. 2015, www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/one-year-report/factors/en/.

  • Germany
  • Rosalyn Li

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Committee: ECOSOC, WHO

Issue: Ebola

Japan Delegate: Peter Giftos 

 

The pathogen Ebola, commonly referred to as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), is a malady that has sparked an international public health emergency.  Mostly residing in West Africa, Ebola has approximately a 50% mortality rate and can easily be transmitted via direct contact with an infected animal or individual. The Democratic Republic of the Congo was recently inflicted with a major outbreak involving over 3,114 cases and 2,123 deaths. While efforts for a vaccine and cure are still in the works, it is important for the United Nations to generate and debate resolutions for this dreadful issue. The delegation of Japan is prepared to support The Democratic Republic of Congo with containing and eliminating their current outbreak; we are ready to set aid them in a plan that will effectively fight the Ebola virus.

 

In the past, the mobilization of laboratories, experts, and communities by the World Health Organization have been proven extremely effective in containing outbreaks of Ebola. An outbreak occurred on July 20th of 2014 in Nigeria, but was quickly combatted through effective mobilization of medicines and isolation of those infected. Funds from their government were set aside and used to create treatment and isolation facilities that would greatly limit transmission of the virus. The WHO also quickly established an emergency headquarters in Senegal, which combined with the swift execution of redistributing funds by the government, resulted in Nigeria becoming Ebola free by October. Past actions have shown that it is crucial to enact on outbreaks quickly, because if the process is slowed then it will allow the Ebola to spread fast and to neighboring countries.

 

 As a nation, Japan has taken numerous measures to counteract the harshness of Ebola outbreaks, by including the development of test kits using thermographic cameras. Thermographic cameras demonstrate persons who have elevated body temperatures, which is a symptom and indication of Ebola.  Japan has installed these cameras in our airports in times of outbreaks to ensure the disease doesn’t spread to our country via international travel. The test kit, developed by Toshiba Corporation, is portable, accurate, and rapidly reveals results of those likely infected with the Ebola virus. This test kit has been proven successful because of its ease of use in rural areas, due to its compact size and self-contained energy source.  We have dispersed these cameras to West African countries in order to contain the Ebola disease.

 

Japan has been a critical role in the fight against Ebola, and the support that we’ve shown is vast.  Japan has distributed emergency grants in response to outbreaks. The total funding that Japan has contributed to halt the virus is $173 million USD. In a 2014 Security Council meeting, Japan co-sponsored a resolution that determined the Ebola outbreak “a threat to international peace and security”.  The deployment of experts to zones affected by Ebola have been extremely important in containment of the virus. In the past several years, Japan has contributed over 20 experts to serve in Liberia and Sierra Leone. We’ve contributed over 720,000 sets of protective medical isolation clothing, as well as vehicles and beds. We have also developed a drug, Avigan, that can counteract some Ebola symptoms, and are willing to administer this on a large scale to counteract Ebola emergency outbreaks. 

 

Japan calls on all nations to consolidate to form a strong resolution that will guarantee that future Ebola crisis can be averted.  Cooperation is key in resolving this issue. Without the cooperation of the majority of nations, the African Union, jeopardized communities, and NGO’s, the containment and prevention of Ebola is not possible. Japan thinks we should strive to  create programs that will educate those at risk, as well as evolving the experimental vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOW, to its full potential and effectiveness. 

Sources:

 

“Ebola Virus Disease.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 30 May 2019, www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/Ebola-virus-disease.

 

“Ebola Virus Disease and Support Provided by Japan.” Mofo Gov Jp, 2015, www.mofa.go.jp/files/000175946.pdf.

 

“Japan’s Contribution to International Efforts to Halt the Ebola Outbreak (Ongoing Topics): Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet.” Japan’s Contribution to International Efforts to Halt the Ebola Outbreak (Ongoing Topics) | Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, 1 July 2015, japan.kantei.go.jp/ongoingtopics/Ebolaoutbreak.html.

 

“Key Events in the WHO Response to the Ebola Outbreak.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 19 Oct. 2015, www.who.int/csr/disease/Ebola/one-year-report/who-response/en/.

 

“[Press Releases] Emergency Grant Aid in Response to the Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in West African Countries.” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 3 Oct. 2014, www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press4e_000448.html.

 

“Successful Ebola Responses in Nigeria, Senegal and Mali.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 9 Nov. 2015, www.who.int/csr/disease/Ebola/one-year-report/nigeria/en/.

 

“UN Committee Says Ebola in DR Congo Still an International Public Health Emergency | UN News.” United Nations, United Nations, 18 Oct. 2019, news.un.org/en/story/2019/10/1049611.

  • Japan
  • Peter Giftos

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Ebola

Country: Peru

Delegate: Ruby Jazwinski, Forest Hills Northern

 

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an incredibly infectious disease that can be transmitted very easily through contact with bodily fluids. It is a fatal disease that has no specific cure. There are different prevention methods, but no way of curing the disease once infected. The majority of the cases happen in Africa and have become more frequent in this past decade. More recently, there has been an outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is the second-largest Ebola epidemic. Vaccines are under development and are being sent to infected areas. In previous outbreaks, the response of WHO was to maintain surveillance on all cases of Ebola and to watch and control the known outbreaks.

Although Peru has never experienced an outbreak of Ebola, there have been other disease epidemics such as Oropouche and Zinka. These were handled by providing medical care to individuals and investigating the disease and background. Proper medical care and education on the conditions are vital to prevent further spreading and to support ones with the disease. Watching over countries that have had cases of the disease is another way to obviate Ebola and keeping track of the cases and where they are and where they are traveling. Universal health care programs could be used to help the outbreaks.

These outbreaks can be defeated through the efforts of others. Isolating the virus and stopping it from spreading would be the first step, followed by methods of preventing the occurrence of another outbreak.  

 

  • Peru
  • Ruby Jazwinski

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Ebola has become one of the most well-known diseases since it was discovered in 1976, largely because of how contagious it is, and its large mortality rate of up to 90%. Ebola outbreaks are mostly found in Western Africa where it was discovered. This also happens to be a location where governments tend to be unstable and great medical care is not readily available in smaller areas. The incubation period for Ebola is 2-21 days, but once a person begins to show symptoms, they are extremely contagious, and anyone who has contact with their bodily fluids is at a great risk. Symptoms include fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. There is currently no cure to this rare but incredibly deadly disease, but treating the specific symptoms of the disease can help lessen the chance of death. Proper training is required to treat patients who have ebola to try to avoid spreading the virus further.

India had a close call with the virus in 2014 during the largest Ebola outbreak to date. An Indian returning from Liberia who had already been treated for Ebola entered the country through the Dehli airport and was quarantined. The man tested negative for a blood test and had a medical certificate from the Liberian government stating that he had been properly treated and was deemed Ebola-free as the blood tests were negative. However, other tests proved that the Ebola virus was still inside other fluids. The virus did not spread, and there has never been an active case of Ebola in India.

 

An Ebola outbreak would be detrimental to India. With the vast population size, one aggressive case would spread rapidly in unclean areas of the country, and without much proper medical care, the disease would be extremely hard to control. In order to prevent an outbreak in India and try to stop more outbreaks throughout the world, India is prepared to sign an agreement to help fund current and potential research to develop a cure for this disease.

  • India
  • Maddie Meader

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DATE: November 14, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: The World Health Organization

FROM: Romania

SUBJECT: Ebola

 

Romania is deeply concerned by the alarming spread of the Ebola virus throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, with a high potential for spread to neighboring states in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The region struggles with direct human-wildlife interaction including bushmeat consumption, which is thought to be the source of outbreaks. Unsanitary conditions brought on and worsened by increasing population density on the region has allowed the virus to continue to spread. The situation has been worsened by the instability of the DRC government which has had several turnovers in leadership during the crisis. This has led to gaps in the oversight of crisis management on the part of the DRC. Also worsening the crisis, ongoing violence in the region in addition to directed attacks against medical relief teams has limited access to treatment for victims. Also contributing to ineffective treatment is mistrust of the government and outside medical treatment as well as prevailing rumours about the nonexistence of Ebola. 

In the most recent Ebola epidemic beginning in 2014, the United Nations established the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) and the Special Envoy on Ebola, with the goal of scaling up response to the spread of this disease and unifying governments of the affected region pursuant to a more cohesive means of containing the spread of Ebola. The mission succeeded in this regard, largely as a result of the high degree of coordination and cooperation between national governments and the World Health Organization. The mission closed at the end of July 2015. A similar coordination effort may prove valuable in the current epidemic, as the response of various governments to the outbreak has varied substantially. Currently, the United Nations is taking steps to remedy the crisis, most prominent of these being the declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) and subsequent release of WHO guidelines for crisis management following the meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee for Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 17 July 2019. These guidelines indicate the need for increased community awareness, cross-border screenings, and population mapping in affected states and bordering states. This initiative has also benefited somewhat from the use of experimental vaccines in a concerted “ring vaccination” protocol. This provides a strong base for a possible solution to this crisis.

Romania expresses its deepest concern for the future of the crisis, particularly the potential spread of the disease. Having experienced an Ebola scare during the 2014 outbreak, Romania is eager to contain the spread of Ebola as quickly and effectively as possible. Romania has already expressed this desire by means of its support for the foundation of UNMEER in 2014. Additionally, Romania recognizes the importance of education as evidenced by the Education Law of 1948, and hopes to pursue awareness campaigns in regions affected by the outbreak.

 

An effective resolution will address specific steps to be taken to (a) unify the policies of states in the Great Lakes region with regards to border security, led by the government of the DRC and aided by WHO, (b) minimize further violence against aid workers in the region and reduce mistrust of outside aid workers, (c) promote awareness of the symptoms, effects, prevention, and treatment of Ebola to counteract misinformation widely spread throughout affected areas, (d) effectively distribute vaccinations and other medical supplies to victims.

 

  • Romania
  • Jack Rickle

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Committee: World Health Organization 

Topic: Ebola

Country: Thailand 

Delegate: Marley Mack

School: Fishers High School

 

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is an uncommon disease with symptoms such as diarrhea, coughing up blood, and muscle pains. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the average fatality rate is 50%, but it can reach as high as 90%. When EVD gets into a community, it can devastate the entire country. It currently has no vaccine and is incredibly contagious. People can get it from touching objects the infected has touched, bodily fluids of the infected, or bites from infected animals and bugs. If the WHO doesn’t work to find vaccines and effective cures for EVD, one outbreak could kill thousands. A possible outbreak could hit hardest in places where there is no trust between the authorities and the people. If someone is showing symptoms of EVD, they need to be brought to medical attention immediately. However, if people do not trust their government and health care authorities, they are less likely to take the necessary safety percussions in dealing with the virus. 

