Delegate Name: Adam Harake
Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Delegate Name: Adam Harake
Ecuador expresses deep concern over the unfolding crisis in Sudan, particularly stemming from
the military coup in 2019 that disrupted the power-sharing government established after the
overthrow of the Omar al-Bashir regime. This coup, which saw significant changes in the
leadership of the Sovereign Council, has triggered a conflict between the Sudanese army and
the Rapid Support Forces (RSF).
The RSF, originally formed from the Janjaweed, played a role in suppressing armed rebellion in
Darfur during the 2000s under the Bashir government. The actions in Darfur led to charges of
genocide against al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court. The recent coup and accelerated
plans to dissolve the RSF have resulted in internal conflicts, with General Abdel-Fattah Burhan
and Deputy Chairman Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo now at the forefront of the leadership.
This internal strife erupted on April 15, leading to widespread fighting that has not only engulfed
the capital, Khartoum, but also spread to other regions, particularly Kordofan and Darfur. The
conflict has forced millions to flee their homes, resulting in significant internal displacement and
creating a complex humanitarian crisis. The city of Port Sudan, situated northeast of Khartoum,
has become a refuge for those fleeing the violence, although it is not untouched, experiencing
rolling blackouts and strained resources.
The impact of the conflict extends beyond Sudan’s borders, with over a million refugees fleeing
to neighboring states, including South Sudan. The situation is particularly dire for refugees who
had initially sought safety in Sudan, making the crisis a secondary conflict for some, such as the
93,000 Syrian refugees currently residing in Sudan.
The United Nations Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) has been actively
involved in attempting to initiate peace talks and ceasefires since April. However, ceasefires
have been short-lived, and the situation remains volatile. The International Criminal Court has
initiated investigations into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by both
sides, acknowledging the severity of the crisis.
Ecuador recognizes the critical role of UNITAMS in the efforts to bring the conflicting parties to
the negotiating table. However, challenges persist, leading to the relocation of mission staff to
Port Sudan. The city, already strained, faces additional challenges due to an influx of refugees,
with over 100,000 people seeking refuge in a city of 500,000.
In light of the complex situation, Ecuador proposes that the United Nations Security Council
takes immediate and effective measures. These include prioritizing containment of the conflict
within the current affected regions, advocating for neutral international mediation efforts, and
developing a strategic plan for the secure and equitable distribution of humanitarian aid.
Furthermore, Ecuador emphasizes the need for international investigations into alleged war
crimes, crimes against humanity, and regional collaboration to manage the impact of the crisis
on neighboring states. The overarching goal is to find diplomatic and impartial solutions that
respect Sudan’s sovereignty and prioritize the well-being of its people. The international
community, led by the United Nations, must collectively work to prevent further escalation of the
humanitarian crisis in Sudan.