September 16, 2019
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Infant and Child Nutrition

ECOSOC: World Health Organization (WHO)

Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

Adequate consumption of nutrients in the first stages of life is imperative to ensure both a child’s survival and their physical and mental development. The Convention on the Rights of the Child establishes that every infant and child has the right to nutritious food. Still, over 1.5 million children suffer from stunting, defined as low height relative to age, or wasting, which is low weight relative to height, and about half a million children are overweight. Malnutrition and stunted growth are key contributors to infant and child mortality; not simply due to starvation, but because inadequate nutrition leaves children more susceptible to infection and disease. For those who survive, malnutrition and stunting impair cognitive abilities including language acquisition, and can contribute to the development of chronic diseases later in life. On average, individuals who had good nutrition during childhood go on to achieve better educational outcomes and have greater incomes in adulthood; therefore, improving infant and child nutrition is an important component of poverty reduction.

Malnutrition has two parts: undernutrition results from not consuming enough calories, while micronutrient deficiency is a lack of the necessary vitamins and minerals. It is possible to be both micronutrient deficient and also overweight, especially if one is consuming foods that lack vitamins and minerals. For infants, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first six months of life, and then babies ought to be fed with a mix of breastmilk and solid foods until about age two. Breast milk has significantly more nutritional and immunological value than formulas or substitutes. In 1981, the WHO adopted the International Code of Marketing Breastmilk Substitutes, which recommends that breastmilk substitutes should be available, but not promoted. People who were breastfed as babies are less likely to become overweight or obese later in life. Not all parents have adequate support and education surrounding breastfeeding, especially given that some societies stigmatize breastfeeding. Mothers who work outside their homes can face additional challenges; women who are employed full-time were more than twice as likely not to meet their breastfeeding intentions.

For children, a diet of diverse and nutritious food is necessary to prevent micronutrient deficiencies. School health and nutrition programs can both feed children and help them establish healthy habits. Some governments require nutrition labeling on packaged foods, and food fortification, by which extra vitamins or minerals are added to food, is an option. Still, the price of food can be prohibitive, and in many areas food of low nutritional quality is cheaper and more readily available than food that is rich in vitamins and minerals. About one billion people do not have electricity in their homes, and consequently have fewer options for food preservation and preparation. Local agriculture and food supply chains may lack the infrastructure or economic incentives to provide for the food needs of the surrounding population. Food systems ought to be both environmentally sustainable and resilient enough feed a population through drought or other extenuating circumstances. It falls to the WHO to determine the most effective, equitable, and sustainable methods to improve infant and child nutrition.

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World Health Organization

Child and Infant Nutrition

Canada

Kierra Polizzi- FH Northern High School

 

According to WHO and UNICEF, children should start breastfeeding in as little time as 1 hour after birth and should be exclusively breastfed for 6 months. Disappointingly, only about 40% of infants 0-6 months old are exclusively breastfed. This could lead to the 155 million children under 5 who are stunted and the 52 million who are wasted (according to a study done by WHO in 2016). Overall, 26.4% of people worldwide deal with food insecurity. Meaning not having access to reliable, affordable, and nutritious food. In many countries, less than a fourth of infants meet the criteria of dietary diversity and feeding frequency. Undernutrition is associated with 45% of child deaths. 6-8% of children under the age of 5 are overweight or obese. Once more prevalent for the higher income population, now is becoming a problem for low and middle-class populations, due in part to the higher accessibility of prepackaged, non-produce items.

Canada is roughly even with the rest of the world in child nutrition overall; some things are higher than they should be, and some things are lower. For example: 10.8% of children ages 3-6 are obese in Canada, compared to 6-8 percent worldwide. Unfortunately, only 13.8% of infants in Canada are meeting the suggested time of exclusively breastfeeding. But, Canada does have a better percent of food insecurity at only 12.5% leaving 1.15 million children food insecure.

Canada is part of UNICEF and all that they do for children around the world. Including, working to prevent obesity, eliminating food insecurity, tackling micronutrient deficiencies, and educating and providing resources for breastfeeding. Canada and other donors helped fight malnutrition by providing vitamin A to 350 million children. 

 

Canada fully supports UNICEF and encourages all other countries to help support their fight for children all over the world and at home. Save money for education and resources for children’s nutrition in your own country. Send resources, money, and support to UNICEF and other countries in need of support to ensure the future of children.

 

  • : Canada
  • : Kierra Polizzi

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Commitee:  World Health Organization

Topic:  Infant and Child Nutrition

 

Malnutrition is a large global problem mainly due to people not receiving enough to eat or people eating the wrong things.  This can lead to overweight as well as underweight children who are likely to continue this trend throughout their life. The best way to stop this is through the elimination of malnutrition as a child.  In Belgium, it was recorded in 2017 that there were 227 deaths out of 100,000, or .25% of deaths were related to malnutrition. Although this may not seem like a lot, this does not include the diseases malnutrition might induce, for example, heart disease.  Heart disease is the leading cause of death in Belgium, and although heart disease is unlikely to happen to a child, malnutrition as a child could lead to heart disease later in life. People in Belgium are fairly wealthy compared to most of the United Nations and we should be able to improve nutrition through encouragement. Belgium already provides the right foods, the problem is getting people to eat them.  Recently Belgium released a food guide for healthy living created by the Flemish Institute of Healthy Living; it advises citizens to drink more water, eat more plant based food, reduce the consumption of dairy, meat, and products with high sugar, salt, and fat content.  Data from the Global Health Observatory shows Belgiam’s population as 59.5percent overweight and 22.1 percent obese. This food guide can help parents provide their kids with a healthy diet and create healthy habits for the future.  

On Belgium’s behalf, I can say that we of course hope to improve our nation’s health starting in the health of children.  We can begin doing this by informing people, encouraging people, and providing healthy food to people.

 

  • : Belgium
  • : Jackson Bowles

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

Country: Equatorial Guinea

 

Malnutrition can affect a body in various ways, they can be found as overweight, wasting, stunting, or underweight.  Malnutrition is a global issue that deeply affects Equatorial Guinea. Around the world, one third of the population suffers from malnutrition. Many third world countries in Africa suffer from lack of nutrition. 

.Many children die before the age of five due to malnutrition. Not only does malnutrition cause insufficiency of nutrients inside of one’s body, it makes the body, especially if young, vulnerable to diseases and viruses. A sufficient amount of deaths due to malnutrition were caused by diseases that the body was not able to fight off because there was not a healthy amount of nutrients inside of the body. For infants under six months of age, severe acute malnutrition is increasingly being recognized. 

 

As of 2000, Equatorial Guinea had 42.6% percent of their children stunting and 15.7% of their children underweight. Those numbers have since gone down to 26.2% stunting and 5.6% percent underweight in 2010. Along with the decrease of mortality before the age of five from 130.8 per 1,000 births in 2000 to 90.9 per 1,000 live births in 2016. The double burden that Equatorial Guinea faces is that there are both major rates of overweight individuals along with many underweight individuals. Equatorial Guinea happens to be wealthier than most in sub-saharan Africa, although it still faces child nutritional issues. 

 

At the 11th Africa Taskforce on Food and Nutrition for Development (ATFFND) was hosted by Equatorial Guinea. The topic discussed was “investing in nutritious food for Refugees and internally displaced persons in Africa must be a priority”. This was the result of the major problem involving lack of food security for Refugees, Returnees and internally displaced persons. Although Equatorial Guinea plans to end malnutrition by 2020, only 7% of infants are excessively breastfed. Even with those numbers, Equatorial Guinea plans to eliminate malnutrition along with related issues.

 

The delegation of Equatorial Guinea looks forward to working with others, knowing how important children are as they are the future of our world.

  • : Equatorial Guinea
  • : D'Yanie Hinton

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When addressing the topic of infant and child nutrition in Syria, rather that be prosperity or decay, it is foremostly important to highlight the drastic difference between access to proper nutrition in Syria pre and post/during the Syrian Civil War. The Syrian economy between the approximate years of 1970-2010 was reported to be “turbulent”, having rather rocky stability until the 90s, when the economy showed strong signs of growth up until the beginning of the civil war. Following this, it is necessary to draw the connection between economy, security of area, and the accessibility to not just food in general, but food with proper nutrition needed to be considered healthy. 

A 2017 survey of East Ghouta, which was sieged by anti-government forces for five years, showed that 11.9% of children under the age of five are reportedly malnourished. Malnourishment is very likely to lead to growth irregularities such as stunting, which increases a child’s risk to contract an illness and possibly die. Because of the unyielding unrest throughout the nation of Syria, the proper nutrition levels of Syrian children have been and are currently inhibited by not only factors such as general lack of resources, but war torn specific topics such as loss of shelter and refugee displacement, and orphanage to children. Another important condition regarding the children’s nutrition situation is the fact that recent statistics from the UN may simply not be recorded or have chances of inaccuracy because of the overall environment of the country, despite this it can be made very obvious to the rest of the globe that countless Syrian children have health defects because of the place they are growing up in.

 

Because the nation of Syria has been preoccupied for nearly the last decade in a life ruining war, the country has not had much ability to assist its people in feeding their children, instead employing armed forces to defend the territory in and outside of country borders. The Syrian Arab Republic proposes that because the nation is in the simultaneous process of recovering and defending the country, allied nations may feel encouraged to provide aid to our people. Reaching out to the nation can improve global reputation of one country based on their choice of action and regional beliefs, therefore having a large area of possibility for higher rankings and future benefits. Not only would helping the struggling nation make another country look good, it would also greatly and genuinely help improve the well being of Syrian children.

  • : Syria
  • : Luna Samman

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The future of a country is its children, and it is crucial that we take our part in providing

for them, despite the fact that many countries are unable to. The World Health Organization must

step up and take action in order to guarantee the health and growth of children around the world,

as these children are the future of the world. The effects of malnutrition stretch far and wide and

it is our duty to prevent.

Within Sri Lanka we have experienced this issue head on – more than one fifth of our

children face population. Approximately one in three children aged 3-59 months are severely

underweight. Compared to other nations of similar GDPs and standards of living, this is very

high. According to UNICEF, the causes of child undernutrition in Sri Lanka, a country that

suffers no significant food shortages and provides extensive, free maternal and child health

services, are not well understood. The root of the problem lies in a lack of knowledge

surrounding nutrition and cultural factors affecting the utilisation of healthcare.

Sri Lanka has implemented many policies to address specific nutrition problems in

children. Campaigns to promote breast-feeding of infants, including awareness creation of the

nutritional benefits of breast-feeding, distribution of feeding bottles and teats to maternity

hospitals and health care providers, and the provision of free and low cost supplies of infant

formula to hospitals and health care facilities. Second, there is a salt iodization program to

combat iodine deficiency disorders, including the prevalence of goiter and thyroid deficiencies.

Third, there is a program to fortify wheat flour with iron to combat problems of iron deficiency

anemia. A variant of this program is pilot testing the mixing of iron and vitamin supplements in

wheat flour.

Sri Lanka has implemented many policies to address specific nutrition problems in

children. Campaigns to promote breast-feeding of infants, including awareness creation of the

nutritional benefits of breast-feeding, distribution of feeding bottles and teats to maternity

hospitals and health care providers, and the provision of free and low cost supplies of infant

formula to hospitals and health care facilities.

 

In addition to these more specific problem Sri Lanka has put many other programs into

place to promote child growth and address child malnutrition. These programs commence at

conception and proceeds through fetal life, infancy and childhood. The interventions include

family planning to space and limit children, antenatal care to ensure fetal growth and well-being,

breast feeding, promoting appropriate weaning, growth monitoring, immunization programs,

prevention of infections such as water-borne diseases, worm infestation and respiratory illnesses,

use of oral rehydration solutions for children suffering from diarrhea, feeding during infections

and food supplementation. These policies and programs to reduce child malnutrition are

complemented by health and nutrition education. The Ministry of Health provides a range of

health and nutrition education services. In terms of maternal education, activities exist to

promote adequate food consumption and health care of pregnant and lactating mothers.

Exclusive breast feeding is encouraged and growth monitoring promoted for the first 4-6 months.

Nutrition education is carried out by health workers at the central, provincial and divisional

levels. The school curriculum also contains material on nutrition, including hygienic food

preparation, nutritious feeding habits, safe sanitary habits and consumption of clean drinking

water. In addition, universities offer courses in nutrition at undergraduate and postgraduate

degree levels.

No child should have to face malnutrition at any point in their lives. Access to healthy

food and safe water sources should be considered a basic human right – regardless of

socioeconomic status. In recent years, we are seeing a worrisome amount of malnutrition cases

occurring across the globes. Even first world countries are experiencing this with the citizens that

fall between the cracks and into poverty. Together, the World Health Organization must actively

combat hunger and malnutrition. Children should not be tasked with the burden of hunger. We

must be the first step towards creating a world in which children can focus on education, mental

health, and their own future.

  • : Sri Lanka
  • : Kumaran Nathan

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The need for proper nutrient intake and stable food supply is extremely crucial for all humans. Adequate nutrition,

specifically during infancy, is absolutely essential to ensure the growth, health, and development of children to their fullest

potential, both physically and mentally. Evidence from the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) shows that

adults who were malnourished in early childhood have impaired intellectual performance, are subject to reproductive issues that

could lead to abnormal children (if female), and can be prone to major illnesses, such as malaria and diarrhea. To avoid both

undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency, babies are recommended to be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life.

Following this period, they are recommended to consume a mix of breastmilk and solid food. Due to the lack of support and

education on breastfeeding in certain societies, this practice is often misused or not used at all. In addition to breastfeeding,

economic troubles also influence the rise of malnutrition throughout infants, such as the unstable supply of electricity to conserve

foods and the poor infrastructure to sustain the population of a growing society.