Currently, there have been no cases of EVD in Thailand, and the Thai government is making efforts to keep it that way. According to the National News Bureau of Thailand (NNT), there are proposed screenings for the virus at border crossings and international airports. Steps like this would prevent any global spread of the disease into the country. The Department of Disease Control (DDC) in Thailand claims they are monitoring the disease and outbreaks of it in other countries very closely. The DDC has also been working to stop the spread of a disease known as “Pig Ebola” or African Swine Fever (ASF). Although ASF cannot transmit to humans, it has cost the meat industry billions of dollars. Thailand has one of the leading pork industries in Asia, so this disease would significantly affect the economy. According to the Straits Time, the Thai government has put new border checkpoints in place, cracked down on illegal slaughterhouses, and has new, stricter requirements for tracking pig deaths to prevent the spread of ASF. 

 

Thailand is working hard to prevent the spread of any EVD into the country. They are an excellent example of what counties should do to battle their disease. Thailand thinks the WHO could encourage all members of the United Nations to impose stronger border checkpoints so EVD cannot travel internationally.  In case there is an outbreak, WHO could create an educational program for medical professionals in third world countries that provides proper training on what to do in an emergency involving EVD.

  • Thailand
  • Marley Mack

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false
false
false

EN-US
X-NONE
X-NONE

World Health Organization

Ebola

Republic of Senegal

Fishers High School

Caroline Adams

 

            The Ebola virus has claimed countless lives since it was first identified in 1976, the most significant instance being the 2014-2016 outbreak in West Africa, with 28652 total cases (of which 15261 were confirmed) and 11325 deaths (“2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa”). This outbreak was of the Zaire ebolavirus strain, the deadliest of the four Ebola strains. Senegal, which resides in West Africa, had one case during this particular outbreak (Senegal has had no other cases to date). The case was confirmed August 29th of 2014 in a young man who was traveling to Dakar from Guinea (“The Outbreak of Ebola in Senegal is Over”). Senegal was quick to take action and had had a comprehensive plan in place since March 2014. A National Crisis Committee was set into action and coordinated local funding with international partners. The World Health Organization, the Ministry of Health, Doctors without Borders, and US Centers for Disease Control all worked together to contain the disease (“The Outbreak of Ebola in Senegal is Over”). The plan included sending SMS messages through the WHO “mDiabetes” platform. The government of Senegal sent out over 4 million SMS messages instructing people on how to avoid the disease and to report any symptoms to a toll free number. The messages were sent in conjunction with radio announcements, flyers, and messages on government supported websites (“Government of Senegal Boosts Ebola Awareness Through SMS Campaign”). The government also made efforts to keep a humanitarian corridor open into Dakar. This ensured that necessary goods such as medicines and foods would still be transported in and out of the country regardless of the state of emergency (“The Outbreak of Ebola in Senegal is Over”). The patient that was treated for Ebola recovered and returned home to Guinea

            Today the Ebola outbreak has ended in Western Africa but still exists in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. As of November 5th 2019 there were a total 3285 cases (of which 3167 were confirmed) and 2191 deaths in this outbreak (“Ebola Virus Disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo”). This current outbreak differs from the outbreak in Senegal because of security risks (“Ebola Virus Disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo”). Senegal believes that improvements in security in communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda are vital to solving the Ebola Outbreak there. Furthermore, implementation of a similar plan of action in these areas as the one in Senegal and increasing funding for disease fighting and prevention.

  • Senegal
  • Caroline Adams

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Conner Nagel, Mattawan Highschool

Seychelles 

The World Health Organization: Ebola and Infant and Child Nutrition.

 

The Ebola virus is major player in infectious diseases. Ebola has been rampant in Africa for the last decade infecting countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Guinea. Ebola is a fast spreading disease and can be very fatal with over fifty percent of patients dying of the infection. Most of the time, the outbreak occurs within small, isolated communities. However, these small outbreaks can spread fast and hard, hitting major population centers like Goma in the DRC. Not only do these incidents leave hundreds dead and thousands more at risk, but without a sound method to combat the disease, even more communities are in danger.

Located off the east coast of Central Africa, Seychelles is an island nation depended on tourism for our main revenue stream. That being said, Ebola would not only be a humanitarian disaster for the island, but also a major blow against the economy, as an outbreak would deter people from booking vacations to our resorts in fear of the disease. In 2005 and 2006, our island had a Zika outbreak that affected more than 5,000 people. This virus was transmitted via mosquito bite and led to hundreds of them bringing it back to europe. The Seychelles government is in need of UN aid for fear of an EVD outbreak. If Seychelles falls to the infection it could be a bad situation for tourism and the inhabitants resulting in thousands of refugees due to our poor social status of our citizens. 

We are willing to work with other nearby countries in housing for refugees in our many resorts if worst comes to worst. But until then our government is in serious need for aid.

 

  • Seychelles
  • Conner Nagel

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The deadly disease of Ebola first emerged in 1976 on the continent of Africa where it originated. It was first observed in primates, like monkeys, who ended up transmitting it to humans without them knowing it. Some symptoms of ebola are fever, abdominal pain, severe headaches, joint pain, diarrhea, vomiting, coughing up blood, and mental confusion. Some ways to prevent Ebola and its spread is avoiding direct contact with infected person, not touching raw meat, dead or live animals without protection, don’t touch infected body fluids, don’t come in contact with infected dead bodies. 

 

So far in Iran their have been no reported cases of Ebola in Iran; however, we are prepared for the notion that it may enter our country. We have constructed a special laboratory with emergency cases that can be used when needed. Special intensive care units have been set up in Iranian hospitals incase they are needed. 

 

A possible solution for the Ebola crisis is to continue searching for a cure for Ebola. One of the possible solutions relating to our country is if an outbreak of Ebola occurs, we need to mobilize health officials in the country and make sure to quarantine the disease as quickly as possible to prevent an outbreak.

 

  • Iran
  • James Sobol

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Ebola

School: Forest Hills Northern High School

 

 

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has recently become one of the most recognized and feared diseases ever since the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic that brought disaster to the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, where over 28,000 people were infected with ebola. Then, in 2018, Ebola struck in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This horrid disease has claimed the lives of over 11,000 people. On September 19th of 2014, the United Nations launched its first-ever world health emergency, which aided the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Ukraine supports the decision of European regulators to start the process of producing the Ebola vaccine, which will help end this disease once and for all. Not only does Ukraine believe that a vaccine should be dispersed, but education about this disease is necessary.

 

While there have been no cases of Ebola in Ukraine, there have been outbreaks of other diseases, such as measles. During the measles outbreak of 2017, more than 15,000 people in Ukraine contracted measles. Measles is a disease that can easily be prevented by a simple vaccine, yet only 79% of infants were vaccinated. Ukraine could have easily avoided this by using the vaccine available, yet many parents and grandparents chose not to have their children vaccinated. Ukraine believes that an Ebola vaccine is vital to curing and preventing this disease. The vaccine, VSV-EBOV, is fast, safe, and efficacious. This vaccine is the only vaccine to complete a phase 3 clinical trial. This vaccine needs to be distributed to countries that are affected by the Ebola epidemic. Not only is prevention important, but education about the disease is also necessary. Teaching people about how the virus is spread and how to take cautionary measures will help prevent people from developing an increased risk of being infected by Ebola. 

 

Ukraine knows how vaccines can be helpful, and strongly believes that the best way to end the Ebola epidemic is to provide not only vaccines but also to provide education to the people of the affected areas. If even a fraction of countries were to donate money to the funding of this vaccine, then thousands of lives would be saved.

 

  • Ukraine
  • Libby Kurt

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World Health Organization

Ebola

France

Blaise Gourley

 

Ebola has become one of the most infamous diseases around the world. Known for its quick chain-reaction effect and high risk exposure, Ebola is one of the most unstoppable diseases. The disease has mainly affected West African communities. Ebola has the power to break apart many communities because of a lack of infrastructure many communities suffer. Many countries do not have the organizational power to maintain quarantines which result in the spread of Ebola.

In 2014, France created Ebola surveillance after the major outbreak in West Africa from 2014-2016. Their method was to have international travelers who traveled to an affected country have to report to the national emergency healthcare hotline. This is also known as the SAMU, which can be easily contacted and have nearly 100 centers in France. If patients report at-risk exposures and a fever during the first 21 days after leaving the affected country they are defined as possible cases. They are then hospitalized in isolation and tested by a polymerase chain reaction. Returning travelers with no symptoms but have reported at-risk exposures, are considered as contact and are included in a follow-up protocol until 21 days after their last at-risk exposure. The result from this protocol from March 2014 to January 2016, included 1087 patients who were involved. 1053 were immediately excluded because they did not have at-risk exposures, and 34 possible cases were tested and then excluded because of the negative test result. Two confirmed cases diagnosed in West Africa were evacuated to France under strict isolation conditions. No imported case of EVD was detected in France. Concluding that France is confident that its surveillance system was able to classify patients properly during the outbreak period.

France has also launched research programs in the Aviesan Institute of Microbiology and Infectious diseases. Also, in light of the Ebola virus epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo, France is determined to increase its international efforts. More efforts have been made to combat Ebola by the World Health Organization (WHO), on November 12, 2019 they prequalified an Ebola vaccine for the first time. This is a critical step to speed up the distribution of the vaccine to high-risk countries. Prequalification means that the vaccine meets WHO’s standards for health and safety. The vaccine is named, “Ervebo” and is injectable. Due to the urgent need for a vaccine, WHO accelerated prequalification for the vaccine by reviewing safety and efficacy data as they became available.

 

France believes that in order to combat and ultimately eradicate Ebola, the first step is to educate affected nations. There needs to be a stronger emphasis placed on the importance of having a secure quarantine to affected patients and to have foolproof protocol. France would also like to insure the partnership between community leaders and informing its citizens. Next, there needs to be an expansion of preventative centers in heavily affected countries to begin to distribute the new Ervebo vaccine. Along with the continuation of funding towards research and NGO’s. 

 

  • France
  • Blaise Gourley

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World Health Organization

Ebola

People’s Republic of China

Mia Tepic

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

Ebola is a virus which can cause sudden fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, and death. This disease infects humans through close contact with infected animals: chimpanzees, duikers, fruit bats, etc. Generally, outbreaks of the disease occur in remote villages in Central and West Africa near rainforests. In 2018, the Democratic Republic of Congo experienced an outbreak with more than 57 reported cases – surpassing the 53 cases in a prior outbreak. In order to prevent future outbreaks, the United Nations crafted the Ebola Response: a highly complex, five point strategy focusing on stopping the outbreak, treating the infected, ensuring essential services, preserving stability, and preventing future outbreaks. In July 2015, the Secretary-General also held an International Ebola Recovery Conference to help the affected countries and communities amass support for the implementation of these plans. At the conference, 3.4 billion dollars of new funds were announced – making the total funding for recovery 5.2 billion dollars. 

