September 16, 2019
 In 2021-Situation in Tigray

Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Natalie Mouw

The armed conflict in Tigray, Ethiopia is on the brink of complete civil war and is a humanitarian crisis. As of 2021, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (“EPRDF”) is the political party in power in Ethiopia. The Tigray conflict originated out of power disputes between the current Ethiopian government and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF). Fearing an immediate invasion, the TPLF launched a preemptive attack against Ethiopian military bases within the Tigray region. Escalating the situation, the Ethiopian government engaged in a violent military campaign to suppress the Tigrayan revolt. The government soldiers, or Ethiopian National Defense Forces (ENDF), have committed egregious crimes against innocent Tigrayan civilians. On top of this, the Ethiopian government has bombed civilian centers and destroyed medical centers. The Ethiopian government has stopped food trucks and other humanitarian aid from entering the starving regions in Tigray. Nevertheless, war crimes have not been one-sided. The TPLF has responded to the government’s military campaign with unexpected force, which itself has included the killings of innocent civilians. Ethiopia is surrounded by countries whose governments are unstable, so if a solution to this impending civil war is not reached, all of the horn of Africa could fall into chaos.

Aware of the threats of regional civil warfare, Mexico recognizes the need for an immediate response to the situation in Tigray. Mexico fears that any further escalation could lead to the spread of violent warfare to surrounding African countries whose governments are often nearing instability themselves. Mexico has dealt with regional uprises in the past. In 1994, the Zapatista indigenous peoples in Mexico’s Chiapas region revolted against the Mexican government. The government’s decisive action successfully and swiftly deescalated the situation. From this historical experience, Mexico is aware of the consequences that will arise if the Tigray conflict is not deescalated in a similar manner. As of 2014, Mexico has participated in UN Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). Mexico was hesitant to join the PKO due to its policy of limited foreign interventions. However, Mexico’s joining of PKO demonstrates its commitment to restoration and maintenance of peace. Mexico recognizes that both parties are at fault in the Ethiopian unrest, and Mexico would be opposed to taking one side. Peacekeeping Operations are a vital tool of the UN Security Council, but they should only be used as a last result. Mexico does not have the resources to intervene in Ethiopia’s internal conflict, but Mexico encourages countries with enough resources to send aid to the people of Tigray.

Mexico proposes that the Security Council’s principal focus should be to provide humanitarian aid to the suffering Tigrayan civilians. To deescalate the fighting, Mexico calls for an immediate ceasefire and for a diplomatic agreement between the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front and the Ethiopian Government. It cannot go unnoticed that this conflict is rooted in a political power dispute. Mexico proposes Ethiopia evaluates constitutional reforms to ensure fair representation for all ethnic groups and protection of minority rights.