Roughly 10 years ago, a nationwide nutritional survey of a sample of Saudi households was selected by the multistage

probability sampling procedure. A validated questionnaire was administered to mothers of children less than 3 years of age. This

survey was one of the most informational surveys ever taken by the government of Saudi Arabia. The survey concluded that the

majority of the mothers in Saudi Arabia have not complied with the recommendations made by the WHO. Although the high

prevalence of breastfeeding initiation at birth indicates the willingness of Saudi mothers to breastfeed, the average switch to

complementary foods has occurred between the third and fifth month, rather than the recommended sixth month. The reason on

why this happens is unclear, but is most likely due to a lack of awareness on the recommended policies projected by the WHO.

Saudi Arabia is willing to put a huge amount of effort to overcome this issue. The government recognizes that these

slight social differences can have a huge positive impact on the health of the next generation of doctors, engineers, and

entrepreneurs. As of the most recent surveys, the national prevalence of under-five overweight is 6.1%. The national prevalence

of under-five stunting is 9.3%, which is less than the global average of 21.9%. Conversely, Saudi Arabia's under-five wasting

prevalence of 11.8% is greater than the global average of 7.3%. These numbers have provoked the government to take serious

action towards this issue, since these statistics have already affected the adult generations. 42.9% of women of reproductive age

have anaemia, and 17.6% of adult men have diabetes, compared to 17% of women. Meanwhile, 42.3% of women and 30.8% of

 

men have obesity. Due to the fact that the Islamic faith promotes the freedom of breastfeeding, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is

willing to cooperate with other Islamic nations to ensure the safety and growth of the succeeding generations.

The government of Saudi Arabia strongly believes that the most basic, yet most influential solution to this problem is

awareness. The educations systems of Saudi Arabia, as well as other developing countries around the world, should integrate the

recommended practices of breastfeeding as common curriculum. This can, in turn, allow for the younger generations to

understand the need for a more stable supply of nutrition for babies. This has also proven to be beneficial to the health of adults.

In addition, a fundamental guideline imposed for the infrastructure of countries can also be useful. This can allow developing

countries, like Saudi Arabia, to use their resources in an efficient manner. This guideline can be voted upon by a consensus in the

UN. In conclusion, Saudi Arabia recommends international support among developing and developed countries, to ensure the

global success and diversity for all.

 

Works Cited

 

El Mouzan, Mohammad I. "Trends in Infant Nutrition in Saudi Arabia: Compliance with WHO Recommendations." Annals of

Saudi Medicine, 20 Jan. 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813620/.

"The Importance of Infant and Young Child Feeding and Recommended Practices." World Health Organization, 2009,

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK148967/.

"Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children." World Health Organization,

www.who.int/elena/titles/full_recommendations/sam_management/en/index7.html. Accessed 21 Nov. 2019.

"Saudi Arabia Nutrition Profile." Global Nutrition Report, globalnutritionreport.org/resources/nutrition-profiles/asia/western-

asia/saudi-arabia/.

"Solutions to Malnutrition: ACF's Integrated Approach." Action Against Hunger, actionagainsthunger.ca/what-is-acute-

malnutrition/solutions-to-malnutrition-acfs-integrated-approach/.

  • : Saudi Arabia
  • : Sriyan Madugula

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Hungary believes that child nutrition is an important issue that impacts many countries. With the malnutrition of kids, we do not have a future in this world. Our country has recently wanted an increase in our country. The problem does affect many countries and we believe it is an issue to be dealt with. 

Our country has been dealing with increasing our population. We have recently implemented many laws to provide benefits for people who have more children. In our schools, we work to feed them well and our number one goal is to help their nutrition. The support of their nutrition is unanimous as 97% of our policies deal with their nutrition. We believe with better funding towards children will lead to the children being better for our future.

The delegation of Hungary believes that we could maybe provide incentives for implementing any type of support for the children’s nutrition. The UN could also have more policies on food waste or any type of way to bring food funding for other impoverished countries up. 

https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/sites/jrcsh/files/jrc-school-food-policy-factsheet-hungary_en.pdf

“Hungary Tries for Baby Boom with Tax Breaks and Loan Forgiveness.” BBC News, BBC, 11 Feb. 2019, www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-47192612.

 

“’Alarmingly High’ Number of Children Malnourished Worldwide: UNICEF Report | UN News.” United Nations, United Nations, news.un.org/en/story/2019/10/1049261.

  • : Hungary
  • : Yun Kang

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Child Nutrition

Country: Australia

 

Globally, one in three people are affected by malnutrition. Malnutrition is often described as a double burden, as it can arise both from people eating too much food that lacks nutrients and simply eating too little. This issue is especially important in children, as malnutrition from a young age can lead to stunted growth, wasting, and early preventable brain damage. It also significantly increases child mortality, with malnutrition acting as the cause of 45% of deaths among children under age five. The number of overweight children is also growing, reaching 40.1 million overweight children under the age of five. Both of these issues – undernutrition and overnutrition must be addressed to reach the SDG of adequate nutrition for all. 

Although the majority of Australia’s adolescence are at a healthy weight, the issues of overnutrition and malnutrition still must be addressed. In the 2007 Australian Nation Children’s Survey, it was found that 23% of children ages 2-16 were overweight or obese and 5% were underweight. Additionally, the same survey saw low levels of observance of the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life has also been difficult to implement despite evidence showing its ability to protect children from a multitude of diseases. 

Within Australia, programs have been implemented to better child nutrition, including the Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy. Recently, funding in such programs has been aimed at finding the most efficient ways to improve public health. Globally, Australia has also been funding programs to aid developing nations in fighting malnutrition. The Australian government has worked with NGOs such as Nutrition International to provide nutrient-rich food to malnourished populations. Australia has also been a close partner of the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement, which focuses on providing guidelines to mobilize and guide action concerning child malnutrition. 

 

One of the most important parts of providing adequate nutrition to all is education. Many people simply do not know of the vast consequences malnutrition can have on children. Promoting exclusive breastfeeding of infants and proper nutrition guides for adolescents is particularly necessary, but it’s easier said than done. And beyond simply advising mothers to breastfeed, it is exceedingly necessary to encourage effective, people-centered counseling on the topic. And since malnutrition is an intergenerational cycle, it is as critical to provide food for school-age children through a partnership with the WFP as it is to ensure that pregnant women are not nutrient deficient. Further partnership with existing NGOs is needed to distribute micronutrient powders and ready-to-use therapeutic foods. A glut of funding will be needed to implement these changes and others, but funding of increased nutritional standards in developing countries has been shown to have positive returns and increases in GDP, making it in every nation’s best interest to aid others in this fight against malnutrition.

 

  • : Australia
  • : Aileen Liu

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

Country: United States

 

The United States’ population is rapidly aging, leaving the future of the U.S. to a smaller population that has modern and advanced 21st century responsibilities. A smaller workforce and taxbase is expected to care for a generation far larger than them with far greater needs. These impending crises are not limited to the United States; an advancing demographic transition has left nearly a hundred nations with a fertility rate less than the rate of replacement. Children are the future of our planet, therefore it is our moral obligation to support both today’s and tomorrow’s, and the next decade’s children with resources that enable them to support the needs of the older generation, the most important resource being their health, and with that, their nutrition.

 

Although it is clear that malnutrition is a double burden due to the prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, if we look at things from a global perspective, undernutrition is clearly the more serious issue. There is a reason why eliminating hunger is the second of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Over 10% of the global population is undernourished, almost 15% in developing countries. Moreover, children suffer at a higher rate with an estimated 1 in 4 children being chronically malnourished. Malnourishment contributes to over 50% of child mortality deaths and tens of millions of people are dying of nutrient micro-deficiencies. This plight isn’t limited to the developing world either. Food insecurity in the United States affects 17 million children and perpetuates a cycle of poverty that millions of families cannot escape. Yet somehow all of this is within the country that’s rated by the Global Food Security Index as 1st in overall food security and food affordability.

 

The death of approximately 820,000 children under the age of five can be prevented by breastfeeding. Breastfeeding has been scientifically proven to decrease the risk of respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, asthma, food allergies, type 1 diabetes, and even adult obesity. Moreover, breastfeeding is associated with an increase in cognitive ability, The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of their lives; yet only 38% of infants are breastfed in that time period. Even worse, the United States recorded only an estimated 25% of mothers who breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months of their child’s life.

 

This discrepancy between developed and developing countries in breastfeeding rates is largely due to women joining the workforce in developed countries. Although in the United States the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires workplaces have a non-bathroom space to express milk and break time to do so, the policy lacks requirements of functionality and accessibility, mandated coverage of exempt employees, and a requirement that companies create policies centered around lactation. The Centers for Disease Control recommends “support for breastfeeding in the workplace” which includes corporate breastfeeding policies, education of employees, designated private spaces, and giving mothers options to return to work. Furthermore, various programs in developed countries aim to reduce stigma against mothers who choose to formula-feed, which is appropriate; however, these organizations simultaneously discourage women to breastfeed which has a negative effect on society as a whole. Corporate greed is contributing even more harm to the world. Swiss multinational Nestlé came under fire last year for making false claims about the nutritional value of their baby formula and inaccurately comparing it to breastmilk. This blatant negligence could lead to another 2008 Chinese milk scandal in which over 300,000 children were harmed: a tragedy we as a population should not have to endure again.

 

Within the United States, various federal nutrition programs have been set in place to prevent the negative effects of child malnutrition. SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) provides food stamps to eligible low-income individuals and families. The extent of child food insecurity is demonstrated by the fact that a staggering 47% of SNAP recipients are under the age of 18. Additionally, WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) provides pregnant women, infants, and children with supplemental nutrition, healthcare referrals, and nutrition education. WIC serves 53% of all infants born in the United States, which highlights both the scope of food security and the efficiency of the program. Of course, both these programs are dependent on the guardians of children making correct choices with their welfare and having access to food vendors that accept these programs.

 

There are other federal programs in the United States that directly prepares and distributes food to children in need. The NSLP (National School Lunch Program) ensures all U.S. school children receive a nutritious lunch every day and benefits almost 30.5 million children on a typical day. The cost of the meals is dependent on family income so those families who are capable of paying for school lunches do not drain federal funds, yet those who are in need of welfare receive either reduced or free meals. Of course, school is not in session all year long. The SFSP (Summer Food Service Program) distributes nutritious meals to low-income children during the summer months. More than 200 million free meals are distributed each summer.

 

As of now, the United States is on track to achieve all five of the SDG’s nutrition-related goals. Additionally, the United States is a hub of technological innovation and has many individuals and corporations within our borders that are developing technologies that can solve world hunger. In fact, last week, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has developed a new microparticle platform that keeps micronutrients protected and preserves the nutritional quality. When used in combination with other ready-to-use therapeutic foods like Plumpy’Nut, BP100, and Nutribun, this new technology can solve the deterioration of micronutrient quality in therapeutic foods.

 

Despite this promising invention, creating new food production methods is a solution we should be wary to view as a panacea for hunger. The global population a little over 7.6 billion, but the Food and Agriculture Organization announced over a decade ago we already produce enough food to feed 12 billion people, almost double the current population. A lack of food is not preventing us from truly making food a human right. This crisis is not an issue of food being unavailable, this is an issue of efficient distribution of food resources to poverty-stricken families across the globe.

 

Based on all of this information, the delegation of the United States recommends a comprehensive approach to positively impacting infant and child nutrition. First, nations should be recommended to implement an international goal to reach an 80% rate of exclusively breastfeeding infants for the first 6 months of their lives. This would be accomplished by carrying out various education programs in hospitals and medical centers that provide women information about breastfeeding and its benefits and risks. Second, funding must be approved for therapeutic foods like Plumpy’Nut or BP100 to be sent to schools in poverty-stricken areas. Lastly, and most importantly, the World Health Organization must commit resources to developing new technologies that can either create methods to preserve nutrients more effectively or ways to manufacture and distribute nutritional supplements at a cheaper cost.

 

The delegation of the United States is looking forward to cooperating with all delegates knowing that children are the future of our planet, and the insecurity of their nutrition is a crisis that affects all nations.

  • : United States
  • : Sohan Vittalam

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Conner Nagel, Mattawan Highschool

Seychelles

The World Health Organization: Infant and Child Nutrition

Nutrition is a serious issue in third world countries like many in Africa. Ineffective hospitals in these nations along with diseases leads to a high child mortality rate. 1 in 9 children on the African Continent die before the age of five for reasons such as poor nutrition and health standards. These saddening statistics are attributed to these countries economies and poverty rates. Good Nutritional sentences are needed for developing countries to keep their populations steady.

Children under five expect to face malnutrition in our country as our levels of nutritional balance are off of the expected standard. While Seychelles is far more progressed than many other african nations, our position can be described as a request for food in the country supplied by the United Nations. Otherwise our children may not grow to continue Seychellian economics and we may decline in that way. If our economy goes under, so will that of others around us as we will not be able to support their needs.

We are willing to work with any nations that will help african nations like ourselves become even more progressive in our nutritional practices

  • : Seychelles
  • : Connor Nagel

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DATE: November 14, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: The World Health Organization

FROM: Romania

SUBJECT: Infant and Child Nutrition

 

Romania expresses its deepest concern for the global prevalence of malnutrition in infants and children. The issue persists worldwide, despite efforts to educate populations about the importance of early childhood nutrition. The malnutrition issue can be divided into two main components: undernutrition (failure to consume enough calories to facilitate healthy growth and development) and macronutrient deficiency (failure to consume necessary nutrients for bodily function). In both cases, impoverished and otherwise developing nations are often among the most affected as a result of their lack of infrastructure capable of adequately distributing foodstuffs to citizens. Also complicating the issue is the cyclical relationship between poverty and malnutrition. Impoverished persons find it most difficult to obtain enough healthy food to provide adequate nutrition for their children. As a result, children and infants are unable to develop properly physically and mentally, which decreases their ability to educate themselves properly and move into a higher economic station. This continues the cycle of poverty and malnutrition. Further exacerbating the issue is the fact that means of economic improvement such as increasing the labor force often result in decreased parental presence at home, impairing children’s abilities to be nourished, especially in infancy where breastfeeding is a key source of nutrition.