 

The People’s Republic of China has significantly contributed to Africa’s fight against Ebola Outbreaks as well as the development of the Africa Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Numerous Chinese epidemiologists were deployed to neighbouring countries of the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda to prevent more outbreaks from occurring. Gao Fu, head of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, in July disclosed 2019 that three Chinese experts researched with South Sudanese health professionals to prevent the disease from spreading to Africa’s newest country: South Sudan. This is not the first time that the People’s Republic of China has assisted Africa in its fight against the disease. Last year, the People’s Republic of China donated 117 million dollars in assistance to those countries, according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Between 2014 and 2016, more than 1,000 experts were also sent to fight the largest outbreak of Ebola. The People’s Republic of China deeply fears Ebola from spreading into its country through travel; therefore, The People’s Republic of China’s biggest contribution towards the fight of the disease is its help towards the construction of the center for disease control and prevention in Africa. Prevention begins where the outbreaks begin: Africa. Leaders of the People’s Republic of China traveled to Africa in order to manage the funding and discuss the building in 2018. Additionally, the People’s Republic of China sent Chinese health care workers to train health experts on how to combat Ebola and other diseases. the People’s Republic of China also agreed to help construct a center to prevent, control, and research tropical diseases in Sierra Leone.

First, the People’s Republic of China proposes the United Nations improve upon the Democratic Republic of Congo and other African nations crumbling health sector. Workers at these health sectors should receive training on how to combat the disease and receive funding to vaccinate its citizens, no matter their status or wealth. Second, the People’s Republic of China believes the United Nations needs to peacekeepers in order to cease the fighting and arguing in the affected areas. Countries in Africa are flooded with issues of governance and rebel activities in the North Kivu and Ituri provinces, which have only fueled the spread of the disease. Another key-contributing agent to the spread of the disease is the porous African border that needs to be tightened to prevent the virus from spreading from DR Congo’s North Kivu and Ituri provinces to Rwanda, Uganda, and South Sudan. To prevent this, the People’s Republic of China requests the United Nations work with government leaders of the affected countries to ameliorate their policies for leaving a country. Many Chinese travelers journey to Africa, and it is pivotal that this issue be solved in order to prevent Ebola from infecting citizens in the People’s Republic of China and other countries as well.

  • The People's Republic of China
  • Mia Tepic

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Country: El Salvador

Name: Carter Smelser

Topic: Ebola 

Ebola is one of the most severe and contagious viruses in our modern world. The most notable occurrence of an outbreak was in 2014 and continued to spread until 2016, and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. Another Ebola outbreak has been spreading in Africa since mid 2018, and the severity of the issue has not been projected yet. The second part of this topic is infant and child nutrition. Over 3 million children die every year from undernutrition. The first 1000 days from a mothers pregnancy and the child’s second birthday provide great opportunity to prevent undernutrition and it’s consequences. Both of these issues need to and can be addressed and prevented and are both crucial to human life.

 

El salvador relies greatly on the International Health Regulation to protect them. The International Health Regulation is an international agreement signed by 194 countries. The health minister of El Salvador said that, “Everything that is being done in the world in relation to the response to Ebola is correctly regulated.”. This illustrates that El Salvador believes that everything is under control in regards to Ebola, and that El Salvador has precautions in order to combat the issue. As for infant and child nutrition, national statistics from El Salvador show that undernutrition is prevalent and that it is largely caused by limited healthy eating practices for pregnant women and less exclusive breastfeeding. The SDG Fund programme is intended to resolve this issue. The objective of the programme is to strengthen public policy and support for the joint construction of initiatives, Improve local production and import substitution of raw materials and finished products, increase communities’ resilience to adapt to climate change, and expand local nutrition information systems.

 

El Salvador plans to resolve these issues by supporting programmes and goals already in place, and preparing for the future of the country and the issues. These issues are greatly important to our world and countries need to be prepared for them. El salvador has made preparations and plans to protect against ebola, and plans to fight child hunger and give children the nutrition they deserve. If other countries focus on preparing for these issues, we can combat and hopefully prevent them.

 

  • El Salvador
  • Carter Smelser

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Ebola virus (EVD) is one of the deadliest viral diseases and was discovered in 1976. The first outbreak occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo in a village near the Ebola River. The second outbreak occurred in what is now South Sudan. EVD most commonly affects people and nonhuman primates such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. The virus spreads to people initially through direct contact with the blood, body fluids, and tissues of animals. It then spreads to other people through direct contact with body fluids of a person who is sick or has died from EVD.

 

More than 2,400 years ago, a mysterious plague swept through ancient Athens. In five years, it killed perhaps a quarter of the population of the city-state, which was then under siege by Sparta. Thousands of Athenians died a dreadful death — first suffering a maddening fever, then bloodshot eyes, inexplicable vomiting and bleeding, followed by skin lesions and diarrhea. Medical researchers are suggesting that the Plague of Athens was, in fact, an attack of Ebola.

 

Greece will take precautionary measures to prevent the spread of the deadly Ebola virus in the country. On air, aircraft crews will isolate passengers with Ebola symptoms and have them wear surgical masks and gloves. On land, passengers will fill out a questionnaire constructed to document their epidemiological data. If their answers raise suspicions, they will be quarantined or rushed to the nearest hospital. In ports and remote islands, they will be interned in day centers and remain there for twenty-one days or until the doctors signs release orders.

 

  • Greece
  • Mitra Bijoy

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World Health Organization

Ebola

Republic of Costa Rica

Abigail Zhang, Forest Hills Northern

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have been terrorizing the people on this Earth ever since the first major outbreak in 1976. Since then, the immune and vascular system attacking virus has killed hundreds of thousands of people, most notably in Africa. Ebola runs rampant in lesser developed countries that generally have poor healthcare and medical services, leaving residents unable to fend for themselves against the virulent, contagious virus. This virus, which can kill between 6-16 days after the emergence of symptoms, still has no known cure, despite the endless amount of research and funding being poured into this topic. Currently, the most effective method of combating Ebola in developing countries is containment, and intensive care, but still around half of patients die. 

As a small nation in the middle of Central America, the Republic of Costa Rica has not had any outbreaks of Ebola, nor any cases. This holds true for every country in Latin America; the closest the Latino countries have been to an Ebola outbreak was the period around 2016 when Ebola was found in the United States. However, Dengue and Zika virus have been prevalent in Costa Rica for a significant amount of time, making them the two most significant diseases in Costa Rica. To combat this, Costa Rica’s excellent all-encompassing healthcare system has ensured that citizens take necessary measures to prevent, as well as possible, any chance of contracting any deadly viruses. Costa Rica also encourages its citizens to receive vaccines for these viruses, along with Hepatitis and others.

The Republic of Costa Rica would like to see the committee work together to create a resolution that not only addresses the need for sanitary areas to treat Ebola patients, but also provides funding to developing countries who need the capital to improve medical services. With the establishment of sanitary facilities for patients, the possibility of Ebola spreading to others in the area can decrease significantly. As Ebola is a common enemy of every living human being, Costa Rica believes that all nations should assist one another in combating it.

  • Costa Rica
  • Abigail Zhang

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World Health Organization Committee

Forest Hills Eastern

 

In 2014 the World saw the lethal consequences of a widespread Ebola outbreak. Originating in a small village, Ebola quickly spread into Guinea’s urban areas. Due to Guinea’s weak public health infrastructure and lackluster surveillance systems Ebola quickly became a widespread terror and eventually spread to Guinea’s neighboring countries, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Before the CDC was able to contain the virus through means such as border checkpoints, treatment centers, and meetings with local leaders over 11,000 people perished. Additionally, Ebola is still an ongoing issue in the Congo with over 2,000 deaths and many new cases being reported every year.

 

Although not having any cases of Ebola, Cambodia has had experience with other dangerous communicable diseases of similar magnitude such as SARS, Avian Influenza, AH1N1, and MERS and so knows how to deal with dangerous outbreaks. Due to Ebola being a possible threat to Cambodia, Cambodia’s Ministry of Health(CMH) has placed precautionary measures in place. CMH has passed out guides to its citizens on how to recognize and report symptoms and how to avoid contracting Ebola. The most effective method the CMH has implemented is using heat sensors; Cambodia has been able to pinpoint those in busy public areas that have fevers and has ordered them to receive a medical check-up to confirm they are not a carrier of Ebola. Medical checks like these have proven crucial in spotting those infected with Ebola during the 2014 African outbreak. In order to strengthen these attempts in rural areas CMH also supports NGOs such as GVICT and TLC which has established multiple health centers that have provided healthcare to those areas in most danger of epidemics. Cambodia also checks all incoming people crossing the border and those with a history of traveling to Africa, which has been effective in preventing the spread of disease into Cambodia.

 

Cambodia asks The World Health Organization to come to a consensus on a resolution that will promote thermal surveillance, medical infrastructure upgrades, better education of citizens on Ebola and strong border checkpoints in The Democratic Republic of Congo. Cambodia is more than willing to contribute solutions to this issue, work with other countries, and contribute to any resolutions relatively parallel to Cambodia’s ideals and virtues. Through these efforts, Cambodia believes that Ebola can be eradicated.

  • Cambodia
  • Ryan Longo

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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

World Health Organization (WHO): Ebola

 

The first recorded case of Ebola occurred in 1976 by the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since the major outbreak in 2014, the virus has caused about 11,325 reported deaths according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC). The virus, concentrated mainly in western African countries such as Nigeria and Sierra Leone, is spread through direct contact with bodily fluids such as saliva and sweat. Solving the issue of ebola is critical, for the reason that it’s spread to neighboring countries and beyond will affect trade networks, medical supplies, and more. 

 

Algeria is a mere 2,230 km from Nigeria, one of the main western African countries in which the Ebola outbreak began. In 2014, the World Health Organization cautioned that the spread of Ebola was a threat to Algeria, as many cases were reported in our neighboring countries, Mauritania and Mali. As Ebola spread, we have been forced to freeze trade transactions with countries such as Nigeria where Ebola is concentrated. Algeria has been forced to divert many of our funds to border healthcare systems to prevent the entry of Ebola, special protections for medical staff treating the disease, and much more in relation to averting the further spread of the disease into our country. So far, we have prevented Ebola from penetrating our borders, but the strain on our resources is increasing.

 

As a member of the UN, we have urged international assistance to countries hit by Ebola. We have allowed travel without full bans, provided a clean bill of health, as many countries have. Through the screening process for entry, we have quarantined diseased individuals, and gathered information which we have contributed to research for the treatment of ebola. 

 

As described above, Algeria has put forth much effort to control the spread of Ebola. Our hopes from this committee begins by further increasing international aide. Many countries have already been working to support the affected countries, but we wish to see near 100% of countries with the resources to spare sending aide. As part of this, we want to enhance research efforts on how the virus can be treated.

 

Aside from curing and aiding, we also wish to prevent the spread of Ebola. Our system of screening for infection before allowing in possible travellers from affected countries has thus far prevented an outbreak in our country, and has allowed for a more in-depth research into the disease. The spread of this policy to other countries will help enhance research as mentioned above while preventing the spread of new cases.

