Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Jesse Yang
Since the year 2004, the Central African Republic has been in a perpetual state of war. The 2004-2007 Bush War concluded with a peace agreement between rebel groups and former President François Bozizé. This glimmer of hope was shattered by 2012, when the Central African Republic Civil War began. A unified rebel group known as the Séléka began taking control of the country, due to breaches of the 2007 peace treaty by Bozizé. The Séléka forces quickly swept through the CAR, capturing the capital city of Bangui and forcing Bozizé to flee to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A transitional regime was established, but quickly lost power as the Séléka disbanded. The provisional government was then put under attack by anti-Balaka militia, a Christian group who attacked Bangui, trying to overthrow the Muslim president and ex-Séléka militia. This attack sparked years worth of conflict between ex-Séléka, anti-Balaka, and other militia groups. Despite actions taken by the UN, such as establishing the peacekeeping operation MINUSCA, or Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the CAR, and tens of thousands of soldiers being sent to the Central African Republic from the EU, AU, and UN, the Central African Republic has remained an extremely dangerous country, with the central government having little control outside the capital city of Bangui, and rebel fiefdoms vying for land. Faustin-Archange Touadéra was elected president in 2016, and his rule has seen increasing Russian support of the central government, whose mercenaries have helped the government gain back control of much of the country from rebel rule. However, this takeback has involved many civilian injuries and casualties, and Touadéra has been using this opportunity to crack down on opponents and consolidate power. Rebels have been moving into more rural areas and conducting guerilla warfare, putting more strain on civilian communities. As it stands in the present, the CAR is one of the most dangerous countries in the world, and immediate action is required from the Special Political Committee to stop the conflict and create a stable regime in the Central African Republic.
The United States of America has been the largest humanitarian donor to the CAR over the last five years, giving hundreds of millions of dollars to support long-term peace and stability in the country. It has also provided assistance to strengthen UN aid in the CAR, through the peacekeeping operation MINUSCA. However, the USA has remained politically neutral, with its embassy in Bangui supporting the “democratic process” rather than “any specific party”, regarding the previous presidential election of 2020. Unfortunately, the current rule of President Touadéra has seen the use of Russian mercenaries to drive out the rebel forces, which has also led to the murder of civilians, control of the diamond industry, and enmeshment in the CAR’s government.
The United States of America urges a ceasefire to be called between the rebel groups and the central government in order to end the prolonged suffering undergone by soldiers and civilians alike. While domestic infighting between religious and cultural groups stands as a barrier to peace in the CAR, the USA will increase funding to MINUSCA, and urges other countries to follow suit; This will lead to an increase in their presence, so MINUSCA may prevent any further skirmishes. The USA also advocates for the removal of Russian influence in the CAR government, eliminating the corruption and mercenaries that have been pervading the country. MINUSCA will oversee the ceasefire and establish a neutral provisional regime, for the purpose of allowing truly democratic elections to be held once again. The organization will also help distribute necessities to the civilians of the Central African Republic, many of whom have lacked access to running water, stable sources of food, and times of peace.