Recent United Nations efforts to combat this crisis include the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in place from 2000-2015. This program, aimed at unifying a global commitment to reducing hunger and malnutrition, achieved its goal of halving the percentage of the world population that suffers from extreme poverty by 2015. It has been the most effective policy to date regarding the resolution of world hunger, including child and infant malnutrition. It nearly halved the proportion of underweight children during its term. The updated policy that will guide the global response to malnutrition from 2016 until 2030 aims to expand on the successes of the MDGs while aiming for even greater reductions in malnutrition and its effects worldwide. This new program, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognizes and aims to more effectively deal with the broader causes and effects of world hunger crisis, including several issues relevant to infant and child malnutrition specifically. These include a focus on sustainable economic growth through growing infrastructure and education, as well as the promotion of gender equality to ensure women’s rights are being preserved at the same time that malnutrition is being handled. This plan addresses many of the above key issues identified as pertinent to the reduction of child and infant malnourishment, and as a result it forms a good foundation for the creation of a unified global effort to address this issue.

This topic is of great interest to Romania as a nation with a high poverty rate and high percentage of children who are undernourished and nutrient deficient. Romania has been very concerned with this issue for some time as evidenced by its effective reduction of under-five wasting and stunting, and slight improvements in rates of low birth weight. Article 17 of Order no. 1995/1996 illustrates Romania’s commitment to the education of children regarding healthy meal choices as well as to the providing of healthy meals in school, with specified menus for school lunches. Romania hopes that the world will follow the European Union (the High Level Group on Nutrition and Physical Activity and the EU Platform for Action on Diet, Physical Activity and Health) in passing a resolution which will promote proper education of students to aid in their socioeconomic development as well as their physical development.

 

An effective resolution will address specific means to (a) reduce poverty rates through education (b) educate both children and adults about proper dietary habits (c) promote economic developments of nations through infrastructure improvements and gender equality in the workforce, (d) establish clear and specific metrics for measuring progress toward goals established in the resolution as above.

  • : Romania
  • : Jack Rickle

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Zachary Scholten               Democratic People’s

Kalamazoo Central High School       Republic of Korea

 

WHO: Topic 2- Infant and Child Nutrition

 

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is appalled at the concept of malnutrition among children. Around the world there are many children and infants who are both improperly fed and left unfed all together. The main issue left is values being balanced improperly. While some value their own personal gain above the good of the world, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea admires policy that values human life.

 

Although The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has never faced issues with keeping its infants and children properly nourished, we have taken movements to prevent it. Our nation does not follow a western system where food is wasted by the greedy and none is left for the needy. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea uses the simple ideals of equality for all citizens, including allowing all of them to eat from the gracious food yields of our farms. The United Nations has used the UNICEF to fight malnutrition against the youth of the world. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has never taken nor requested any aid from this organization or any either group aid for its citizens. Any statistics approved by our Nation’s government will show that issues have never existed in our system and the children of Korea are well taken care of.

 

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea supports any resolution that helps the children of the world in a way that doesn’t harm the nations who don’t have the issue. One way to do this could be recommending nations to review their own policy to ensure less food waste, leaving less children malnourished. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea hopes to work with nations such as Russia and China, as well as others, to create a resolution that works for all.

  • : Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • : Zachary Scholten

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Proper nutrients and balanced diets for children in the early development stages of life are critical. The effects of malnutrition in kids under age two are virtually irreversible. In addition to this, almost half of all deaths for children under the age of five are related to malnutrition. Hence, fighting to provide healthy food for children should be a priority. For children under six months, this means breast milk from healthy mothers, and a balanced, whole-foods diet for children over six months. This also means supporting mothers and ensuring long enough maternity leave.

Nigeria has the second highest rate of stunted children in the world, at 32% for children under five. Around 2 million children in Nigeria suffer from severe malnutrition. Despite this, on average, only two out of every 10 malnourished children is reached with treatment. Seven percent of women of childbearing age also suffer from acute malnutrition; therefore, young mothers of these malnourished children also need assistance. Fortunately, malnutrition has little effect on the production of breastmilk; because of this, breastfeeding for at least the first six months of life is physically and economically ideal. Yet in Nigeria only 17% of infants under 6 months are exclusively breastfed. This is likely because mothers, on average, only receive three months maternity leave in Nigeria. One study showed that 61% of employed Nigerian mothers agreed work was the largest obstacle in breastfeeding. Nigeria has services to help those in need: The Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition programme, An affordable way of treating malnourished children that was first introduced in 2009, has treated over two million children since it was first introduced in Nigeria, at a cost of just $160 per child. Children are being fed Ready-To-use-Therapeutic Food, or RUTF, to nurse them back to health. Nigeria understands that not only do the lives of children and infants depend on action, but also the future of the country. A generation that grew up malnourished will have adverse effects on Nigeria’s economy and society.

Nigeria proposes to continue support for UNICEF’s program to implement the National Plan of Action on Food and Nutrition to strengthen health and community systems in high-risk countries. Additionally, Nigeria wants the UN to promote the use of Ready-To-use-Therapeutic Food for children in all countries with high rates of malnourishment. Lastly, Nigeria wants UN support of programs to help mothers in need

  • : Nigeria
  • : Genevieve Woodby

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GLIMUN Position Paper 

Committee: ECOSOC, WHO

Issue: Infant and Child Nutrition

Country: Japan 

Delegate: Peter Giftos 

 

The proper nourishment of infants and children in the first several years of their life is crucial for the development of their overall health and particularly for the development of effective brain function. Infant and child mortality rates are high in many developing nations, as well as less affluent sectors of developed nations, such as the USA and Brazil.  The WHO has estimated that at least half of these early life deaths are preventable. Malnourishment at early stages can be detrimental to the child’s health, and puts them at a higher risk of being infected with malaria and pneumonia. Global malnourishment has annually led to 3.1 million deaths of children under five. The global community must work together to effectively make strides in  counteracting this devastating social injustice.

 

Japan has the lowest infant mortality rate in the world.  We are ready to cooperate in transferring our knowledge, methods, medical and social standards in how to more effectively nourish, treat, house, clean, and educate their children, as well as generate funds to provide meals to those in need of nutritional assistance. We have taken efforts to restore exclusive breastfeeding rates, and we were also the first country to establish a Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, which has as its main goal to keep infants healthy and properly nourished.  When Indonesia faced a time of crisis due to malnutrition, Japan provided a 1.6 million USD grant to the World Food Program to address this crisis.

 

In order to solve this issue, Japan would like to expand facilities that properly nourish children, particularly those in nations which are struggling with any combination of low PCI, low infant mortality, and/or low number of physicians per 1000.  Japan also seeks to better educate people on health measures, particularly proper nourishment through NGO’s and community involvement. Japan believes that we should consider the use of community based management. Moreover, we should strive to place children suffering from severe malnutrition in intensive treatment centers where they can get the nutrition they need.  Ready to Use Therapeutic FoodS (RUFTS) have been very effective in the past for proper nutrition because these do not require refrigeration. We should look to organizations to model from, such as Action Against Hunger, whose priority is to engage with affected communities and provide foods necessary to combat malnutrition. The delegation of Japan wants to work together with other nations on crafting a sustainable resolution that will provide support towards proper nutrition for infants and children.

Sources:

 

“Children: Reducing Mortality.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 2019, www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/children-reducing-mortality.

“Infant and Toddler Nutrition.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3 Dec. 2018, www.cdc.gov/nutrition/infantandtoddlernutrition/index.html.

 

Inoue, Madoka, et al. “Infant Feeding Practices and Breastfeeding Duration in Japan: A Review.” International Breastfeeding Journal, BioMed Central, 25 Oct. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514256/.

 

“Malnutrition in Children.” UNICEF DATA, 2019, data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/malnutrition/.

“Emergency Assistance to the Republic of Indonesia.” MOFA, 2005, www.mofa.go.jp/announce/announce/2005/7/0715-2.html.

“Solutions to Malnutrition: Action Against Hunger’s Integrated Approach.” Action Against Hunger, actionagainsthunger.ca/what-is-acute-malnutrition/solutions-to-malnutrition-acfs-integrated-approach/.

  • : Japan
  • : Peter Giftos

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

India

Maddie Meader

 

Malnutrition is a large health issue in the world, with a child under the age of five dying from malnutrition or a disease caused by malnutrition every 4 minutes, or 2.1 million children a year. Malnutrition does not only mean that these children lack any food, vitamins, or nutrients, but obesity is a part of malnutrition as well. Not only is malnutrition dangerous in itself, but it makes it easier for children and infants to contract diseases that their young immune systems cannot fight off. In order for infants and children to reach their full potential later in life, it is necessary that they receive proper nutrition when they are young, such as being breastfed for at least the first six months of their life and making sure that every child is receiving the correct amount of macronutrients in their daily diet. Proper nutrients are needed in order for a child to greatly succeed in school as well as later into their adult life.

It is estimated that at least 30 percent of the world’s malnourished children live in India, with around one thousand children dying a day in India from Diarrhea alone. It has been found that at least 60 percent of the children living in India have one of the two forms of malnutrition. Only six percent of infants under the age of six months are breastfed according to UNICEF. With the large and still increasing population of India along with an unstable government and one of the largest poverty rates in the world, it is very hard for Indians to stay healthy as well as find the nutrients they need for themselves, let alone their children and infants. 

 

In December of 2017, the country of India approved a plan to combat national malnutrition with a cost of 1.4 billion dollars that will be used over the span of three years. The World Bank estimates that malnutrition alone costs India a loss of twelve million dollars in productivity, and the country of India is open to any programs or aid that will assist this country in combating this problem.

  • : India
  • : Maddie Meader

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 On one side of the coin malnutrition is at true danger that can stunt the growth of our children, who are the future. Malnutrition is an absolutely diabolical occurrence, it opens the door for diseases and viruses to walk right in, but in children it’s even worse. According to Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia  child malnutrition causes muscle wasting, which is a process where the body takes protein from the muscles. The child can get dermatosis,they can become easily agitated, and their bones will begin to stick out. Last but not least the child can face growth retardation which causes the child to suffer growth issues or grow incorrectly .

 

According to the World Health Organization(WHO) malnutrition is estimated to kill one out of every three children. Malnutrition is a plague is a state of being when a child is started to receive permanent effects from not getting enough food.  However on November 16th 2018, it was reported by WHO that there are over one point three million children under the age of five suffering from severe acute malnutrition throughout six of Africa’s Sahel Countries. Considering that number is less than 7% percent of Burkina Faso’s population alone this is undoubtedly a good thing. But this doesn’t mean we can stop making progress altogether, because malnutrition is still a problem.

 

On the other side of the coin malnutrition can relate to child obesity. According to an article  the WHO website titled “ending malnutrition in all its forms? A decade of opportunity over 42 million children suffer from obesity another form of malnutrition. Obesity is so dangerous because it could lead to diabetes,cardiovascular disease,pulmonary disease depression, etc. It can also cause growth deformity, pain, and limited mobility. So nutrition is a very important issue, on one side growth can become stunted and on the other side you can get deformities. So its very important that we deal with child malnutrition as children are our future.

The State of Qatar knows how much of a big deal malnutrition is and we plan to continue to combat it. However the amount of toddlers(children under five years of age)afflicted with malnutrition is at a low of 4.8% as of 1995. So The State of Qatar doesn’t plan to take or be apart of any drastic, expensive plans. However The State of Qatar will be willing to donate money towards the problem of child malnutrition, and will be willing to cooperate with any countries willing to make a cost effective plan to continue to end child malnutrition.

 

Works Cited

 

https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/malnutrition

https://glica.org/infant-and-child-nutrition/

http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4921e.pdf

 

https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/staying-healthy/the-impact-of-childhood-obesity-on-bone-joint-and-muscle-health/

 

  • : Qatar
  • : Kessonga Allen

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Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

Country: Germany

Committee: World Health Organization (WHO)

Delegate: Rosalyn Li

 

The second goal of the Sustainable Development Goals at the United Nations is to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. Even though the first two years of a child’s life are particularly important, with proper nutrition having the ability to lower morbidity and mortality, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and foster better development overall, in many countries less than a fourth of infants meet the criteria for nutrition appropriate for their age. Undernutrition is associated with 2.7 million child deaths annually. Nearly half of all deaths in children under five years are attributable to undernutrition alone, since it increases the risk of dying from common infections, increases the frequency and severity of infections, and delays recovery. Benefits of proper infant and child nutrition have long term impacts on economic gains for individual families and at the national level.[1] Since 2000, the global community has shown a decline in stunting, defined as low height relative to age, yet nearly 149 million children under five were stunted in 2018.[2]

 

In 2008, the European Union (EU) Council of Agriculture Ministers implemented the School Fruit Scheme, a program to provide free fruit and vegetables to children in schools. In return, schools would teach children about healthy eating habits. The Scheme effects over 8 million children across 25 participating member states, with Germany as a major beneficiary. Free fruit has resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the consumption of unhealthy snacks.[3] 97% of German schools had the objective of improving child nutrition, 94% had the goal of teaching healthy habits, 88% focused on reducing obesity, and 65% focused on reducing malnutrition.[4] In addition to improving infant and child nutrition domestically, Germany has also helped other countries, such as Burundi. 56% of children under the age of five in Burundi are chronically malnourished. Germany then funded the World Vision Burundi to screen for malnourished children to help get them treatment.[5]

 

One way to assure infant and child nutrition health is through breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is both beneficial for the mother and the child. Children who were breastfed are less likely to be overweight, perform better on intelligence tests, and breastfeeding is associated with higher income in adult life. Breastfeeding also helps mothers by reducing the risk of ovarian and breast cancer. Breast milk can provide half of a child’s energy needs between the ages of six and twelve months and reduces mortality among children who are malnourished. Breastfeeding can be promoted and taught through implementation of policies such as Maternity Protection Convention 183, allowing for a longer duration of leave and higher benefits for mothers and supportive health services with infant and child feeding counseling possibly in mother support groups and community-based health promotion and education activities. Inability to produce milk is very rare; it is estimated that it occurs in one to two per 10,000 mothers. HIV complicates breastfeeding, so antiretroviral therapy (ART), which greatly reduces the chance of HIV transmission, is recommended to pregnant women and mothers with HIV.[6] For children who go to school, better nutrition in school lunches can both feed children and help them establish healthy food choices. Governments should require public school lunches to be nutritious and inform students the importance of nutrition. To increase the accessibility of healthy foods, governments should also provide subsidies for healthy and local foods to promote the local economies and healthy food choices of its people.