  • Algeria
  • Paityn Reens

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November 10th, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: The World Health Organization

FROM: Socialist Republic of Vietnam

SUBJECT: Ebola

 

 Vietnam has had past disease outbreaks, the most impactful being avian influenza in 2004. Due to this, Vietnam is well versed in the practice of disease control, and with the help of the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Since the outbreak, one of our routine surveillance strategies is event-based surveillance. The CDC will monitor incoming persons and goods. Ebola spreads through human-to-human transition, more specifically bodily fluids, and blood, hence strengthening border control of the possibly infected. There are currently ten U.S. assignees and 54 local employees. On August 7th, 2019, Vietnam issued an action plan to prevent the Ebola outbreak. The Ministry of Health ordered its disease prevention steering committee, provincial departments of health, preventive medicine centers, hospitals, and relevant agencies to ready their infrastructure, equipment, and personnel. 

 One of the major questions we should ask ourselves is “What is the long-term plan to eradicate ebola?” We should discuss ideas for border control, treatment plans, testing, etc. Another key question maybe “What is the global action plan, should an outbreak occur?” We need a plan in case of emergencies, that should be equitable and agreed upon globally. How would agriculture be affected by an outbreak? What should be the procedure in schools amongst an outbreak? How would travel and transport of imports/exports be affected? These are all crucial inquiries that need to be brought up during debate. 

 Vietnam would like to see the CDC involved in a good resolution. The CDC was helpful and very crucial in fighting off our avian influenza outbreak. Whether it be a global expansion of the CDC, new standardized international policies enforced by the CDC, or simply new disease control strategies taught to other nations by the CDC, it would be incredibly resourceful to have them more heavily involved in our resolution. Another thing Vietnam would consider good resolution material is a globally standardized outbreak procedure. The procedure would generally be the same worldwide, yet with small changes to make sure it is equitable for everyone. We want to make sure that there is a standard of health agreed upon internationally, however, we want to focus in on ebola/epidemic control for the sake of this conference. 

 Vietnam wants to zero-in on target 3.3 of the UN’s sustainable development goals, I highly recommend to glance at the short web page that goes more in-depth on the entirety of goal 3 of the SDG’s. In short, the target is to end the epidemics of infectious diseases by 2030. There are multiple indicators listed on the web page to ensure we meet this target on time. We believe Ebola should be added to the list of infectious diseases hoping to be eradicated in the target. Overall, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam wants to express the importance of preparedness for a very possible future Ebola event/outbreak.

 

  • Vietnam
  • Brooke Orlando

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Date: November 10, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: WHO

FROM: Republic of Korea

SUBJECT: Ebola

Ebola

Ebola has been a serious epidemic through the past years. It has killed more 2190 since the epidemics first major issue in 2014. The ebola scare has been relevant since 2014. In recent times, citizens seem to think it’s mostly gone away. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the epidemic has had a second wave causing 3287 cases. How did the public completely dismiss Ebola in such a short amount of time? 

South Korea is very good at preventing infectious diseases from entering its territory. The only country directly touching it is North Korea, which with its borders, barely allows anything to get in or out. The interior help from the country is little. There are not enough resources to stop an outbreak if it came into the country. South Korea does not provide enough resources to help maintain specialized resources, that there are few. Many citizens believe that if any type of epidemic appears in South Korea it will kill many. The country does not know how to help other than telling its citizens to not be afraid. 

There are multiple ways to stop the epidemic of Ebola from spreading. There is the option of investing in vaccine study. Vaccines could be a good way to stop the spread they wouldn’t be fully developed for many years. We would have to study Ebola from the deaths and cases. We would also have to determine when would the appropriate age for injection is. Another possibility would be to check any person coming into our country to make sure they are clean. This is a much more tedious process and most of the disease would be hard to notice immediately.

 

South Korea believes that developing a vaccine along with other countries in the UN would give us the best possibility for the future. We could pool funds from all countries to help form the best possible outcome. This would be a large amount of money but it would be the best possible outcome. With the amount of resources necessary, much time and money would go to research, gathering supplies, and support. For now, we have to hope for the best. We have to hope that Ebola will destroy itself.

  • South Korea
  • Meg Gierula

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World Health Organization

Ebola

Bahamas

Jade Tarango

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Ebola is an illness that affects primarily humans and primates that takes the life of about 50% of its victims. The first outbreaks of Ebola originally occurred in Central Africa; however, it has have spread quickly to other countries through bodily fluids and improper burial methods. Currently, there is no proven way to prevent or cure the disease, however, modern efforts have improved treatment options. In the past, the United Nations has declared Ebola as a “threat to peace and security”The Bahamas has currently never had an outbreak of Ebola and would like to focus on the prevention of the disease as it would spread quickly through the tropical climate of Africa and reach other countries urgently if precautions are not taken. In response to past threats to the country such as hurricanes or the lymphatic Filariasis outbreak, the Bahamas have urged to create a more sustainable country that will be resilient to future dangers. Therefore, the county of Bahamas is eager to protect from any cases of the disease entering the borders of any foreign nations.

 

Due to Ebola not affecting the Bahamas, the Bahamas has not taken steps of actions against Ebola. Approximately 82.5% of citizens live in urban areas, which allows a communicable disease to spread throughout the country extremely quickly. At a press conference discussing public health concerns, Hubert Minnis, the prime minister, states, “as persons engaged in international shipping and trade you are acutely aware that the security of all nations of the world is threatened by the Ebola Virus Disease. The Bahamas Maritime Authority’s Technical Alert has provided you with guidance to be adopted as a matter of urgency on all Bahamian ships in the affected areas. Collectively, we must define measures to reduce the risks of exposure of crews and citizens alike.” He also states how collectively there shall be efforts made to reduce the risk of exposure to citizens.

 

In order to prevent the downfall of our economy, and ultimately the global economy, due to an Ebola disease outbreak, the Bahamas proposes the UN to increase border control and customs. Due to the isolated nature of the country, the Bahamas attempts to remain in contact with other diseased nations so the customs can remain standardized. The only effective way to combat Ebola is prevention. As a majority of the economy thrives on marine trade, checks and regulations around the coasts should also be strongly enforced. The World Health Organization reports that 240 health care workers have contracted Ebola while working with patients. As a result, 120 of them have died. This shows the urgent need for more strict procedures when dealing with bodily fluids. With stricter procedures and border control increased, the spread of Ebola will decrease and the economy will thrive.

  • Bahamas
  • Jade Tarango

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 World Health Organization 

Ebola

Trinidad and Tobago

Halle Mikula 

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Ebola Virus Disease is a severe, contagious hemorrhagic fever with no authenticated vaccinations or cures. It is fairly new, identified in the year 1976, with several outbreaks being recorded in history, the most recent being the Ebola emergency in the Congo declared in July 2019. With a mortality rate of up to 90%, the disease is often fatal. Treatment of Ebola is limited and must continue even after the death of a patient, requiring intense care during burial. It is most prevalent in West Africa specifically in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The World Health Organization claims three objectives regarding Ebola: “interrupt all remaining chains of Ebola transmission”,“respond to the consequences of residual risks”, and  “work on health systems recovery.” Recent outbreaks and hysteria in both 2016 and 2019 make the prevention of Ebola transmission a hot topic, especially in countries in which resistance or doubt of authority is abundant. A major concern regarding Ebola is it’s characteristics of remaining in survivor’s systems through bodily fluids for months or even years. In July 2019, an Ebola emergency was declared in the Congo. However, progress was made in a 2016 experimental trial for a vaccine called “rVSV-ZEBOV,” and an Ebola vaccine was prequalified by the WHO on November 12th, 2019. The WHO has supported the making and testing of Ebola vaccines and spread information on the disease. NGOs such as Care USA and UNICEF are also working to prevent the spread of Ebola through distribution of hygienic materials, and educating the masses. 

 

A 2014 scare of Ebola on Trinidad’s soil showed mass hysteria of the people, as little precautions were set in place for such an event. The country was “shut down,” and essential services, such as gas stations, ceased their functioning. Many abandoned their jobs, including medical personnel. In the event of another scare of a viral disease such as Ebola, this hysteria would likely return. Trinidad and Tobago, a fairly small, densely populated country surrounded by water, is not well equipped to be controlled in an outbreak. Trinidad and Tobago have only three public hospitals, and spend 6% of their GDP on healthcare.. Trinidad and Tobago has made efforts, however, to curb the spread of Ebola. In 2014, Trinidad and Tobago ordered a travel ban on all travelers coming from certain African countries, and issued a 21 day quarantine for travelers who have returned from said countries. The Ministry of Health is Trinidad and Tobago’s main healthcare organization. In 2019, the Ministry of Health held a meeting to discuss appropriate responses for an event in which Ebola emerges in the Caribbean. Several different organizations, such as the Ministry of Communications and the Caribbean Public Health Agency, attended the meeting. Regardless of these motions to prevent the emergence and spread of Ebola in Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago, based on the previous hysteric response of civilians, its geographical location, and the state of its healthcare system, is not fit to be a leading nation in the Ebola crisis.

 

 Trinidad and Tobago suggests travel restrictions on travelers coming from at-risk countries, pre-prepared measures set in place in the event of a crisis, and requests monetary aid for the establishment of quarantine centers and pop-up medical centers. An ideal resolution would include measures set on prevention, treatment, and education, and would create environments unsusceptible to panic.

 

  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Halle Mikula

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World Health Organization Committee

Ebola

Turkey

Komal Patel

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The Ebola Virus Disease  is a virus that attacks the immune and vascular systems, and can cause death between 6 and 16 days after the onset of symptoms. Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and blood hemorrhaging are some of many flu-like symptoms caused by Ebola. Presently, there is no cure or drug for this lethal virus, but scientists are constantly working to develop effective treatment methods. Ebola can cause economic concerns such as high unemployment, loss of money due to aiding other countries, less trade and transportation, and reduced tourism. Currently, contract tracing is required by WHO to identify and monitor anyone who may be in contact with the virus, in order to be safely secluded if symptoms worsen. The disease is the most common and still outgoing mostly in Central and Western Africa and spread to other countries like Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Currently, WHO “detects  outbreaks, and reacts by supporting community engagement, disease detection, contact tracing, vaccination, case management, laboratory services, infection control, logistics, and training and assistance with safe and dignified burial practices” (who.int). The UN has also provided curriculum for multiple partners on training for “case management, contract tracing, safe burials, and work with partners to train people in the classroom and in stimulation” (who.int). 

 

Although the Ebola Virus Disease is not an issue in Turkey, Turkey’s Foreign Ministry alerted its citizens to show utmost care when travelling to Ebola affected African countries and other regional countries. Since the Ebola outbreak started, Turkey “has been extending their support and assistance for the struggle against the epidemic through bilateral and multilateral channels” (mfa.gov.tr). As of January 2015, more than 2.5 million Turkish Liras were spent on medical supplies for hard hit countries such as Sierra Leone and Liberia who were directly hit. Turkish ambassador Yavuzalp spoke on this saying, “The main aim [of the donation] is the three most affected countries. These are brotherly countries to us like all other African countries and we want to do our share so that the Ebola outbreak in Africa is eradicated and people are no longer losing their lives” (hurriyetdailynews.com). Turkey will continue to contribute medical aid to EVD infected countries while maintaining its assistance to the emergency aid efforts to fight the Ebola outbreak at the bilateral and multilateral levels. They intend to overcome the negative impacts of the outbreak on the mid-term and long-term development efforts of the region. The Turkish government is also extending our support for affected African countries by providing medical aid materials and supplies.

