Delegate Name: KenZie Low
World Health Organization
The Republic of Indonesia
Forest Hills Eastern
Antibiotics are widely known to treat common illnesses such as e.coli infections and strep throat. The first created antibiotic penicillin led to scientists appropriating the use of these cures. However, medical professionals and farmers sometimes do not use these treatments prudently, therefore causing microbes or bacteria to become resistant to these drugs. The resistance may lead to the future ineffectiveness of antibiotics. This resistance is known as the ‘Silent Pandemic’. According to a global study, 4.9 million died in 204 countries in 2019 due to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance will be detrimental to human health as the medical community will be unable to treat many illnesses. The UN recognizes this situation and the WHO committee introduced GLASS (the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System) to monitor the use of antimicrobials. Specifically, Indonesia is largely affected by the ‘Silent Pandemic’. The country is among the five countries with the highest projected increase in antimicrobial consumption by 2030.
Due to the crisis of antimicrobial resistance in Indonesia, the government has taken action into reducing the misuse of antimicrobials. In 2016, Indonesia created its national action plan to respond to the issue in line with the Global Action Plan on AMR (GAP-AMR) endorsed by WHO in 2015. The plan engages many organizations to collaborate such as FAO, OIE, and Environment Programme to reduce the misuse of antibiotics collectively. The Indonesian Ministry of Health in collaboration with WHO of Southeast Asia developed a situation analysis tool to analyze and inform implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of progress in the eight pillars of action in GAP-AMR. Also, Indonesia enrolled in GLASS in 2017. The country received WHO training and established twenty surveillance sites for antibiotic resistance. They also promoted the rational use of antimicrobials in the country. During World Antibiotic Awareness Week on November 2020, Indonesia collaborated with multiple UN ministries on an awareness campaign that discussed the concerns with AMR use. More than 800 participants attended. Additionally, Indonesia developed a One-Health engagement in their national plan, meaning that all aspects of health (human, animal, plant, and environmental) should work together to reduce antibiotic resistance. Within the plan, the Ministry of Agriculture passed Regulation NO 14/2017 stating to prohibit the use of antibiotics as livestock growth promoters. Indonesia also passed Regulation No 09160/PK.350/F/12/2019 prohibiting the use of the antibiotic colistin in animals, as this antibiotic is critical for human medicine. Indonesia is not readily available to support international means of reducing antimicrobial resistance as this is a major crisis within Indonesia itself.
Indonesia supports the cause of reducing antibiotic resistance. Mukta Sharma, technical official of WHO Indonesia asks to act now in preventing the ‘Silent Pandemic’ from escalating as Indonesia wishes to protect the next generation. The Indonesian Deputy of Minster of Health Dante Saksono Harbuwono urges to decrease the use of antibiotics in plants and animals. He states “AMR necessitates extensive involvement from various stakeholders.” Indonesia believes to mellow this threat, it involves the collaboration of multiple sectors. This proposal is related to Indonesia’s proposal for a One Health, or holistic, approach to reduce antibiotic resistance. The country notes that imprudently using antimicrobials on livestock will spread resistant bacteria to humans and damage livelihoods and food security. Specifically, irresponsibly using antimicrobials on produce and livestock will lead to humans suffering from the consumption of these animals and plants. Indonesia, apparent with the AMR crisis of its own, supports any form of AMR containment activities and continues to fight the battle against antibiotic resistance.