Works Cited

 

[1] “Nutrition.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Oct. 2019, www.cdc.gov/nutrition/index.html.

[2] “Malnutrition in Children.” UNICEF DATA, 2019, https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/malnutrition/.

[3] “Using Price Policies to Promote Healthier Diets.” World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, World Health Organization, 2015, www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/273662/Using-price-policies-to-promote-healthier-diets.pdf.

[4] “School Food Policy Country Factsheets.” European Commission, Ministry Of Health, 2011, https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/sites/jrcsh/files/jrc-school-food-policy-factsheet-germany_en.pdf.

[5] “Government of Germany Helps Fight against Malnutrition in Burundian Children.” World Vision, 21 Sept. 2017, www.wvi.org/burundi/article/government-germany-helps-fight-against-malnutrition-burundian-children.

[6] “Infant and Young Child Feeding.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 16 Feb. 2018, www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/infant-and-young-child-feeding.

  • : Germany
  • : Rosalyn Li

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

Country: Peru

Delegate: Ruby Jazwinski, Forest Hills Northern

Malnutrition of children and infants has been a crucial case. Throughout impoverished areas in the world, the infant mortality rate has risen, and more and more children are falling ill. There are many different reasons for it, and various prevention and beneficial methods have been taken. Every child should be able to have access to proper nutrition; no child should have to suffer.

More specifically, Peru’s infant mortality rate has risen, and the majority of children were diagnosed with a disease of some sort. This is due to the lack of equal access to health care to people with financial obstacles as well as people living in rural areas having less healthcare. Peru developed Peru’s Health Reform Program (PARSALUD), which was created in two phases. The program had many achievements and helped improve family care and health in many regions in Peru. It focused on rural areas and helping families, and had great success so far. The program is also working with the ministry of health for universal care and financing for all.

Child and infant nutrition should be a more major topic. Malnutrition of child could lead to many different problems later in life, so creating these programs that can help these children would be a great benefit.

 

  • : Peru
  • : Ruby Jazwinski

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

Republic of Senegal

Fishers High School

Caroline Adams

 

            The Republic of Senegal believes that the nutrition of infants and children is of utmost importance. In Senegal the percentage of children under the age of five stunting prevalence is 16.5%, according to UNICEF (“Senegal Nutrition Profile”). Compared to the stunting prevalence of children under five in 1992, of 34.4% (Spray 5), it’s clear that Senegal has made significant progress in this area. The percentage under-five wasting prevalence is 9% (“Senegal Nutrition Profile”). This shows no progress from 1992, when the prevalence of under-five wasting was also 9% (Spray 19). In addition, Senegal’s low birth weight prevalence rate has decreased from 22% in 2000 to 18.5% in 2015 (“Senegal Nutrition Profile”). However, Senegal’s low stunting prevalence, especially in comparison to other developing countries, makes it a leader in improving infant and child nutrition. Senegal has implemented a number of government campaigns to better infant and child nutrition. Currently Senegal’s primary program in this area is the Nutrition Enhancement Program (Spray 41). The program was built on the ideals of cooperation between NGOs, local governments, the private sector, and participating ministries (Spray 34). In development is the Multisectoral Strategic Nutrition Plan (Spray 41).

            Senegal believes that breastfeeding, opposed to breastmilk substitutes, leads to physically and mentally healthier children and adults. 42.1% of children under 6 months of age in Senegal are exclusively breastfeed (“Senegal Nutrition Profile”). This number has increased drastically in recent years, as in 2016 the percentage of children 6 months being breastfed was only 33% (Diop, Ndeye). Similarly to other areas, such as stunting prevalence and low birth weight, the percent of children exclusively breastfed is significantly higher than the West African average of 30.8% (“Senegal Nutrition Profile”), making it a leader in the region. One action the government of Senegal has taken to increase this number is pass the 1994 Inter-ministerial Decree, which outlawed the promotion of Breastmilk Substitutes in health facilities (Diop, Ndeye). However, many continue to promote substitutes anyways, sometimes right after birth. Additionally, 40% of mothers reported seeing television advertisements for breastmilk substitutes (Diop, Nyeye) and the aggressive promotion of products also contribute to high percentages of BMS usage. Senegal believes that the adoption of laws like the 1994 Inter-ministerial Decree and subsequent enforcement of such laws would benefit countries with high BMS usage. In addition, laws that would regulate the promotion of BMS commercially could also benefit infant and child nutrition.

            To elaborate on the effects of aggressive marketing, Senegal believes that regulations on the promotion of commercially produced foods would also better child nutrition. According to a survey conducted by the Assessment and Research on Child Feeding project, 80% of young children had eaten a commercially produced snack within a week of the survey interview (Diop, Nyeye).

  • : Senegal
  • : Caroline Adams

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Food provides the energy and nutrients that babies need to be healthy. For a baby, breast milk is best. It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able to or decide not to breastfeed. Infants are usually ready to eat solid foods at about 6 months of age. Check with your health care provider for the best time for your baby to start. Malnutrition is a lack of proper nutrition, caused by lack of food, or eating the wrong foods. Some symptoms of malnutrition are fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss. 

 

Iran agrees that babies need to be be treated and provided with the correct vitamins and minerals and is working to solve these problems in our country. Although Iran has no data for under-five overweight, it faces a malnutrition burden in both its wasting and stunting levels. The national prevalence of under-five stunting is 6.8%, which is significantly less than the developing country average of 25%. Iran’s under-five wasting prevalence of 4% is also less than the developing country average of 8.9%. In Iran, 53.1% of infants under 6 months are exclusively breastfed. There is insufficient data on low birth weight. Iran’s adult population also face a malnutrition burden. 30.5% of women of reproductive age have anaemia, and 12.9% of adult women have diabetes, compared to 11.4% of men. Meanwhile, 32.2% of women and 19.3% of men have obesity.

 

A possible solution for this problem is a better implementation of FDA regulations worldwide for the correct nutrition and healthy eating programs. These programs could be easily implemented and should be for the sake of the healthy growth and development of babies worldwide.

 

  • : Iran
  • : James Sobol

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Malnutrition

The People’s Republic of China

Mia Tepic

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

Inaction on malnutrition carries a colossal cost. Every year, almost half of child deaths under age five are attributable to undernutrition. One quarter of all children around the world, 159 million, are stunted – meaning that their bodies and brains have not grown to their full potential. With stunted growth, children also have the consequence of insurmountable inequality; they have a major disadvantage in learning and acquiring life skills before they even set foot in school. Yet, despite the alarming effects of malnutrition on a child and an infant, countries continue to underinvest in nutrition. According to the World Health Organization, developing countries on average devote just one half of one percent of their health budgets to nutrition. In order to combat the problem, the United Nation has laid out recommendations for nutritious and affordable diets for children across the world including empowering families to reduce demand for unhealthy food and incentivizing food suppliers to provide healthy, affordable food.  Proclaimed in 2016, the UN also created the Decade of Action to promote cooperation with various member states in order to craft specific solutions that address nutrition crisis over the next 10 years.

 

The People’s Republic of China is vulnerable to the double burden of malnutrition and leads the way in its multi-sectoral strategy in combating all forms of malnutrition. Rather than focusing on the quantity of food production, the People’s Republic of China has improved on children’s health and growth over the last few decades that focuses on the quality of food production. The People’s Republic of China has also created the goal of a “Healthy China 2030” with ‘health-in-all-policies’ approach and a National Nutrition Plan: a layout of malnutrition points targeting obesity, anemia, and folic acid deficiency among poor people close to poverty. 600 rural Chinese schools also provide daily nutritional supplements to students during lunch. By lifting millions out of hunger, the People’s Republic of China met its Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of hungry people by 2015 and reduced the global hunger rate by two thirds. Not only is the People’s Republic of China fighting the problem in its own country; the People’s Republic of China is also helping other countries. Recently, the People’s Republic of China sent health experts to train young African researchers in agricultural science and encouraged African entrepreneurship in agribusiness. The People’s Republic of China also provides agricultural assistance programs across Africa and supporting emergency humanitarian food assistance programs around the globe.

 

First, the People’s Republic of China recommends that the United Nations establish and release education guidelines on good feeding techniques and getting the right nutrients to the mother and child from the beginning of pregnancy. Second, the People’s Republic of China urges the United Nationsthrough the World Bankdevote funding for daily nutritional supplements that can be sent to rural schools where poverty stricken students attend. Due to the cost of nutritious foods, students in rural schools lack nutritious foods the most; they also need them the most. Third, the People’s Republic of China proposes that the United Nations encourage the growth of entrepreneurship in agribusiness. People receive their food from these companies, and therefore need the best quality of food. In order for people to purchase these foods more easily, more companies need to open up on all continents – especially Africa. Through this program, the People’s Republic of China believes that the United Nations should emphasize the quality of food rather than the quantity to upcoming entrepreneurs. This will provide food with more vitamins and nutrients rather than high fructose corn syrup with no value. If the United Nations implement these recommendations into their resolutions, other countries could reduce their global hunger rate by two thirds just like the People’s Republic of China.

  • : People's Republic of China
  • : Mia Tepic

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World Health Organization

Infant and child nutrition

France

Blaise Gourley

 

Every year, more than 3.1 million  children under the age of 5 worldwide die from  malnutrition-related causes. Hunger and under nutrition contributes to more than half of global child deaths. Malnourished children are more susceptible to illness and experience more learning difficulties. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that in 2018, “globally there were 149 million children under 5 year of age were stunted, 49 million wasted and 40 million overweight.” In addition, 20.5 million babies suffer from low birthrate. In response to the worldwide malnourished child epidemic, WHO launched a Decade of Action on Nutrition starting in 2016. This includes, implementation of specific programs and increased investments to eliminate malnutrition. Also the stress of breastfeeding during infancy, which has proven to build a child’s immune system. Although this is a strong effort to combat malnutrition, there continues to be a catastrophic problem because of the underlying problem of poverty, there needs to be more done today.

In 2016, France launched a multi-sector road map on nutrition. Drafted in collaboration by Interministerial Group on Food and Security (GISA) and a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector platform on food security and nutrition, it is a developmental strategy to help pursue five areas of action for child nutrition. The five main goals are integrating nutrition into programs, helping target countries to address nutrition in policies, increasing international and European mobilization for nutrition, contributing to research and improving knowledge about nutrition, and helping to educate and raise awareness about nutrition. The road map focuses on eight countries that are severely affected by malnutrition: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Laos, Madagascar, Mali, and Niger. France is very engaged in the fight against malnutrition. In 2011, France also issued a policy framework paper on nutrition in developing countries.  It set two priority objectives. The first being, to detect, prevent and treat malnutrition in women of childbearing age and children. Secondly, to increase the efficacy of international action to eradicate malnutrition. This paper remains relevant when it comes to France’s current nutrition action.

 

The country of France wishes for more preventative steps to be taken and addressed, as has been done in France. The infants and children of the world are the future. They do not deserve to be at a disadvantage in life from the beginning because of a factor they can not personally control. It is time for the world to step up and help aid these children and families in need. France hopes to see solutions involving the implementation of specific programs or NGOs containing doctors and nutrition specialist, and send them to regions most heavily affected. Healthy habits and lifestyles should also be strongly promoted. 

 

  • : France
  • : Blaise Gourley

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Committee: World Health Organization 

Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

 

Mexico is deeply alarmed by the one-in-three children who are suffering from malnutrition worldwide. With over 40 million overweight children and 149 million children stunted, our world is in desperate need of an urgent solution for malnutrition. The lack of adequate childhood nutrition increases vulnerability to health problems and poor brain development in future years. Delegations must take action in the proper nourishment of infants and children, as it directly affects the future success of the country. Child malnutrition typically occurs in the poorest households and most impoverished communities, which means the ones suffering the most lack the resources needed to end their suffering. Without proper guidelines and programs to assure adequate nutrition in children, many children develop an unhealthy relationship with food, even in communities with higher economic fortune. Diminishing malnutrition is not only about getting children enough to eat but getting them the right food to eat. Although malnutrition varies from country to country, the steps to prevention steps are almost identical. Children need adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy, nutritious, diverse and safe foods, and access to safe water. 