 

Turkey can urge our citizens to take great measures into being aware when traveling to African countries. To prevent all travellers to African countries from falling ill, Turkey proposes to provide more accessible vaccinations for everyone in the country to secure a safe trip. Turkey has been providing medical supplies to ebola hit countries and we urge other countries to do the same so we can deteriorate the growing spread of the Ebola Virus Disease. Research centers can be developed in the country to further improve the UN’s work on finding a cure for the threatening and spreading virus. The UN has taken precautions against a potential outbreak and although there is no travel ban on ebola infected countries, they could encourage the country’s citizens to avoid crowded places, to not eat meat, and especially to pay greater attention to their hygiene.

 

  • Turkey
  • Komal Patel

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World Health Organization

Ebola

Finland

Alekya Vudathu

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) attacks the immune and vascular systems. In severe conditions it can cause death in 6 to 16 days. This virus no spread airborne rather through direct contact with bodily fluids and infected surfaces. There is not a proven treatment available for EVD; however, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are being evaluated. The most severe cases have occurred in countries of West Africa: DRC, Uganda, South Sudan, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Previously the UN responded to the previous historical outbreaks with supportive care, rehydration through oral or intravenous fluids, and treatment of specific symptoms. The UN’s most recent aim at prevention was to maintain surveillance and support at-risk countries to develop preparedness plans. Recently, an experimental vaccine known as rVSV-ZEBOV-GP has been effective in protecting people from the Ebola virus however not curing it. Ebola is crucial to contain due to the health and economy of numerous countries who are at risk. If epidemic continues to spread it will lead to higher risks. 

 

As a first world country, there have been no outbreaks of ebola in Finland. However Finland has been very resourceful and has helped ebola infected countries. The Finnish Red Cross aid workers have participated in the international aid operation from the very beginning. With funding from Disaster Relief, the Finnish Red Cross sent aid workers to strengthen preparedness in neighboring countries like Burundi and South Sudan. Currently, there are Finnish Red Cross aid workers specialising in communications and working in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). From April 2016, Finland also has been contributing money to WHO for funding the ebola outbreak. In the current Ebola epidemic, the Review Committee acknowledged the heroism shown by many frontline health care workers, who are often under the most difficult of circumstances, and in many cases, at the cost of their own lives. 

 

 

Finland recommends that the United Nations minimize the about of ebola victims in the future by developing plans of awareness. If countries could provide help through funding and medical expertise, it would be beneficial. There’s a plan for the Ebola virus that should be implemented. Finland recommends that the UN enforce a plan that focuses on detection and rapid isolation of cases, intensification of rapid public health actions, and strengthening the community’s health system. If the UN could enforce this plan it may prevent future epidemics. By giving a quicker and compelling response about the situation at hand the amount of ebola occurrences may decrease. The UN needs to come together to stop this catastrophic disease. Finland has been immensely helpful to the countries in need; however, Finland strongly encourages the United Nations to take action and set forth a plan to not only prevent Ebola as they have been, but also to cure Ebola.

 

  • Finland
  • Alekya Vudathu

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World Health Organization

Ebola

República Portuguesa

Palak Rekhani

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Ebola Virus Disease, although rare, is a severe and often fatal illness. According to the World Health Organization, the average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Ebola is contagious and can be spread through direct contact with animals and humans, dead bodies, and bodily fluids. It is most prominent in West Africa and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The United Nations has made countless efforts on the prevention of Ebola. According to the Global Resilience System, in 2014, the UN adopted two resolutions: the General Assembly resolution 69/1 and the Security Council resolution 2177. The resolutions increased response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and led to the establishment of the UNMEER on 19 September 2014. According to the Global Ebola Response, The United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response aimed to stop the outbreak, treat the infected, ensure essential services and resources, preserve stability, and prevent further outbreaks. Additionally, the UN Secretary-General appointed a Special Envoy on Ebola and established the Global Ebola Response Coalition. 

 

Although there have been a few false alarms, there has been no real cases of Ebola outbreaks reported in Portugal. The risk of Ebola in Portugal can increase if the disease spreads further into countries like Guinea-Bissau. Portugal has instilled several protective measures against Ebola. Health Minister, Paulo Macedo, told the Parliamentary Health Committee that Portugal was fully prepared to respond to any potential cases of Ebola and had been assured that the health system would be supplied with the experimental treatment used on patients that survived the disease in the United States. According to the Portuguese American Journal, Portugal has set up a rear-guard base to prevent and fight Ebola at the Bissau Military Hospital. Portugal has also sent medical teams and 15 tons of medications to Guinea-Bissau to help the fight against the Ebola virus and other potential epidemics. Valentina Mendes, Guinea-Bissau Minister of Health, stated: “Portugal is going to create a base at the military hospital and that is where the equipment and staff that come are going to be installed.” Temporarily in the past, TAP Air Portugal did not permit direct flights between Lisbon and Bissau. According to Algarve Daily News, Portugal’s National Public Health Council set key actions and information alerts for health professionals and airport staff to identify, isolate, and treat any victims of the Ebola virus. Later, Paulo Macedo set up an Ebola Response Unit to prevent infected people from entering the country. Portugal is a member of the World Health Organization and follows the International Health Regulations adopted by the WHO. The purpose of the IHR is “to prevent, protect against, control, and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade.” According to Portugal’s member profile of the DAC on the OECD, Portugal is the 20th largest donor for Development Assistance Committee and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Portugal will be able to provide some financial aid for countries with Ebola and finance research on Ebola medication. 

 

Portugal believes that the United Nations will be able to reduce the amount of Ebola cases by giving quicker and more effective responses from organizations and countries. Portugal recommends developing preparedness plans in case of an outbreak, as well as raise awareness of risk factors and educate citizens about ebola. Countries with good medical centers and equipment can provide infected people with supportive care, such as rehydration, and treatment of specific symptoms to improve survival. While health workers are treating patients, they should strictly practice infection control precautions to not get infected. This should occur with burial services as well. Scientists could work together to develop better cures and vaccines. In the past, Ebola survivors have been forgotten, creating a risk of continued Ebola transmission. The UN could create a dedicated program to support the medical and psychosocial challenges Ebola survivors face. The United Nations must join together in getting rid of this disastrous disease.

  • Portugal
  • Palak Rekhani

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United Nations World Health Organization

Ebola

Republic of Azerbaijan

Josie Ness

 

Ebola was discovered in  1976, and the 2014-2016 outbreak in West Africa was the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the virus’ outbreak. Vaccines are under development, however, there is no known cure for Ebola. The disease is often fatal. Until a cure is discovered, it is essential that the countries of the World Health Organization come to an agreement on how cases and outbreaks of ebola should be prevented and treated. Community engagement is a key factor in controlling Ebola outbreaks.

 

Through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Azerbaijan donated 1,700,000.00 Azerbaijani Manat (1,000,000 USD) to Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone in their fight against Ebola. We have generously given this money and believe that other countries should follow suit. “The problem of the Ebola virus poses no serious threat to Azerbaijan,” Department Head of the Epidemiology of Infectious and Special Dangerous Infectious Diseases of the Republican Anti-Plague Station, Rita Ismayilova said. Climatic conditions play a significant role in the spread of Ebola, and the climate of Azerbaijan is not appropriate for the spreading of the virus. Despite this, Azerbaijan has taken the necessary precautions. If a case of infection is detected, Azerbaijan is prepared to enact the World Health Organization’s recommendations for fighting the disease. According to the Deputy Director of the Republican Anti-Plague Station, Shair Gurbanov, Azerbaijan does not trade with countries in which the virus is widespread and strongly encourages that its citizens do not travel to these countries. In September, the Caucasian Muslims Board warned Azerbaijani citizens that planned to perform the hajj to avoid contact with people from countries in which the disease is widespread and practice personal precautions. 

 

Azerbaijan recommends that the World Health Organization take action to inform all people who travel to countries in which the Ebola virus is widespread about the risks of travel and how to take necessary precautions. Azerbaijan recommends the creation of border-crossing points in order to create conditions of medical surveillance of people from countries where the virus is found. Azerbaijan requests that all countries comply with the World Health Organization’s existing guidelines for combating the Ebola virus once it has been detected.

  • Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Josie Ness

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World Health Organization 

Ebola

Myanmar

Anna Devarenne

 

At the peak of the 2014 Ebola outbreak, Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone were among the most affected. Because of these countries’ status as developing countries, the government was not able to contain the virus and it rapidly spread. The only vaccine developed is extremely expensive and not yet approved for clinical use, so the most commonly used methods to prevent the easily-transmittable spread is containment and isolation. This devastating disease can desecrate not only a developing nation’s health and population, but also their economy–the outbreak has led to a depreciating currency, cut of infrastructure products, and rapidly decreasing GDP. 

 

Myanmar is an impoverished nation and has a poorly funded and poorly equipped health care system. In many regions, there is also a strong fear of the government, which can result in difficulty to contain the disease if there happened to be an outbreak and inability to close ports to prevent transmission. Contact tracing followed by isolation and treatment of symptoms, but these require specialized qualified professionals, which Myanmar lacks. If there are any suspected cases of Ebola in Myanmar, blood samples from the patient are taken and sent to a World Health Organization-recognized laboratory for testing. Myanmar has had a few encounters with possibly infected travelers–mainly in years around 2014– and has handled it as they should–with containment and testing–and these efforts of preparation with an emphasis on national health resulted in Myanmar having no outbreak of Ebola, despite being a developing country. 

 

In order to uphold Myanmar’s current state of safety from the Ebola virus, Myanmar proposes that the United Nations continue their works and funding in the nation to improve the health care system and disease awareness; this will not only help to prevent any possible outbreaks of Ebola in the nation but also to improve the health of the nation as a whole. Myanmar commends the United Nations Ebola Emergency Response sect of the World Health Organization for its work across mainly West Africa to control and prevent the Ebola outbreak and emplores the organization to continue with these works. Myanmar also requests that the United Nations find a way to decrease the price of the current vaccine and increase funding in attempts to approve it for clinical use.  

  • Myanmar
  • Anna Devarenne

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World Health Organization

Ebola

The Somali Republic

Abigail Morrow

 

Ebola is a virus that hijacks the immune and vascular systems. The mortality rate of the Ebola Virus Disease is 50%. In Somalia, Ebola has not significantly affected our population. In western Africa however, the Ebola outbreak has affected the population in great measures. For example, in the DR Congo more than 1,600 people have died due to Ebola since the outbreak began in August 2018. These outbreaks tend to happen in more remote areas. One of the major issues regarding Ebola is the lack of trust in officials trying to contain Ebola. Finally, although the vaccine has been created the expense and low supply creates problems. While Somalia struggles with different diseases and health problems, we want to be medically prepared if an Ebola outbreak were to occur in our country.

 

Regarding regional countries, such as Uganda, the Somali government increased the level of preparedness. The Minister for Health and Social Services, Fowzia Abikar Nur, said, “The government is closely monitoring the situation in the neighboring and regional states over the deadly virus and her ministry has taken necessary measures.” She noted that, “Trained personnel are on standby to monitor the situation.” These people have special skills and equipment in order to deal with an emergency case if one were to occur. There have been multiple Ebola scares in Somalia, but with quick action by the Health Ministry, the scares have been proven rumors. For example in 2015 there were concerns that a man had brought back the virus with him from Guinea. The Health Minister said, “As soon as we heard the rumours of a case of Ebola virus in Somalia, we acted quickly and decisively to isolate the alleged victim, a Somali citizen named Abdulkadir Jinow Barow, and those who had been in contact with him.” With quick action when a threat occurs, the Somali government country is prepared if Ebola were to enter the borders.

 

Somalia recommends that in order to contain Ebola outbreaks and increase the survival rate of people infected with Ebola, the World Health Organization must work together to reach a consensus. The first thing Somalia suggests is that quarantine sights be set up in countries where Ebola outbreaks are likely or already happening. This will allow countries to contain citizens affected with Ebola. Somalia further suggests that all countries should train authorities in the skills needed for effective containment, handling of body fluids and burial of infected individuals. Finally, Somalia wants to discuss with the Committee the research concerning the Ebola vaccine. 

  • The Somali Republic
  • Abbie Morrow

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The Dominican Republic (La Republica Dominicana)

World Health Organization (WHO): Ebola

 

 Ebola is a virus that causes blood clots. This virus is known as hemorrhagic fever virus (Any type of disease related to blood). Because of this virus, it causes internal bleeding and blood clotting from small blood vessels in your body. This also causes tissue damage and inflation to the body. Ebola is a deadly disease that can lead to death without proper care. Ebola is easily spreadable through body fluids like the contact of saliva, sweat, and tears. You can also get infected by touching things that have previously been infected with the virus. Ebola is concentrated in the central and western parts of Africa. It is slowly spreading to the western hemisphere, threatening our people and their health. Solving this issue is important because we don’t have many resources to control this virus in a small island like ours. 

 

The Dominican Republic shares the island of Hispaniola with the Republic of Haiti, which is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. Because Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, they do not have much money to provide health defenses for their people, or do research on how ebola can affect the people. If Ebola were to get to Haiti, it can easily spread through the border into the Dominican Republic by infected people coming and spreading it through saliva or other measures, leading to chaos. The Dominican Republic has little economic resources to provide medical help to all of our people, but we have benefitted from the assistance of other regional countries like Colombia and the United States, but taking such a risk can be deadly. 

 

In the Dominican Republic, we have set out a research plan to see how the country would operate while under the attack of the Ebola virus. In the meantime, we have joined other countries like Colombia in a travel ban for all visitors, who have visited an infected country classified by the World Health Organization. All of us Carribean countries can not handle such a virus as it easily spreads and there is little to no cure for it.    

 

As I said before, the Dominican Republic, as well as many other nations have put a travel ban on visitors coming from infected countries classified by the World Health Organization. The United States and the United Kingdom, have set out a research project on how to contain and neutralize the virus. In the meantime, many nations have sent help to the infected countries through the UN and WHO. 

 

In the committee, the Dominican Republic wants to have a resolution to set out a plan involving all of the countries in the western hemisphere, to have a plan of action if the ebola virus were to reach and affect the Western Hemisphere as it has done in Africa. In the resolution, we would look for a total ban on all commercial, military, and private air travel entry to the region from Ebola-infected countries.

  • Dominican Republic
  • Juan Pena

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Country: Kuwait

Committee: WHO

Topic: Ebola

Delegate: Aliana Hermann-Campana

School: Williamston High School

 

    The issue of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is multifaceted and therefore the response to outbreaks should be as well. As there is no proven drug, cure, or vaccine for Ebola, the goal of treatment methods is to combat symptoms and increase the victim’s chance of surviving. While there is important work that can be done in that area, if people are not trusting of the authorities then all of that work becomes irrelevant. The Ebola outbreak in 2014 located in West Africa prompted a response from the UN that had five major points that addressed all of these issues in both a long term and short term response to the virus. Those five points were (1) Stop the outbreak, (2) Treat the Infected, (3) Ensure essential services, (4) Preserve Stability, and (5) Prevent further outbreaks. The goal of zero cases of Ebola is far from being reached despite efforts from the entire UN system, the governments of affected countries, partners, and NGOs. As of July 17, 2019 the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General declared the outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) a “public health emergency of international concern” (PHEIC). There are 3000 reported cases of Ebola in the DRC, making the outbreak second only to the one in 2014. The potential for contamination across borders raises the urgency of the Ebola issue. 

 

    Kuwait is ready and able to provide aid and assistance to the DRC and other areas impacted by the virus. On July 1, 2014 Kuwait donated $5,000,000 USD to WHO’s Ebola response to the outbreak in West Africa. As one of the wealthiest countries in the world, Kuwait’s past interests in Ebola outbreaks has been mostly financial support for organizations through WHO. Kuwait has helped to fund WHO’s response, which includes deploying 2013 technical experts, construction of treatment centers, and education on the Ebola virus.

 

    Kuwait proposes that to contain and resolve the current Ebola outbreak in the DRC, the international community should continue to provide support for the government where it is lacking and establishing a more secure means of providing treatment and support in an area that has a population that is distrustful of local authorities. Educational services should be provided to the general public to help increase the understanding of the impact of the virus and its method of transmission, which would help reduce the virus’ means of infection through cultural practices such as burial customs. Efforts need to be redoubled to prevent cross-border contamination of the virus. Kuwait recommends looking to the past efforts of the UN and WHO during the 2014 outbreak as a model because of the success with preventing further spread of Ebola. In addition to the past efforts that succeeded, funding should go to finding and establishing a vaccine or cure to create a long term solution for the Ebola virus.



  • Kuwait
  • Aliana Hermann-Campana

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November 11, 2019

Russia

World health organization

Ebola

Royal Oak High School

Katie Binkowski

Ebola has been an issue all over the world, but mainly in West Africa.  Ebola has caused more than 11,000 deaths since 2014. Russia has been involved in this issue since 20014.   Russia has provided funding for the purchase and supply of medical modules, medicines, and disposables for 60,000 people in the countries most affected by the Ebola outbreak.  This is an action we would like to see more countries taking. 

One of the major reasons this epidemic has gotten so bad is because of the lack of education about Ebola, like the fact that it can be spread through dead bodies and that to perform a safe burial it has to be performed by a specialist. According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Russia has one of the most educated populations in the world we use our educational systems to be able to inform our citizens about issues like this virus.  Something to consider going into committee would be how can we find a way to educate more people about this illness? Russia has developed a unique vaccine for ebola, but it has not been tested much. Something that would be very beneficial to the committee would be to find a way to fund testing for this vaccine and others like it. Once that testing is completed, how do we plan on distributing this vaccine? In order for vaccines to be distributed in the Russian Federation, the vaccine must go through clinical trials and receive approval from the Ministry of Health.  This authorization requires a completed registration procedure involving the Submission of a registration dossier along with an Expert review of the drug. Seeing as another issue is that people are not telling their government about possible cases of Ebola Russia would ask the committee to consider this question. How can we encourage people to inform government officials about possible cases of ebola? Can we find a way to educate more people about this illness?

Russia would support a resolution that has similarities to resolution 2439  by the UN security council. Russia believes a good resolution would incorporate the means to fund education in affected regions. A good resolution would fund clinical trials for vaccines and technologies that have been created but have not been in use.  A plan for Vaccine distribution along with the continuation of cure research funded by NGOs

Russia is looking forward to working with all nations on finding a solution to this important issue.

 

https://www.ciaonet.org/record/48709?search=1

https://www.pambazuka.org/food-health/threat-ebola-and-russias-response

https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/history/2010-today_en

https://www.un.org/press/en/2018/sc13559.doc.htm

https://uk.practicallaw.thomsonreuters.com/5-618-5113?transitionType=Default&contextData=(sc.Default)&firstPage=true&bhcp=1

 

https://studyinrussia.ru/en/why-russia/advantages/

 

  • Russia
  • Katie Binkowski

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Committee: WHO
Topic: Ebola
School: Williamston High School

In 1976, a new virus was discovered in two simultaneous outbreaks one in Nzara, South Sudan, and the other one being in Yambuku, DRC. It spread and it killed everybody it came into contact with. They named it Ebola hemorrhagic fever after the Ebola river in the DRC. Ebola is most likely transferred to humans by wild animals such as fruit bats.  As the years went on, Ebola continued to kill while spreading fear everywhere it went. In 2014 the disease was confirmed in west Africa and spread to seven more countries including Italy, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The 2014-2016 outbreak claimed the lives of 11,325 confirmed cases. On August 1st, 2018 the WHO announced there was an outbreak of Ebola in the DRC. This outbreak continues to rage on in 2019 shows no sign of slowing down. The WHO needs to do much more in order to truly get ahead of this disease.

As a country who has suffered outbreaks of other contagious diseases, Morocco understands the need to solve this problem quickly and efficiently to ease the suffering and pain of hundreds. Although Morocco has never had an outbreak of Ebola, we have fought against many other diseases such as Smallpox and Meningococcal Meningitis which have now been quelled by vaccinations and herd immunity. Morocco understands the differences of nations but asks for an open mind when it comes to this dire situation. If Ebola is not stopped now while it is still weak in the DRC, it will spread to more populated areas where it will not be able to be contained easily. By working together and putting our best foot forward we can help to vanquish this PHEIC, and we must come together as the WHO to come up with new and effective ways to limit the spread of Ebola. 

Morocco would like to see three major things discussed in committee. The first is an updated education plan that could include how the disease is transferred, what to do when a loved one is infected, what a person could do to prevent Ebola, and what someone could do to help others. Morocco would also like to see more funding for both the rVSV-ZEBOV-GP or Merck vaccine and the Johnson and Johnson vaccine that are both being developed and tested right now. If funding is increased than that could mean that the vaccine can be green lit and distributed world-wide. The third thing that morocco would like to see is a plan that would help an infected countries as soon as people start getting sick. This would only be for countries who wanted it but it would make sure that diseases were taken care of quickly and efficiently.