 

Mexico has suffered from the effects of malnutrition and food insecurity for years. This is not a result of food availability, but rather the fact that people living in poverty do not have the resources to obtain necessary nutritional food. Addressing this problem, Mexico has set in place many programs, including the National Crusade against Hunger (Cruzada Nacional Contra el Hambre in Spanish or CNCH). The CNCH fights to end hunger in poverty-stricken areas by pioneering grassroots strategies to provide adequate nutrition for those in need and improve height and weight indicators of children. The program increases the production of food and income of Campesinos and small producers, minimizes loss of food after harvest, and increases public participation in the eradication of hunger through community educational events. Many countries have followed Mexico’s active and thriving program, launching initiatives of their own in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panama. Another program, Prospera, strengthens the social rights of the poor by improving their capabilities, especially their nutrition, health, and education capabilities, and contributing to breaking the cycle of intergenerational poverty. Their motive is achieved by direct monetary support to beneficiary families for food necessities, and a basic nutrition package and nutrition supplements for children under five years old and pregnant and lactating women. Funding from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and/or the World Bank can be applied to countries that don’t have budgets set aside for nutrition programs, as the World Bank made a significant contribution to Prospera. 

 

Concerned for the safety and health of children worldwide, Mexico is deeply invested in developing a solution to combat and defeat malnutrition in infants and children worldwide. Through the expansion and development of programs, modeled after Mexico, we can continue to decrease malnutrition globally. Mexico looks forward to collaborating to create a plan of action to help suffering children worldwide.

  • : Mexico
  • : Lily Somers

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The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother’s breast milk. Society’s negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal’s milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity.

 

In Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece, breastfeeding was of high value and this is depicted in numerous sculptures or statues of goddesses like Hera, Gaea, and Demeter breastfeeding their children. Alternatively to breastfeeding from the mother, or to adoptive breastfeeding, ancient Greeks used to feed their children with a mixture of wine and honey in special pots. Wet nursing was also widespread in these societies. In Greece (950 BC), wet nurses were in frequent demand, particularly by women of higher socioeconomic background, in whose households they came to hold a position of great responsibility with authority over the slaves and often with prolonged care of the children they nursed, up to their adolescence.

 

The primary goal of the IYCF intervention (Infant and Young Child Feeding) in Greece is to support breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding caretakers in mother and baby areas, where they can rest, feed and play with their children, bathe their babies, and receive nutrition and psychosocial support.

 

  • : Greece
  • : Mitra Bijoy

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infant and child nutrition is a largely important issue and a big problem if not addressed . Over 3 million children die every year from undernutrition. The first 1000 days from a mothers pregnancy and the child’s second birthday provide great opportunity to prevent undernutrition and it’s consequences. Globally, about 1 in 4 children are stunted. Many countries have measures in place to combat undernutrition, and all countries should as it is a crucial issue for many of them.

 

National statistics from El Salvador show that undernutrition is prevalent and that it is largely caused by limited healthy eating practices for pregnant women and less exclusive breastfeeding. The SDG Fund programme is intended to resolve this issue. The objective of the programme is to strengthen public policy and support for the joint construction of initiatives, Improve local production and import substitution of raw materials and finished products, increase communities’ resilience to adapt to climate change, and expand local nutrition information systems. All of these goals allow El Salvador to combat undernutrition and help mothers and children in need. 

 

El Salvador has a plan in place to combat undernutrition. In 2017, there were 46 deaths out of 100,000 live births. El salvador’s plan has been successful so far, and they will continue to improve on it. The SDG Fund Programme has shown to be successful, and if more countries had plans like it in place, the world could successfully fight undernutrition, and children would get the care they deserve. Undernutrition can hurt a child’s physical and mental growth. Stunted children also have greater risk of developing diabetes and chronic diseases going into adulthood. The nutrition of the mother is just as important as the child itself, and it is also something countries should focus on. All of the plans to fight  undernutrition are based on sound evidence, which shows that they are effective and have been thought out well. The global interest for fighting undernutrition has increased recently, and people are beginning to realize the true severity and importance of this issue. El salvador has a plan to fight undernutrition in children and mothers, and will continue to improve on it, and other countries should do so as well.

  • : El Salvador
  • : Carter Smelser

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

Republic of Costa Rica

Abigail Zhang, Forest Hills Northern

The world’s current infants and children are the future. They are the ones who will be the policy makers, the aid providers. Child malnutrition and undernutrition have been plaguing nations for hundreds of years, stunting the ability for children to reach their full potential when maturing. It is crucial that infants are receiving the necessary nutrition; WHO recommends breastfeeding for the first six months and fulfilling nutrition for the first two years after birth to reduce the chance of death. While this is an excellent idea in theory, not all nations possess the resources to provide ample nutrition for its children.

The Republic of Costa Rica, thanks to its progressive healthcare and aid systems, sees relatively low levels of infant and child malnutrition; Costa Rica also has various charity organizations to combat hunger. Healthcare in Costa Rica is relatively cheap, costing around one-fifth to one-third of what an average American would pay, allowing mothers to receive the proper education and care needed to ensure that their children are being fed well. On average, per 1,00 live births, Costa Rica sees 9 infant deaths, a massive decrease from 17 in 1990. This is no doubt due to the aforementioned healthcare system. 

Access to breastfeeding is largely contingent upon a nation’s average income, employment, and social norms. The Republic of Costa Rica would like to collaborate with delegates willing to expand aid offered by the government’s healthcare system, whether that be through increased funding or through a more accessible way to provide medical care to as many citizens as possible. Costa Rica would love to see resolutions that encompass all of the issues previously mentioned in this position paper; education and average income needs to be expanded

  • : Costa Rica
  • : Abigail Zhang

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Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Infantile and Child Malnutrition

School: Forest Hills Northern High School

Malnutrition causes 45% of deaths each year for children under five, and every six seconds, a child will die of malnutrition. One in seven people on earth are hungry, yet two-thirds of the food in the world is wasted. Scientists estimate that by 2050, there will not be enough food to feed the global population. Ukraine believes that the best way to solve this is to have the UN take a fraction of its food budget to increase the production of Plumpy’Nut, which will then be sent to underdeveloped countries where children need it most.  

 

Plumpy’Nut is a solution to help end child malnutrition. Costing less than a dollar to make, this paste helps treat severe acute malnutrition. Plumpy’Nut is a simple product made up of peanut butter, powdered milk, and powdered sugar, along with various vitamins and minerals. Plumpy’Nut is equivalent to one serving of milk and a multivitamin. By using this product, children all around the world can be cured of malnutrition and can be back to being kids. Plumpy’Nut has been tested in Niger, where the Human Development Index is 0.354, the lowest in the world. With a 30% literacy rate, many people earn less than a dollar a day. Most mothers are unable to produce enough milk. Powdered formula is not an option either, because they don’t have access to clean water.  Most mothers there have watched at least one of their children die of malnutrition. With Plumpy’Nut, villages have seen fewer and fewer children dying from hunger.  

 

The Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) states that the ” provision of adequate nutritious foods” is necessary. In developing countries, 3.1 million children die from poor nutrition every year. Malnutrition accounts for approximately half of childhood deaths each year. If the UN would take a minuscule fraction of its annual food budget and spent it on Plumpy’Nut, the thousands of children around the world would be healthy. 

  • : Ukraine
  • : Libby Kurt

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World Health Organization Committee

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Cambodia is well aware of world hunger and its devastating effects upon our youth. 15% of Cambodia’s population of 16 Million live in poverty. Of Cambodia’s youth, 36% go hungry and have stunted growth while another 10% are starving. Cambodia also recognizes a larger global need to combat youth hunger as 17 Million children under the age of five suffer from acute malnutrition(wasting). Cambodia understands that many people are in danger of going hungry as food security can be very poor which is evident in Cambodia itself. Cambodia sees improving food security as the number one strategy for providing youth with enough food to sustain themselves in a healthy manner and contribute towards combating child hunger globally.

 

Cambodia is taking astronomical steps to eradicate youth hunger domestically. Cambodia plans on achieving zero hunger by 2025 with the help of the Zero Hunger Initiative launched by the United Nations. In order to make this happen Cambodia is working FAO, UNICEF, WFP, other UN agencies and a multitude of NGOs. Cambodia has taken steps to help combat global youth hunger by serving as a prime example of what a nation should do in the face of widespread poverty and starvation. 

 

Cambodia believes that the World Health Organization can best tackle this issue by focusing on who produces the food: farmers and livestock herders. 70% of food globally comes from small farms and livestock but many of these farmers in 3rd world countries suffer from violent conflict and an unstable market. Cambodia wants the World Health Organization to find a way to provide subsidies to farmers in order to provide food security.

  • : Cambodia
  • : Ryan Longo

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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

World Health Organization(WHO): Infant and Child Nutrition

 

The only way for a child to grow and develop property is for them to consume the proper amount of nutrients. According to the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) data on child nutrition, around 15,000 children under five die of malnutrition per day, for a total of around 5.4 million children per year. The cause of this malnutrition could be due to any number of reasons, the most prevalent of which is poverty. Countries that are less developed economically have higher rates of child malnutrition. Low malnutrition rates indicate the overall health of a country. Solving the problem of high child mortality rates is vital to ensuring the health and prosperity of our country.

 

  In Algeria, malnutrition is most common in the south, specifically in rural areas, where the population density is lower and high poverty causes reduced access to healthcare. Feeding practices are also rather inadequate, as many kids are exclusively bottle-fed instead of breast-fed. There is also a 39% rate of anemia amongst children under five, likely due to poorly diversified diets. Despite these statistics, our rates as compared to the average among other developing countries is father good. 12.9% of our children under five are overweight, where the average is 25%. As for underweight, our percentage of 4.1% is slightly less than half of the developing country average of 8.9%. Since 2000, rates for low birth weight has reduced from 7.7% to 7.3%

 

In 2018, United Nations envoy for the Western Sahara, Horst Kohler, invited Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania for a roundtable discussion on the nutrition and various other humanitarian problems in the Tindouf refugee camps. This formed the Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

In a committee, we believe the focus should begin with government-sponsored nutrition programs for those who cannot afford nutritious food. The addition of education on nutrition to the school curriculum is another essential step. Beginning in primary school, kids nationwide should be educated on how to diversify and improve their eating habits and nutrition. As a more general subject, focus on ways in which poverty may be lessened would benefit nutrition(and more) in the long run, allowing more access to healthier and more nutritious food options.

  • : Algeria
  • : Paityn Reens

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November 13, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: WHO

FROM: Republic of Korea

SUBJECT: Infant and Child Nutrition

Royal Oak High School

Infant and Child Nutrition

 

The Right to Health states that there must be an obligation to prevent threats to health from unsafe and toxic water conditions. This is stated in the Human Right to Water. It also express thoughts on water being used for necessity. This right applies to every country in the UN. It should be a well known fact though. 

Child obesity is a large worldwide issue. In South Korea, the percentage of obese children has gone up 3.2% over the course of five years. This is a pretty dramatic increase, but compared to other countries it’s on the smaller side. Child obesity has caused a big worldwide issue and most of it is to blame on what’s available for families. Many families have issues with affording healthy foods. This causes unhealthy foods to be very popular. The unhealthy foods become more addictive in children because they crave the taste. This can cause some of the issues with obesity. The availability of healthy foods is some of the issue. 

Another issue is how affordable and available unhealthy food is, which can make it more popular among poverty stricken areas. The Borgen Project is an organization which specifically talks about child nutrition in poverty stricken families. Two of their main objectives they deal with are starvation and newborn survival. They are an organization which could greatly help with ideas for nutrition in children of poverty. 

There are multiple solutions available to help child and infant nutrition. One is to focus mainly on water toxicity. This could be a useful source of some health issues but water toxicity is such a worldwide issue. Water toxicity must involve everyone and would take time. Another way is to mandate public meals. Mandating public meals would make sure everyone would be receiving the ‘right’ foods to eat. The only issue becomes what will happen if they don’t eat the provided food. This solution could create a tremendous amount of waste. 

 

We believe the best solution for now is to mandate some public meals. Schools and other more private places should mandate what they feed their students/employees. This would cause some waste but it would also provide the opportunity for others to get certain foods they might not get at home. Water toxicity is very important as well, but the amount of damage we have already caused has put us in a deep hole. We should try to improve water toxicity but the amount of resources needed are not available. We hope that all these issues become better over time but we should try to help.

 

  • : South Korea
  • : Meg Gierula

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November 12th, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: The World Health Organization

FROM: Socialist Republic of Vietnam

SUBJECT: Infant and Child Nutrition

 

Of the 7.2 million children under 5 years of age in Vietnam, approximately 1.6 million (23%) are stunted. These undernourished children have an increased risk of mortality, illness and infections, delayed development, cognitive deficits, poorer school performance, and fewer years in school. While Vietnam had made progress in reducing malnutrition, it is still a major concern. One in 5 children in Vietnam are stunted due to malnourishment or malnutrition. Some immediate drivers of these malnutrition issues are suboptimal IYCF practices (including delayed initiation of breastfeeding, low rates of exclusive breastfeeding, delayed introduction of complementary food, and insufficient frequency of feeding complementary food), maternal malnutrition including underweight and anemia, low vaccination coverage, and early marriage among ethnic minorities. Those are just the immediate concerns.

In addition to those, there are also basic, long-term, drivers for malnourishment. Those include maternal employment and maternity leave laws (which had previously required women to return to work less than 6 months postpartum), poverty that affects the lowest wealth quintile, change in legislation making iodization of salt voluntary rather than mandatory, commercialization and aggressive marketing of infant feeding products, particularly formula, and insufficient priority/importance given to nutrition (particularly breastfeeding) by policymakers. Vietnam wishes to acknowledge these globally so that other nations understand that these are potential reasons for malnourishment. 

 

Vietnam would like to see solutions for most or all of the aforementioned drivers. What does a short-term vs long-term plan for the reduction of malnutrition look like? Vietnam believes outlining these plans would make a good resolution. Vietnam would also be interested in hearing of other countries’ potential malnutrition drivers because the nation of Vietnam fully understands that there are different circumstances worldwide. Vietnam also believes it would be beneficial to outline these indicators and educate citizens globally of the potential causes. This way citizens will know the common causes. Overall, Vietnam acknowledges the utmost importance of nutrition in the most developmental stages of human life.

 

  • : Vietnam
  • : Brooke Orlando

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

Bahamas

Jade Tarango

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The lack of nutrition, especially during the earlier stages of life, can lead to impaired cognitive abilities, increased susceptibility to diseases and infections, and starvation. The number of undernutrition has been on the rise since 2015. The UN has started campaigns to end hunger such as the Zero Hunger Challenge and the World Food Summit. In addition, agencies such as the WFP, FAO, and IFAD have all assisted in the urgent crisis of child hunger. UNICEF states that “ Every year, around 3 million children die due to undernutrition. For millions more, chronic malnutrition will result in stunting – an irreversible condition that literally stunts the physical and cognitive growth of children.” Children between the ages of zero through fourteen make up roughly 22.39% of the Bahama’s population. Many of these children do not have access to nutrient-rich foods that they need to develop. Although breastfeeding is strongly recommended within the first six months of the life of a child, many families cannot satisfy this need. With the rapidly growing population of the Bahamas, the proper nutrients for the everyday family are getting increasingly harder to access.

 

In order to combat this preventable tragedy, the Bahamas has created a National Lunch Program for families earning minimum wage or lower. This program ensures that the participants are provided a well-balanced lunch for their children at school. With this program, more children can have access to the nutrients they need not only to become healthier psychically but also mentally.  The Bahamas has also worked to increase its agriculture sector. Readily available food sources in the country will lower the cost of food by decreasing the need for imports. A report by the Ministry of Health found that among children 4-9 years old in the Bahamas, 6.6% were underweight, 12.9% were stunted (a greater proportion of boys than girls) and 5.7% were wasting. The Bahamas created The National Food and Nutrition Security Policy and Action Plan for the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, whose goal is to have “physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food, at all times, to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”.

 

The Bahamas urges that fortified foods and nutrient-rich foods should be more available to families of all backgrounds and employment situations. The rising number of jobs causes many women to work while nursing, causing many infants to lack essential nutrients that are only available from breastfeeding. These undernourished children will likely starve or become so malnourished that they are unable to grow the population as adults. In addition, sanitary procedures can be stricter to decrease food-related illnesses which can lead to undernutrition. Availability and nutrition of foods should be increased to ease the effects of child malnutrition to provide a brighter future and healthier lives for the posterity of the future generations of children.

  • : The Bahamas
  • : Jade Tarango

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World Health Organization 

Infant and Child Nutrition 

Trinidad and Tobago

Halle Mikula 

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Malnutrition is the ninth greatest cause of death in children worldwide, coming just after newborn infections (exempting newborn sepsis) and before road accidents. Lack of access to clean drinking water and nutritious foods are a few causes of malnutrition. Proper nutrition is especially important to the growing bodies of infants and children, as malnutrition can lead to cognitive and physical complications, leaving them more susceptible to health issues. UNICEF claims that 3.1 million children under 5 die annually due to malnutrition globally. These vast numbers show the immediate cause for concern on the global issue. Obesity, a form of malnutrition, greatly affects Central and Southern America, and is “especially prevalent in women and children,” according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Pan American Health Organization, with one of the highest rates being in Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago, where 20% of people in 2014 live below the poverty line (CIA World Factbook), malnutrition is a very real possibility for infants and children.

 

Trinidad and Tobago’s Ministry of Health, addressed the issue of malnutrition. In 2014, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations published a speech from Dr. Rajiv Seereeram of Trinidad and Tobago (according to FAO). In his speech, Dr. Seereeram emphasized the issue of obesity, which affects “up to one third of urban school children,” as well as the issue of iron deficiency and childhood protein energy malnutrition. According to Dr. Seereeram, the National Nutrition Education Program provides educational workshops in local schools and health centers. More generally, the FAO and WHO made progress on preventing and treating malnutrition. For example, in 2016, the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and its Framework for Action to “eradicate hunger and prevent all forms of malnutrition worldwide.” Anemia and diabetes, which can both be caused or linked to malnutrition, are also prevalent in Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago’s Ministry of Health creates and distributes information on malnutrition, has preventive programs to fight malnutrition, distributes food to those in need, and coordinates seminars that utilize various healthcare workers.

 

Trinidad and Tobago recommends modification of school lunches, strengthening of local programs aimed to distribute nutritious food to those living under the poverty line, and  efforts towards water sanitation. Proper nutrition is something that can be unattainable for families living in poverty, and they are the most at risk. Consequently, programs should especially target children living in poverty, who are the most at risk for diseases, death, and deficiencies.

 

  • : Trinidad and Tobago
  • : Halle Mikula

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World Health Organization Committee

Infant and Child Nutrition

Turkey

Komal Patel

Forest Hills Eastern

 

In order to ensure their survival and their development, it is crucial for a child to get an adequate consumption of nutrients and vitamins in their early stages of life. Nevertheless, over 1.5 million children suffer from stunting: a low height relative to age. Insufficient nutrition also leaves children more likely like get an infection or disease. There are two parts of malnutrition: undernutrition (not consuming enough calories) and micronutrient deficiency (lack of necessary nutrients and minerals). To alleviate this problem, UNICEF and WHO have created the Global Breastfeeding Collective to rally political, legal, financial, and public support for breastfeeding. This organization aspires to give the technical, financial, emotional, and public support mothers need to breastfeed. WHO also formed the NetCode organization which is designed to ensure that breastmilk substitutes are not marketed inappropriately. Additionally, WHO and UNICEF developed “courses training health workers to provide skilled support to breastfeeding mothers, help them overcome problems, and monitor the growth of children, in order to identify early the risk of undernutrition or overweight/obesity” (who.int).

 

Although Turkey is taking measures to improve low infant and child nutrition numbers, it is an ongoing issue in the country. Turkey has a higher prevalence of stunting than any other European country with 10% stunting rates (data.unicef.org). In the lowest wealth groups, 22% of the children are stunted compared to 2.1% stunted children in the high wealth groups (siteresources.worldbank.org). In Turkey, vitamin and mineral deficiencies also impact the well-being of children as 12% of preschool children lack Vitamin A (worldbank.org). Turkey has paired with Ministry of Health (MoH) to support the government’s response to infant and child needs in the areas of immunization, early childhood development, and nutrition. This is to improve practices among refugee and migrant to prevent children from chronic malnutrition.

 

Turkey recommends to progress the “Promotion of Breastfeeding and Baby Friendly Hospitals” program in order to continue encouraging women to practice breastfeeding. To achieve this, women should be given clear instructions on how and when to practice it so their child can get the nutrition they need. Through breastfeeding infants up to six months can get the nutrients they need to reduce infection exposure and increase their immunity. Turkey also requests the UN provide funding for vaccinations for all children within the first five months of being born. Turkey additionally proposes to call for “agriculture, education, transport, gender, the food industry, health and other sectors, to ensure that diverse, nutritious diets are available and accessible to all house- hold members.” Turkey can further develop their work with the Ministry of Health to further reduce high rates of poor infant and child nutrition. Also, Turkey recommends the UN to inspect food policies and the regulatory system of the country because all those factors relate to the topic of obesity and overweight children. Turkey can further improve their high rates of infant and child nutrition by providing safer drinking water, sanitation facilities, immunization, and better health care services during their pregnancy. In addition, Turkey is taking great measures to provide all infants and children with the quality of nutrition and vitamins needed in their early stages of life so they can have an improved adulthood. If these implementations were put in place, the economy would gradually return to its state before EVD- with more tourism, a higher employment rate, more investors, etc.

 

  • : Turkey
  • : Komal Patel

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

Finland

Alekya Vudathu

Forest Hills Eastern

 

In the early stages of a life of an infant, adequate consumption of nutrition is vital. Nonetheless, over 1.5 million children suffer from low height, weight, and obesity due to improper nutrition. On the other hand, individuals in their early stages—who had good nutrition—achieve better outcomes in their adulthood. Malnutrition is at an alarmingly high rate in some countries. A stable infant and child nutrition results in  improved child survival rates and healthy growth development. To alleviate this problem, UNICEF and WHO created courses for training health workers to provide skilled support to breastfeeding mothers, help them overcome problems, and monitor the growth of children. Although the United Nations has done a great deal to improve nutrition, more needs to be done. The UN still must discuss this topic because, even though they have done a great deal to improve Infant and Child Nutrition many countries still have a high malnutrition rate. Finland believes that the UN should improve early diagnosis or recognition of undernutrition to reduce the amount of severity.

 

Due to high standards of living and a well educated welfare system Finland’s infant and child malnutrition rates are low. The issue is almost non-existent. Finland noticed that the economic status of a country has many effects on children’s mental and physical development. World Food Programmes (WFP) unique role as the United Nations’ frontline agency addresses hunger, where Finland is a prominent donor. Their donations have contributed to malnutrition in Lebanon, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, and the Central African Republic. Even though Finland is a 1st world country, data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) shows that the obesity rate in Finnish adolescents reaches up to 29% for boys and 17% for girls. Their vegetable and fruit intake is lower than average while their salt intake is above average. Finland decided they needed a plan to keep this improper nutrition from escalating and leading to a dire situation. In June 2013, the Finnish Government adopted a “Resolution on development of guidelines for health-enhancing physical activity and nutrition”. The main target is to include reducing the prevalence of obesity and the intake of saturated fat, salt and sugar, and increasing the intake of vegetables and fruit (particularly berries). This way at a young age adolescents can have the habit of proper nutrition and suffer from obesity, health issues, and even heart diseases. To help Infants Finland has improved their breastfeeding rates since 2013. They have offered classes for mothers to be. This has increased the Finnish breast feeding rate from 15% to 95% in the matter of 6 years. 

 

First, Finland’s proposes that the UN should work with poor rural populations in developing countries to eliminate poverty and hunger. Second, Finland believes that if mothers understood the importance of breastfeeding it would lead to fewer problems in the future. Third, the UN made countries implement mandatory breastfeeding classes, this way mothers would be aware or the consequences. Finland urges the UN to emphasize proper nutrition during the early years of a child’s life. Lastly, another way the malnutrition rates could decrease is if the UN could initiate a project to finance families in utter need of nutrition. Malnutrition should be a prominent issue discussed by the UN.

 

  • : Finland
  • : Alekya Vudathu

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

República Portuguesa

Palak Rekhani

Forest Hills Eastern

 

 The “Convention on the Rights of the Child” states every infant and child has the right to good nutrition, yet undernutrition is associated with 45% of child deaths. According to the World Health Organization, in 2016 an estimation of 155 million children under 5 were stunted, 52 million were wasted, and 41 million were overweight. Infant and young child nutrition is key to improving child survival and promoting healthy growth and development. Undernutrition can occur from not consuming enough calories, or from lack of necessary vitamins and minerals. Malnutrition is at an alarmingly high rate and occurs in every country.  The United Nations passed numerous resolutions to improve infant and child nutrition. According to the World Health Organization, on 1 April 2016, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2016–2025 the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition. It sets a concrete timeline, led by the WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization, for implementation of global nutrition and diet goals made at the Second International Conference on Nutrition, such as eradicating all forms of malnutrition by 2030. WHO and UNICEF have also developed courses for training health workers to provide skilled support to breastfeeding mothers, help them overcome problems, and monitor the growth of children, so they can identify the risk of undernutrition in advance. 

 

Portugal still needs some improvement in infant and child nutrition. The World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative report showed that exclusive breastfeeding rates for the first six months were still low in Portugal. In 2017, a new report showed that over the last twenty years, exclusive breastfeeding rates up to three or four months nearly doubled in Portugal. Portugal has administered multiple ways to aid women in feeding their children.  According to Expatica, Portugal has a publicly funded national health service, the Serviço Nacional de Saúde, and legal residents are given many childcare benefits and maternity care under the Portuguese healthcare system and social security system. Maternity leave in Portugal is currently limited to four months, with the possibility of extending to six months. Portugal is one of the 36 Member States in the executive board of UNICEF. According to the UNICEF website, it supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS. Portugal’s government has done a lot to help women provide nutritious food for their children, but Portugal still needs assistance from other countries in making nutritious food easily accessible and affordable. 

 

Portugal believes that the United Nations should emphasize the importance of proper nutrition during the first two years of a child’s life. Portugal recommends educating women on early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, and introduction of nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods at 6 months with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years old. Women could be given a longer maternity leave so they can properly nourish their children during their pivotal beginnings. The UN could create a program that helps finance countries in poverty or provides families in need with nutritious food. Unlike the past, Infant and Child Nutrition should now be considered an urgent problem that the UN strives to improve. 

  • : Portugal
  • : Palak Rekhani

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United Nations World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

Republic of Azerbaijan

Josie Ness

 

The Republic of Azerbaijan believes that children are the future. Increasing the nutrition of infants is essential to ensure that children are able to survive and thrive in adulthood. Lack of nutrition in early childhood can lead to stunted development. Around 3 million children die annually due to malnutrition. This issue stems from poverty. Poverty in early childhood can lead to insufficient nutrition and developmental delays and can hurt children’s progression in school and therefore children’s futures. UNICEF targets malnutrition by supporting breastfeeding, appropriate complementary foods for infants over 6 months, and micronutrient supplementation for women and children. The World Health Organization dictates that every child and infant has the right to nutritious food, yet many children worldwide have not been granted this right. 