  • Morocco
  • Emily Preston

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Ebola

School: Williamston High School

 

Since 1976, the global community has struggled with diagnosing, containing, and treating ebola virus. Originating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, it has plagued Central and Western Africa for years. Because the virus is easily transmitted, cases have spread from the original source to Europe and even the Americas. These outbreaks have only been made worse by cultural misunderstandings between doctors, patients, and their families. Because Ebola spreads through contact with bodily fluids, many African burial rituals which involve everyone touching the body facilitate the transmission of the virus. In consequence, many people in this region also have a mistrust of doctors which makes diagnosing the illness much more difficult. While the United Nations has attempted to reduce the casualties of ebola, including an emergency medical mission in 2014 during the worst outbreak in West Africa, treatments for the virus are limited and usually include simply treating symptoms as they arise. However, there is progress being made by the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s National Institute for Biomedical Research who in 2018 moved into phase two of their trial of a new ebola treatment.

While there have been no recorded cases of ebola in Afghanistan, the nation has been listed as being susceptible to an outbreak of the disease because of the non-existent health care system. In Afghanistan, the amount spent per person, per year on health care is about 10.71 dollars, which pales in comparison to the average 4,000 dollars spent in the United States. Additionally, in the early 2000s, Afghanistan had an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with conditions similar to ebola. The nation, cooperated with WHO as well as various non-governmental organizations to successfully contain the 25 cases that had already occurred. While Ebola has not had any huge impact on the nation, Afghanistan also recognizes that it has had devastating effects on its neighbors and that the time has come to wholeheartedly address the issue. 

 

Afghanistan believes that the keys to addressing the issue of ebola are, education, research, and infrastructure. First, in order to better contain epidemics, it is crucial for people in the most affected areas to understand how ebola spreads, and how they can stop it. To do, Afghanistan suggests using NGOs and international culture experts to hold health seminars at schools and places of work about the symptoms of ebola and how to protect oneself from it. While education is incredibly important, Afghanistan also recognizes the importance of respect for cultural practices which is why working with people who are experts on the culture will allow for the best transmission of information. Second, Afghanistan highly encourages funding from NGOs and willing countries to be put towards research into treatments, vaccines, and cures for ebola. Specifically, the nation of Afghanistan would like to explore the idea of mutating bacteriophages for the purpose of mutating the ebola virus into being dormant or self-destructive. Lastly, Afghanistan is alarmed by the lack of healthcare and health infrastructure in some countries, putting them at a much higher risk for epidemics of all kinds. While Afghanistan knows this is a tall order, the nation calls for the development of a basic health care system in countries such as Haiti, Somalia, Yemen, Niger, and Chad. This program would include biannual doctors checkups for adults, and yearly checkups for youth under 5 years; sponsored medical and nursing education programs; repurposing current structures into emergency rooms; and lastly, converting some of these structures into ebola specific treatment centers. These basic healthcare programs along with regular disease screening and education of proper quarantine methods at national borders, will help stop epidemics of ebola before they have started. Afghanistan looks forward to working with fellow Middle Eastern countries as well as those countries with struggling healthcare systems such as Chad and Niger.

 

  • Afghanistan
  • Emma Ellefson-Frank

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Committee: World Health Organization 

Topic: Ebola 

Country: Mexico

Mexico is deeply concerned by the 28,616 cases of Ebola worldwide and the severity of the disease’s infectious spread. Originally appearing in the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Sudan, Ebola is first transmitted to people from wild animals and then through human-to-human transmission. As a result of lack of communication and education, Ebola has even spread between many counties, most frequently seen in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. With the lack of stable security and mobilization to seek help, the spread within countries is dangerously common. Along with vomiting and diarrhea, Ebola produces extreme inflammation, which causes blood clots proteins to malfunction. This leads to severe internal bleeding and blood leaks from small vessels in the body. Apprehensive for citizens’ health, Mexico’s General Law on Heath states that communicable diseases, such as viral hepatitis and AIDS, as well as diseases characterized as fatal threats, including Ebola, are subject to prevention and control measures executed by the Department of Health (DOH) and state governments in their respective administration. Proving well in Mexico, this law is supported by other federal governments and private health institutions, as well as individuals. Setting such a precedent through federal administration not only puts in place a plan for action in case of an outbreak but also gives citizens comfort for their wellbeing and health. Even if countries are not affected by the Ebola epidemic, Mexico encourages all nations to put in place a general law on infectious diseases to help create awareness and a plan of action. To decrease the spread of Ebola, Mexico goes to great measures on border controls, excessively checking individuals for Ebola and other health concerns. 

In response to the severity of the second-largest Ebola outbreak in history in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mexico encourages the administration of the Ebola vaccine, known as Ervebo, to minimize the spread. As of November 12th, 2019, the World Health Organization prequalified the vaccine, meaning it meets the standards for safety, quality, and efficiency. United Nations agencies are planning to produce the vaccine for countries recommended by WHO. This decision was critical, as it opens up a future for greater availability, with licensing doses available in 2020. Aware of this groundbreaking discovery, the delegation of Mexico calls upon non-governmental organizations (NGOs), such as the International Medical Corps and Doctors Without Borders—which both already work in Ebola-affected countries, providing proper care and isolation for patients—to cooperate with WHO to make Ervebo available to vulnerable people. Funding from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and/or the World Bank can be applied to countries that don’t have budgets set aside for treatment and prevention.

Alarmed by the recent Ebola outbreaks, Mexico suggests further education and safety regarding Ebola with the installation of general laws and travel bans instituted in countries, to help minimize the spread. Mexico also provides support for the partnership of NGOs, as we move towards the accessibility of the Ervebo vaccine and the expansion of prevention centers. Mexico looks forward to working to make Ebola a disease of the past by collaborating with distinguished and reputable countries to help provide prevention and treatment plans for at-risk and suffering individuals.

 

  • Mexico
  • Lily Somers

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11/13/19

SUBMITTED TO: WHO

FROM: Madagascar

Subject: Ebola

 

As of 2018, Ebola had already killed over 11,000 people, and in the most recent outbreak (over summer 2019 in Democratic Republic of Congo), an additional 1,500 deaths were recorded. There have been more than 20 major outbreaks of the Ebola virus in Africa, dating back to 1976. Outbreaks are largely centralized in Western Africa, so no cases of Ebola have been recorded in Madagascar, and the countries most affected by these outbreaks do not have strong political ties to Madagascar. However, Madagascar does have experience with disease prevention and control, as we had a major outbreak of pneumonic and bubonic plague in 2017. Although we are not at the forefront of the Ebola crisis and our closest ties are not affected, we certainly do not wish to see members of our continent struggling with this disease and are willing to assist in any way we can.

In 2017, as mentioned above, Madagascar was hit with an outbreak of Plague. We were assisted heavily by the WHO in this, which we believe made a big difference throughout the crisis. We have since contained and managed the issue, and have mostly moved on. We largely used approaches such as isolation and investigation, but we realize in some areas affected by Ebola these may not work very well. These measures are still necessary, but can be scaled back slightly so as not to be so disruptive to local lives. Madagascar used epidemiological surveillance to monitor the issue, which can be done in a non-intrusive way. Some of Madagascar’s most important steps to limit Plague, however, were its public awareness efforts. With these, people will be made more aware of the dangers of Ebola, as well as ways to get help regarding it. The Ministry of Public Health in Madagascar established crisis units in some of the large cities, and treatment and antibiotics were offered for no cost. 

We believe non-intrusive but effective measures are key here. There are many ways to assist the citizens of the affected countries without losing trust from them. Involving local leaders and simply making people aware of the problem and what they can do about it will help a lot. The Minister of Health in Guinea cited “the permanent field presence of more than 70 WHO staff and the rapid deployment by WHO of two mobile laboratories” (WHO official website, 2015) as one of the main reasons for the very successful containment campaign in the nation. These measures should be expanded, seeing as they worked well already. Additionally, however, the efforts to incorporate the WHO’s aid better into the local communities are very new, but seem to be working in the DRC so far. According to their official website, the WHO’s fourth Strategic Response Plan (SRP-4) lays out plans to “[strengthen] community engagement; [strengthen]…effective coordination of the activities of local and international partners; [creating] an enabling environment for the response”. We believe that this community connection is a step in the right direction and needs to be scaled up even further in future efforts. 

 

Madagascar has sincere hope that the committee and the communities affected can and will find a promising and effective solution to this very pressing issue. We hope to be able to make strides in assisting these countries in committee, and specifically hope that community awareness, outreach, and assistance are among the solutions provided.

  • Madagascar
  • Gavin Warner

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Since the Ebola virus disease outbreak in our neighboring country of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) on August 1st, 2018, Rwanda has taken action in preventing an outbreak within its borders. Rwanda has not had a recorded case of Ebola throughout its history. Ebola has affected many nations throughout Africa and has reached other lands outside of the continent, killing around 12,000 people in Africa alone. With no known cure for the disease, millions of people throughout Africa feel hopeless because of their lack of knowing when and where the next outbreak is going to occur. The World Health Organization strategizes with four important points in combating the spread of Ebola: preparedness, alert, control, and evaluation. Our committee should be guided by these points to ensure rapid isolation of Ebola, active communication throughout the world, and safety of those affected or prone to being affected.

Rwanda has implemented a National Preparedness Plan that is aimed to prevent the virus from entering the borders, detect any possible outbreaks, educate the population on the topic of Ebola, and train and protect health workers regarding Ebola. Before entering the country temperatures are taken, hygiene measures like washing hands are strongly suggested, and messages are played to inform travelers and residents about Ebola. These efforts have shown the importance of preventing Ebola in Rwanda and the success of preparing for any possible outbreaks. Rwanda also has an Ebola Treatment Centre and 23 isolation units in the rare case than an outbreak will occur of the disease is brought into the country.

Along with having many precautions and information on Ebola within our own nation, Rwanda has also taken action by participating in social science research. The World Health Organization explains the research as, “better understanding the culture, practices and social experience of the communities affected by Ebola. Studies have addressed many concerns, from how to better include local leaders, to the role of cultural and environmental factors in improving the Ebola response and resilience”. Countries that are also involved in this research include DRC, Uganda, Burundi, and South Sudan. This research should continue and expand to quickly inform the world of communities affected by Ebola. This research has helped better communicate the tracking of Ebola to the world and is still being conducted. We have also recently been joined by the Ambassador of Japan in promoting the engagement of the community in preventing Ebola and improving communication to lower the risk of Ebola spreading. Although this is an early development, steps like these with nations across the world and African nations will greatly improve responsiveness to outbreaks.

In committee, Rwanda hopes to increase efforts of other nations that have either been tainted by this deadly disease or are prone to the disease being spread to them and serve as a model for nations that are taking action or plan on taking action to prevent Ebola. Our current steps in reviving the hope of our people can only do so much. We need to help every nation in Africa that has had an outbreak or borders a country that has had an outbreak that can not fund the entirety of their programs for preparing and minimizing outbreaks, including Rwanda. The WHO has seen valiant efforts from countries including China, the United States of America, Norway, Switzerland, Ireland, and many more gracious nations to fund a response plan for when an outbreak occurs. Rwanda hopes that every country that is able will be willing to work together and provide education, resources, and donations to countries in need; we need to be prepared for outbreaks, alert when an outbreak does occur, controlling during outbreaks, and be able to evaluate measures taken during outbreaks so they can be improved for the future.