 

The Government of Azerbaijan takes pride in its efforts to support children’s rights.  Azerbaijan is working to improve child nutrition in our own country. The national prevalence of under-five stunting is 17.8% and, the national prevalence of under-five overweight is 14.1%. We cooperate with various international organizations to protect child rights. Azerbaijan works with the United Nations Childrenś Fund (UNICEF) to submit periodic reports to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child on the implementation of these commitments. UNICEF started working in Azerbaijan in October 1993. The 5 year UNICEF country program cover 2005-2009, focusing on child health and nutrition among other things. A flour fortification law was introduced in 2017 but has yet to be put into effect. 12.1% of infants under 6 months in Azerbaijan are exclusively breastfed. We are working to increase that percentage. The Ministry of Health created a National Breastfeeding Week in October to promote the benefits of breastfeeding for young children’s nutrition.

 

Azerbaijan urges the fortification of flour to improve child nutrition. Azerbaijan hopes to address the prevalence of anemia in young children through food fortification and believes that other countries should follow suit. Azerbaijan recommends the implementation of ad campaigns to increase public knowledge about breastfeeding and overall child nutrition. Azerbaijan requests funding to train primary health centre-level paediatricians on infant and young child feeding and the monitoring of child development. Azerbaijan wants to ensure that the National Code on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is in line with international standards and enforced. Azerbaijan also would like to encourage the use of micronutrient supplementation to address nutritional deficiencies.

  • : Republic of Azerbaijan
  • : Josie Ness

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

Myanmar 

Anna Devarenne

 

Proper nutrition can greatly increase survival rates of infants and young children; early nutrition deficits led to issues in lifelong health and growth. These issues are especially prominent in developing nations; according to data collection by UNICEF, poor nutrition is responsible for an estimated 9.5 deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age, and more than 50% of deaths of children in developing countries can be attributed to malnutrition. In 2002, the World Health Organization and UNICEF adopted the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, which summarizes essential knowledge for health professionals in order to bring attention to the effect nutrition has on health, growth, cognition, motor, and social development of children. Other actions by world powers brought attention to infant and child nutrition, such as the document Indicators for Assessing Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices and the program Integrated Management for Childhood Illness by WHO, and the Early Child Development Program by the World Bank and UNICEF. 

 

Because 37% of its population living below the poverty line, Myanmar struggles to provide children and mothers with access to adequate nutrition. According to data by UNICEF, only about 25% of young children in Myanmar receive a diet with adequate quality, diversity, and quantity. Children living in the most poverty-stricken communities are most affected, with 38% suffering from stunted growth–which is dramatically low height for their age–while children of the wealthiest households have only 16% stunted growth. Contributing factors for the poor nutrition among Myanmar’s infant and youth population include inadequate access to health services, inadequate maternal nutrition, inadequate hygiene and sanitation, inadequate feeding practices, and inadequate knowledge and education of optimal health and nutrition behaviors. 

 

Myanmar proposes that the United Nations uphold all works currently in place to combat malnutrition and inadequate nutrition and increase funding for all such works in Myanmar. With the help of such works, the prevalence of stunting among children under five dropped from about 35% in 2009 to 29% in 2016. In order to stay on this path to adequate child and infant nutrition, UN programs must stay in place. Such programs include the Scaling up Nutrition platform in Myanmar, which works with stakeholders to support the government in developing a new multi-sectoral plan of action for nutrition, involving the key sectors of health, agriculture, education, and social welfare. Other effective programs include the UNICEF supported mandatory food standards in the National Food Law and its monitoring of the National Bode on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes and UNICEF’s support for Myanmar’s Early Childhood Intervention strategic plan.

  • : Myanmar
  • : Anna Devarenne

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World Health Organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

The Somali Republic

Abigail Morrow

 

Malnutrition is very common in underdeveloped nations. While malnutrition has two components, undernutrition and micronutrient, Somalia currently struggles with undernutrition in not only adults, but also children and infants. Adequate consumption of nutrients is essential in the early years of life to a child’s survival and physical and mental health, unfortunately Somalia’s population suffers from malnutrition in multiple ways. The child mortality rate in Somalia is among the highest in the world. One of seven Somali children die before they turn five, measuring at a rate of 137 deaths per 1,000 live births. While many of these deaths are due to disease, many of them are attributed to malnutrition, and when children are malnourished, they are most vulnerable to disease. According to UNICEF nearly one million children under the age of five are estimated to be acutely malnourished in 2019, of whom 138,200 severely malnourished. It is very important to Somalia to save the lives of our children by providing proper nutrition to them. 

 

The recent drought in Somalia has led to the loss of lives, scarcity of water and pasture and the displacement of hundreds of thousands (766,000 people-UN report July 2017). The drought disrupts food supply because the farmers do not have rain for their crops. Mohamed Farmaajo, the Somali President, has declared the current drought a national disaster. Our country is in the process of formulating its first national disaster management policy. This policy aims to improve community resilience and preparedness in the face of disasters and emergencies to significantly reduce the loss of lives and property. It also provides the legislative framework for disaster management within relevant government institutions. As the Somali government works to provide a new infrastructure when faced with natural disasters, women and children can currently visit one of the 144 women and children health centers in the nation. 

 

Somalia recommends that the World Health Organization must work together to ensure that mothers are well nourished to decrease malnutrition and increase survival rates of infants in underdeveloped nations. Malnourished mothers are more likely to have malnourished babies, so if the committee attacks the problem by first nourishing the mothers, then children may have a better chance at survival. Somalia further urges the committee to work alongside NGOs to raise resources for nutrition in underdeveloped nations. Somalia recommends for the World Health Organization to work with our government to bring stability to our people by providing more resources, health centers, and education of nutrition for mothers. 

  • : The Somali Republic
  • : Abbie Morrow

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The Dominican Republic

World Health Organization (WHO): Infant and Child Nutrition.

 

To promote growth and improve child survival, child nutrition is key. Undernutrition is estimated to have caused 2.7 million child deaths a year. Infant and Child nutrition can vary from country to country. Many economically poor countries and their people don’t have the money to give a good nutrition to their children. In Africa, the child undernutrition is the highest out of any continent, due to the economic hardship. 

 

The Dominican Republic is on its way to the world’s “good nutrition” target, but we still experience a malnutrition hardship facing its child population. In the Dominican Republic, 4.6% of all infants are exclusively breastfed. We also have a reputation for overweight babies, like many other Carribean, Latin American, and Central American countries. This is the way it is because of the way of life within our nation. Most women of reproductive age in the Dominican are either overweight and have been diagnosed with diabetes, or are underweight and fighting for any food they can find. Although this is a small problem in the country, solving the issue would be crucial so we can assure that our babies are healthy and happy. 

 

Infant and child nutrition is a very big topic for our count as many of our babies are over or underweight. Within our nation, there is little to no middle class. Our people are either rich or poor. In the rich families babies or children are usually well nurtured, or overweight. In the families who do not have the economic resources to take care of a baby, that baby could be overweight or underweight.

 

In the committee, the Dominican Republic wishes to seek other countries’ points of view on the topic. One type of solution that we would like to see be included in the adopted resolution is that nutrition education be added to one’s country education system curriculum. In the past, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), has advocated for children topics like this one by bringing some of the issues to not only local governments but also international organizations like the United Nations or the alliance of the Caribbean.

  • : Dominican Republic
  • : Juan Pena

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Committee: World Health Organization 

Topic Area A: Infant and Child Nutrition 

Country: Thailand 

Delegate: Marley Mack

School: Fishers High School

 

Nutrition is the most important part of a healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. 

This is especially true in the first eight years of life, the most crucial for physical and cognitive development. According to the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), around three million children die of malnutrition each year. This is a disturbing number that needs to be reduced immediately. UNICEF has also said that even more children suffer from chronic malnutrition, which can stunt further growth permanently. Children who come for poverty are at worse risk for poor nourishment than those coming from wealthy or middle-class families. 

Over four decades, Thailand has made excellent economic growth, and while doing so has made efforts to reduce the malnutrition of children. Malnourishment has dropped from 18.3% of the population of Thailand to only 7.8%, according to the Global Nutrition Report. The prevalence of underweight children has also dropped too, from 41.2% to 30.3% for girls and 33% to 28% for boys. Unfortunately, this drop has also occurred with a rise in obesity in children. From 4.1% to 14.2% for girls and 2.3% to 8.7% for boys. This has all happened over the same 16 year period, 2000-2016. The average stunting percentage has dropped from 15.7% to 10.5% from 2006 to 2016. There was a significant spike of both stunting and overweight children in 2012 but had since then been decreasing. Thailand’s Labor Protection Act of 1998 ensures that female employees are given ninety days of maternity leave. However, it does not ensure paid breastfeeding breaks for female employees. This directly results in an insignificant rise in continued breastfeeding through the first year of a child’s life. From 2005 to 2015, the average went from 31.6% to 33.3%. Significantly less male children get continued breastfeeding than females. UNICEF suggests that breastfeeding be continued through age two, so the Thai government should work on pushing to increase this percentage more drastically.  A cause of this slight increase could also be the cultural taboo surrounding breastfeeding in Thailand. According to Thailand Family Law, there are no laws that prevent mothers from breastfeeding in public. However, it is considered immodest and not acceptable in most public situations. 

 

Thailand believes that the best way to continue to improve these statistics would be to educate children on proper, nutritious eating in childhood and later life, make unhealthy food less accessible, and encourage and inform mothers more about breastfeeding. UNICEF can help provide aid for these causes in several ways. Firstly, an international education program for children on how and why eating healthy is important. This program would be added to the public school curriculum, therefore making it easily accessible to most children. Secondly, an effort to normalize breastfeeding in Thailand and other countries where it is considered inappropriate. UNICEF could also push countries with low breastfeeding rates to make more accessible, public stations for breastfeeding and pass legislation giving working mothers paid breaks from work to breastfeed their children. 

 

  • : Thailand
  • : Marley Mack

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November 11, 2019

Russia

World health organization

Infant and Child Nutrition

Royal Oak High School

Katie Binkowski

Infant and Child nutrition has become a very large issue in today’s day and age.  It can be as prominent as Venezuela’s Humanitarian Emergency, but it also is the issue that children all over the world are not getting proper nutrition.  The main nutritional problems of the Russian population are stunting in children, micronutrient deficiencies for both adults and children and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults.

Policymakers Have little understanding of their economic and social determinants, which is leading to child malnutrition, so a question to think about in committee is How can we better inform Policymakers so that they will have a better understanding of why this issue is occurring and how it can be stopped? Russia labels its food with its nutritional value on its package but a lot of countries do not do this, so how can we encourage countries to list or label the nutritional value on their food packaging?  Due to Russia’s policy toward food production, our citizens are informed of the importance of good nutrition, and we want more countries to educate their children and parents about the importance of good nutrition.

Russia believes a good resolution would include the encouragement for countries to list or label the nutritional value on their food packaging. To combat child malnutrition policymakers need to have a better understanding of its economic and social determinant Russia would support a resolution with a similar objective to that of the Russian health policy.

Russia looks forward to discussing this topic further with all other nations in the committee.

http://www.fao.org/3/y5069e/y5069e06.htm

https://www.ciaonet.org/record/1715?search=1

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481043/

  • : Russia
  • : Katie Binkowski

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Committee: WHO
Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition
School: Williamston High School



    Children. The future of this world. It is commonly believed that our children of tomorrow are going to be the ones to fix the problems of today, but if the children of tomorrow aren’t given the proper care, how will they ever be able to fix anything? One of the most important factors of childcare is child nutrition. Child nutrition is incredibly important as children need proper nutrients to grow up healthy and strong. Nutrition for children also helps establish a foundation for healthy eating habits and a healthy relationship with food. Child and Infant nutrition is the key to raising the future generation to be more healthy and prosperous. However, the world has a long way to go in order to fix the problem of child and infant nutrition. Globally there were 149 million children under the age of 5 who were stunted, 49 million who were severely underweight and 40 million who were overweight. This is an issue that must be resolved in order to save the future children of tomorrow from becoming part of this statistic. 

 

    The children in Morocco are no exception. It is said that 25 out of every thousand babies die during their first month alive. In a report done by the world food bank and “nutrition at a glance” 15% of infants are born with a low birth weight, and about 70% of children are not exclusively breastfed until the recommended 6 months. 23% of children under the age of five are stunted, 9% are underweight, and 10% are extremely underweight. 16% under the age of 5 are overweight. All of this is due to the lack of proper nutrition in families. There is much that still needs to be done in our country and that is what Morocco would like to discuss at this WHO meeting.

 

    Morocco wants to discuss a few different things in order to help the children. First, it has been incredibly common, but education needs to play a big role in order to help the children truly succeed in life. In order to help with the education of our children. Because of national sovereignty, it is difficult to make a curriculum that will appease all countries and cultures, but if this curriculum used broad and slightly vague terms, it could be interpreted in different ways based on your country or culture. This ensures that all countries that use the curriculum have the same understanding on how to properly take care of a child’s nutrition. Secondly, it is very important that the WHO tries to fund organizations that prom. Third and final, Morocco thinks that we must put on a positive role model for the children of tomorrow, because truthfully we can do whatever we want and nothing would happen if the children and infants have bad role models. 

  • : Morocco
  • : Emily Preston

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Committee: WHO
Topic: Child and Infant Nutrition
School: Williamston High School

Children. The future of this world. It is commonly believed that our children of tomorrow are going to be the ones to fix the problems of today, but if the children of tomorrow aren’t given the proper care, how will they ever be able to fix anything? One of the most important factors of childcare is child nutrition. Child nutrition is incredibly important as children need proper nutrients to grow up healthy and strong. Nutrition for children also helps establish a foundation for healthy eating habits and a healthy relationship with food. Child and Infant nutrition is the key to raising the future generation to be more healthy and prosperous. However, the world has a long way to go in order to fix the problem of child and infant nutrition. Globally there were 149 million children under the age of 5 who were stunted, 49 million who were severely underweight and 40 million who were overweight. This is an issue that must be resolved in order to save the future children of tomorrow from becoming part of this statistic. 