  • Rwanda
  • Athena Barrer

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Commonly known as Ebola or Ebola Virus Disease ( EVD ) is a quick-killing virus, targeted on destroying the immune and the cardio-vascular system of a person. The disease causes flu-like symptoms including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and possible blood hemorrhaging. Ebola can spread by direct contact with bodily fluids or infected surfaces. However, it is not an airborne disease.  The mortality rate of EVD ranges 25% to 90%. To reduce the risk of death, patients are treated with re-hydration and managing specific symptoms. This approach to EVD only lowers the mortality rate to about 50%. The main goals of containing Ebola is to identify and to quarantine. This disease completely disrupts social barriers and social order. Normal healthcare practices are distracted because Ebola is not an everyday disease. Ebola is a quick killing, and social distrupting epidemic outbreak.

 

Denmark has greatly helped fight the battle of Ebola, both financially and with supplies. $19.5 Million USD has been donated to strengthen Denmark’s fight. Health care personnel have also been deployed in a base camp in Sierra Leone. In total Denmark has funded $32.3 Million USD to eradicating EVD. $5.1 Million USD has been donated to both the UN Ebola Multi Partner Trust Fund and the World Bank Ebola Recovery Multi-Donor Trust Fund. The WHO’s efforts against Ebola in Mali have received $816,000. Another $1.7 Million from the Ministry of Defense to deploy a roll on/roll off ship for transporting relief supplies to Western Africa. Other than money, Denmark is sending a team of 25 trained health care experts into Western Africa under the management of the UN/UK/USA.

 

Denmark would like to propose a solution to the crippling crisis in Western Africa, all nations who are financially stable donate at least $1.5 Million USD to the World Bank Ebola Recovery Multi-Donor Trust Fund. This donation is 100% voluntary, not to interfere with the national sovereignty of each nation. Nations that also have trained health care personnel should send them directly into Western Africa. The major exporting countries are requested upon by Denmark to send relief supplies to Sierra Leone, Ghani, Mali, and other Western African countries. Denmark believes that the countries directly affected by Ebola shouldn’t have to deal with the problem themselves. Allies that Denmark expects to find include nations who have either sent financial aid and medical personnel like the United States, United Kingdom, Nordic Countries, and Canada.

  • Denmark
  • Benjamin Gutting

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Country:Brazil
Committee:WHO
Topic:Ebola
Delegate:Harrison Powell
School: Williamston High School

 

Ebola

 

Ebola is a terrible disease that was first identified in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1976. Ebola has a 90% death rate. The last major outbreak of ebola was from March 2014 to June 2016 resulting in a death toll of 11,000. As new vaccinations to prevent/treat ebola are made people of mainly West Africa are still suffering greatly. The last case of Ebola was in Uganda, where a young boy, his brother and grandma have unfortunately passed (June 2019). As international and local governments have stepped up spending and have sent more health officials over to DRC and other areas in West Africa locals have remained suspicious. Locals remain suspicious because they believe there has been zero support in their countries to help reduce violence from gangs, terrorist groups and military governments, and there has only been support to fight ebola. Health workers have also been struggling with the fight against Ebola due to violence, no local government support and constant exposure to the disease. The eradication of ebola matters to the United Nations because constant death of a large body of people who are already suffering greatly to other social problems is worthless. 

 

One UN treaty that directly confronts Ebola is the Ebola Contingency Plan. This plan directly goes over plan to combat the tenth ebola outbreak in history. This tenth outbreak was confirmed in August 2018 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Plans of attack include the spreading of information and awareness of the disease. Establishment of more functional Ebola Treatment Centres (ECT’s).  Brazil has not signed any legislation directly affecting ebola, but a Brazilian general is leading efforts to protect medical workers in infected areas from armed terrorist groups. The only known case of ebola in Brazil was when a man from Guinea traveled to Brazil in 2014, he was immediately put into treatment and all people who may have had contact with him were put on risk. Currently at this time there is a small epidemic of people infected with Ebola in the DRC’s Beni and Butembo areas.

 

As of now the country of Brazil plans to keep supporting the fight against Ebola with UN treaties such as the Ebola Contingency Plan. Brazil also plans on supplying troops to DRC to help other international soldiers to protect medical doctors in the fight against Ebola. The country of Brazil does believe it is ok to intervene on individual countries for the sake of saving people from a horrible death. I believe all nations will agree with the country of Brazil and will work together in stopping ebola.

 

  • Brazil
  • Harrison Powell

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Country: Fiji

Committee: WHO

Topic: Ebola

Name: Kyle Ritenour

School: Williamston High School

 

Ebola is a deadly multi-string virus that affects various people in different countries today. The disease mainly affects countries in Africa (and in some instances Europe). The Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Gabon, and several other West African countries are the main stems of this disease from Africa. The fatality rate in these countries is about 50 percent in most cases. Ebola is spread in various ways including contact of bodily fluids, and infected surfaces. It will not spread until symptoms of the infected are experienced. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney symptoms and liver function, and in some cases internal and external bleeding. The symptoms can take from 2 to 21 days to appear. At the moment there is no known cure for Ebola just vaccines. However, the implementation of some minor solutions can assist in recovery and decrease fatality. These solutions include re-hydration, oxygen therapy, and other tactics. So far WHO (World Health Organization) has seen one possible vaccination be created that has been highly useful in the protection against EVD. It was developed in Guinea during a trial in 2015. This vaccination has been and is currently being used via the ring method (giving the vaccine to people most likely to be infected with a certain disease) in the DRC, which is a high infection country. WHO and other health organizations around the world have also found certain diagnostics tests useful in telling whether symptoms are caused by Ebola or other diseases like malaria.

Fiji has had no outbreaks or confirmed cases of Ebola within its borders. Therefore, It has not had to combat or be concerned with the issue at hand. There is also significant evidence that the spread of Ebola to the Pacific is extremely low according to the Fiji Ministry of health. This is because since the virus is only spread from direct contact of human bodily fluids and not animals. The main traffic Fiji receives are from tourists, unlikely to be from countries in Africa where the poverty rate is upwards of around 33 to 90 percent. Fiji has had a past of being pro disease eradicating as it was part of a WHO run strategy called the MCCS (or Multi-Country Cooperation Strategy for the Pacific 2013–2017). The goal of this strategy was to reduce child morbidity and mortality, sexual transmitted disease mortality and morbidity, premature deaths and disabilities caused by noncommunicable diseases, mortality due to epidemics, and provide universal health services and sustainable healthcare. As Fiji is a huge advocate for universal healthcare and the elimination of potentially dangerous diseases, they will support concrete ideas to combat Ebola.

 

To solve the Ebola issues there are a few possible solutions to implement. Countries’ governments can work together to make it possible for poorer countries to receive vaccinations discovered in Guinea. With pooled resources the body can provide the vaccine and create it for many African countries (where Ebola stems from) as it is the best treatment we have had so far without side effects. WHO can continue to work on spreading awareness of high-risk countries. This will help prevent and decrease transmission from African countries to non-risk countries like European countries. In conclusion, governments around the world should work on identifying and zoning off high risk/infection areas and containing the disease to that area. From there the people of that area can receive the vaccination.

 

  • Fiji
  • Kyle Ritenour

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Committee: World Health Organization
Topic: Ebola
Country: Poland

 

Ebola is one of the most easily recognizable diseases in the modern age. It is known as a quick and brutal killer, tearing families and communities apart in a matter of weeks and months. The disease is most prevalent in West African nations such as Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. On March 23, 2014 the W.H.O. officially declared an outbreak of the disease in Guinea. There were 49 confirmed cases, 29 of which resulted in death. By the 8th of August it had spread to the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. The W.H.O. declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. It’s spread was caused by a lack of communication between nations and a lack of infrastructure to fight the disease. Lack of education is also partially attributed to it’s spread as simple precautions such as isolating the diseased from the healthy and avoiding meat from virus carrying animals were not taken. By the time the outbreak was contained and successfully fought off in 2016 over 28,600 cases had been reported, 11,325 of which resulted in death. Just recently, Ebola has ascended to the global stage again. There have been over 3,000 confirmed cases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and 2 in Uganda. The disease also has a large potential to spread to neighboring Rwanda although no cases have been reported there yet. Very recently the W.H.O. declared this outbreak a PHEIC showing UN concern about the epidemic. Although Poland has never had a confirmed case of the virus it is still concerned about its spread. The Polish government has donated nearly 150,000$ USD to the fight against Ebola, something it would like to see other nations contribute funds to. It is the belief of Poland that through competent funding, research, education, and the use of beneficial NGOs that the Ebola virus can be successfully contained and eliminated. 

Like previously stated, Poland has donated funds to the W.H.O. to fight the spread of Ebola. Poland supports the adoption of S/RES/2177(2014), a resolution created by the UNSC addressing the West African Ebola outbreak in 2014-2016. The resolution encouraged the governments of nations affected and those in danger of being affected by the Ebola virus to take extra precautions against the virus as well as encouraged nations unaffected by the virus to take into considerations the possible effects of trade and travel bans on affected nations. It also encouraged relevant UN bodies to take action against the virus. Although not directly affecting Poland, Poland believes it is an effective resolution to combat the virus and a similar resolution should be considered. Poland also believes another UNMEER (United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response) like health mission could contribute greatly to the containment and elimination of the Ebola virus.
In conclusion Poland suggests the funding of research into the topic, funding of education in affected regions, and enlisting the help of NGOs such as the Red Cross and Doctors Without Borders. Poland also suggests a W.H.O. overseen health mission similar to UNMEER in 2014-2015. Poland looks forward to working with like-minded nations to successfully combat the spread of the Ebola virus and help those affected by it. Poland believes the actions taken by nations such as Japan, Germany, The USA, Mexico, Kuwait, Norway, the UK, the ROK, Canada, Brazil, China, and many others to fund the W.H.O.’s response to the Ebola virus to be very generous and crucial to the fight against it. Poland sees this topic as a great opportunity to cooperate to fight a common evil and hopes that there should be no trouble in doing so.

  • Poland
  • Tyler Ragan

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Even now the prevalence of Ebola and child is still quite high within the world. The UN adopted a resolution demanding that all armed rebel groups in outbreak zones respect international laws. Ebola has taken a dramatic toll on Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, killing thousands, affecting livelihoods, disrupting public services, putting education on hold and threatening the development progress achieved in recent years. Ebola is still a health emergency in DR Congo according to the United Nations.

Sweden is a very influential country within the bounds of this subject and others similar. Sweden was the leading country in flexibility of donations in 2016-2017 with 33.98 million in US dollars, Sweden is the 18th richest country in the world. Sweden has also created quite a few global health institutions in cooperation with the World Health Organization. Such as Swedish Institute for Global Health Transformation, The Karolinska institute, and the Lund University. 

 

One step we can take to combat this issue is separate infected areas with non-infected to contain the disease. Then we can keep up cure research funded by NGOs and participating countries. We can then distribute the cure evenly to infected areas.

  • Sweden
  • Bryce Emmons

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