The children in Morocco are no exception. It is said that 25 out of every thousand babies die during their first month alive. In a report done by the world food bank and “nutrition at a glance” 15% of infants are born with a low birth weight, and about 70% of children are not exclusively breastfed until the recommended 6 months. 23% of children under the age of five are stunted, 9% are underweight, and 10% are extremely underweight. 16% under the age of 5 are overweight. All of this is due to the lack of proper nutrition in families. There is much that still needs to be done in our country and that is what Morocco would like to discuss at this WHO meeting.

Morocco wants to discuss a few different things in order to help the children. First, it has been incredibly common, but education needs to play a big role in order to help the children truly succeed in life. In order to help with the education of our children. Because of national sovereignty, it is difficult to make a curriculum that will appease all countries and cultures, but if this curriculum used broad and slightly vague terms, it could be interpreted in different ways based on your country or culture. This ensures that all countries that use the curriculum have the same understanding on how to properly take care of a child’s nutrition. Secondly, it is very important that the WHO tries to fund organizations that prom. Third and final, Morocco thinks that we must put on a positive role model for the children of tomorrow, because truthfully we can do whatever we want and nothing would happen if the children and infants have bad role models.

  • : Morocco
  • : Emily Preston

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Delegate: Emma Ellefson-Frank

School: Williamston High School

Country: Afghanistan

Committee: World Health Organization

Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

 

In 2018, the World Health Organization estimated that for children under five years, 22% were suffering from stunted growth, 17 million were wasting (below average weight for age), and 45% in Africa alone were overweight but malnourished. Not only do these alarming numbers represent children who do not have access to proper vitamins and minerals, but it also shows the number of children who are more susceptible to disease and death. Thankfully, since the United Nations declared the decade for action on nutrition in 2016, member states have started taking steps to improve access to high nutrient foods as well as educating the public on how to stay eating healthy. Additionally, WHO has launched several programs that stress the importance of breastfeeding through infancy which has been proven to build a child’s antibodies and immune system allowing them to more easily fight diseases. However, infant and child nutrition continues to be a problem because over the underlying problem of poverty and social inequity which pose barriers to proper nutrition. 

At 41%, Afghanistan has one of the highest rates of stunted growth in the entire world. And at 9%, Afghanistan also has a very high rate of wasting. This is the result of multiple factors the first of which is that only 50% of children in Afghanistan are breastfed. Also, children in Afghanistan simply do not have access to the right kinds and varieties of food.  And to add, the limited number of medical professionals in Afghanistan are unable to give adequate advice to preventing malnutrition. All of these things have led to an increased rate of child malnutrition as well an increased rate of anemia, now at about 33%, in adolescent girls. While Afghanistan has been working with UNICEF to address these issues and more there is still a long way to go before the nation will be content with its child nutrition rates.

 

The nation of Afghanistan believes that addressing infant and child nutrition requires a variety of steps: education and reduction of stigma, training for medical professionals on the topic of nutrition, and improving accessibility to nutritional foods. First, while breastfeeding has proven to have incredible health benefits for children, some cultures still hold stigmas against it. To combat this, Afghanistan suggests working with experts on regional culture to teach residents about not only the importance of breastfeeding but also the acceptability of it. Additionally education on what foods are best for children is necessary for the general population. Second, Afghanistan seeks to develop an internationally cooperative program to train doctors in countries with struggling healthcare systems, about how to treat and prevent malnutrition. Lastly, even if people are educated about proper nutrition and doctors know how to properly advise patients, it means nothing if this committee does not increase access to nutrient filled foods. One way that the WHO can do this is by incentivising grocery stores and farmers ,with tax cuts or some other form financial payoff, to lower the cost of produce and meats. Afghanistan looks forward to working with all nations as this is a problem that truly affects the whole world in one way or another.

 

  • : Afghanistan
  • : Emma Ellefson-Frank

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11/13/19

SUBMITTED TO: WHO
FROM: Madagascar

SUBJECT: Infant and Child Nutrition

Proper nutrition for children is an issue affecting Madagascar (as well as much of the rest of Africa) very strongly at the moment. Stunted growth due to malnutrition affects nearly half (roughly 47%) of all children in Madagascar. Severe acute malnutrition affects roughly 8% of Malagasy people under the age of 5. Malnutrition has effects on a person for the rest of their life, and changes everything from physical development and growth to intellectual maturation. Madagascar is currently the 7th-most malnourished country on Earth, and it’s not just children being affected; that applies across all people. Much has been done to combat malnutrition in Madagascar and around the world recently, but clearly more still must be done before we can consider this issue solved. It will take many years to reverse the effects, but it can be done.

Although this is not only an issue affecting children, it is most detrimental to kids. UNICEF and WHO as a whole have been hard at work to solve the issue for a very long time, and it is still a major issue but it is getting better with time. A study done in 2015 by NYU’s School of Medicine found that some of the largest barriers to proper nutrition were money and access, as well as general unawareness of nutritional needs for a child, and an insufficient variety of foods. Many families in Madagascar grow their own food, which is one of the biggest factors in all of these barriers. As of right now, UNICEF is already working on increasing awareness not only among citizens but among the government too. They are working towards very fast responses to crises, as well as going out into the community and assisting mothers and children with awareness of issues. However, these solutions have still not been implemented everywhere (examples provided above are being used in Madagascar). We believe malnutrition is devastating to everyone, and more should still be done to assist malnourished children the world over.

According to the official UNICEF website, “A group of leading economists, the Copenhagen Consensus, has consistently confirmed that taking action on undernutrition is the single most important, cost-effective means of advancing human well-being.” Malnutrition is one of the most pressing issues on the world, and much can be done to assist those suffering from it. The Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement is doing good work bringing awareness to the issue, but this initiative is still only 10 years old. We believe that a successful solution will include not only increased awareness among mothers and children, but also direct assistance for those who have no way of getting healthy foods on their own. The barriers mentioned in the previous paragraph apply to many malnourished families, and in order to fix them, merely talking about the issue will not be enough. Direct action must be taken to get families the nutrition they need.  We are not by any means arguing that awareness campaigns are not a solution; they can be and are very effective. Some aspects of malnutrition can be solved more easily. UNICEF cites breastfeeding as “the closest thing the world has to a magic bullet for child survival”. Awareness of this fact has not yet spread to much of the world, and so malnutrition is still a large issue.

We hope that this committee will be very productive on this issue, and that much advancement can be made on this very pressing matter. Many solutions are already in the works (or currently being carried out), but more can still be done.

 

  • : Madagascar
  • : Gavin Warner

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Rwandan children and children of other African nations alike have been detrimentally affected by malnutrition. Throughout the world, we are seeing an inadequate amount of nutrients being consumed by our youth which is leading to malnutrition and, in severe cases, stunting. Every single country is affected by one or more of these issues. We have seen trepidation regarding infant and child nutrition cascade through generations. As the United Nations, we must come together and create a well devised plan to lower the number of children with malnutrition and increase access to nutrients for our youth.

The Republic of Rwanda has made exceptional advances in combating malnutrition considering the hardships of rebuilding our economy. Stunting has diminished in our country from 44% in 2010 to 38% in 2015. Still, around 800,000 of our 0-5 year olds are stunted.

One way we have taken steps towards improving nutrition for infants and children is holding our biannual Mother and Child Health Week. This week is intended to improve the health of mothers and their children by providing supplements for breastfeeding mothers, detecting malnutrition among kids under five, along with other positive promotions for the betterment of motherhood and childhood. Millions of children were helped during these weeks, but along with these children, there are millions of children around the world that need proper nutrients and education on healthy eating. 

Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) is a for-profit project that we and 60 other nations have joined to end malnutrition. Their focus is to bring light to the importance of nutrition on a universal scale. A partner of SUN, Africa Improved Foods (AIF), has helped Rwanda by devoting their attention to agriculture and local food manufacturing work. They have reached 2 million Rwandan children suffering from malnutrition and/or stunting. Although SUN is a for-profit, they have given countless favors to communities and provide an opportunity for countries to collaborate and unite. They are working with upwards of 3,000 organizations, including 5 United Nations Agencies. AIF is a public-private partnership with the Rwandan Government and any profit made above basic commercial return is given to the Rwandan Government to help with nutritional programs. Profit is neither of these organizations motive, but without an income they would not be able to provide sufficient help.

As UNICEF puts it, “good nutrition is the bedrock of child survival”. The mortifying fact that 45% of child deaths are due to undernutrition shows how important it is to decrease-and eventually nullify-this percent. Many organizations are strong advocates for stressing the fact that the first 1000 days of a child’s life are vital for their future health. Our efforts are a step in the right direction, but are not enough to end undernutrition. The WHO has two successful departments, the Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health and the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, which should be called upon in committee to promote education in countries with a high percent of infants and children that suffer from malnutrition as well as countries with high obesity rates within their youth. A goal of ours that is very attainable is to turn our biannual Women and Child Health Week into a biannual Universal Women and Child Health Week. African nations should be encouraged to work with AIF to devise a sustainable agricultural plan to provide nutritious foods for infants and children. We should look favorably upon using the ideals that SUN has to offer to guide us in devising our plan to battle infant and child malnutrition.

Infant and Child Nutrition has polarizing sides in our world: malnutrition and obesity. Both are heavily influenced by a lack of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients necessary for healthy development. We believe that in order to successfully design the most effective and long-lasting resolutions our committee must devise two resolutions: one that focuses on combating malnutrition, and one that will fight for an end to obesity. With our scarce time in committee it is only reasonable that we make use of the time we have and efficiently create two resolutions that are clear for each subject instead of one vague, limited resolution that will not have as great of an impact considering some countries are dealing with malnutrition more severely than obesity and vice versa. Rwanda looks forward to leading the committee in a powerful and measured way by putting our full focus towards the realization of our planned malnutrition resolution and working with our allies around the globe that have also been impacted by child growth stunting to stand as a united front in combating infant and child malnutrition.

 

  • : Rwanda
  • : Athena Barrer

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Established in the Convention of the Rights of the Child, all children and infants have the right to nutritious food. Adequate nutrients in the first stages of life are a necessity to the child’s survival, including mental and physical development. Proper nutrition of children have been shown to have a direct correlation between good educational and occupational outcomes. Improving the nutritional habits of infants and children is a key piece in reducing poverty, thus being connected to infant and child nutrition . Lack of education in both breastfeeding mothers, and children can cripple the mental foundation of a child. Societies that belittle women for breastfeeding their child, are taking an active part in disrupting the fundamental intake of nutrients. Both malnutrition and stunted growth from micronutrition are direct factors of the child mortality rate. Malnutrition can be affected by nutrient deficiency and underconsumption of calories.

 

Denmark has two sets of unofficial dietary recommendations. The first being the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) . In these guidelines it is laid out that people should eat a variety of foods, be physically active, eat lots of fruits and vegetables, eat more fish, choose whole grains, and consume less sodium. The FBDG communicates to Danish people a concept of a healthy lifestyle to all above the age of two. The other dietary recommendation program is the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). The NNR describes which foods are good for human health, they also include recommendations of portions of intake amounts of nutrients. Advice is also provided from the NNR on how to improve diets. 

 

Denmark would propose a solution that nations should implement a nutrition program tha

 

t suggested nutritious food to the people, and cheapened the prices of healthy foods, to target them to poorer families. Another possible solution would be to increase the tax on unhealthy foods, to reduce the number of obese peoples. Creating an NGO comprised of nutritionists and sending them into regions where people are uneducated on consuming both the proper amounts of food and proper amounts of nutrients in each meal could also work. Nutritional programmes could be implemented into people’s occupations, children’s schools and even everyday at home. Denmark would look for allies in countries where food nutritional education is prevalent. Solving this issue first can spark changes in poverty levels, adulthood obesity, and establishing lifelong nutritional habits. Lastly, increasing the taxation of unhealthy foods to drive nations to develop healthier eating habits.

 

  • : Denmark
  • : Benjamin Gutting

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Country: Kuwait

Committee: WHO

Topic: Infant and Child Nutrition

Delegate: Aliana Hermann-Campana

School: Williamston High School

 

The issue of a healthy and nutritious diet for infants and children is key in ensuring a healthy and successful future society. The rapid increase of children who suffer from malnutrition and/or are overweight is alarming. Unhealthy food directly impacts children far beyond the early years; according to the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) malnutrition puts children at a higher risk of poor brain development, weak learning, low immunity to infections, and increased infections. Children who had good nutrition go on to achieve a more successful adulthood, gaining a better education outcome and often a higher income. 340 million, or 1 in 2, children suffer from deficiencies in essential vitamins and nutrients. The people suffering the most from malnutrition are the ones in the poorest and most marginalized communities, demonstrating how poverty is a cause of malnutrition and also a possible result since children with higher nutrition are generally more successful. While children living in poverty have higher rates of malnutrition, this does not mean that the children in high-income environments are not impacted by malnutrition and obesity. Weak policies, over-advertisement of unhealthy products, and a lack of health guidelines in schools lead to many adolescents and children learning unhealthy eating habits. Over 40% of school going adolescents consume fast-food at least once a week according to research done by UNICEF. The issue of malnutrition and obesity is widespread and directly related to poverty levels, making it incredibly urgent to find solutions that are effective and efficient.

In recent years Kuwait established a program called the Kuwait National Programme for Healthy Living. The First Five Year Plan (2013-2017) was established to address the complex issue of an unhealthy lifestyle and to attempt to provide a solution by addressing the many factors: physical, societal, and psychosocial. These factors include smoking, lack of exercise, poor diet, alcohol abuse, mental illnesses, low education, dissatisfaction with status, being a member of a racial or ethnic minority, and/or being subjected to social stressors. There is high concern in Kuwait that with the rapid urbanisation and lifestyle changes that arrived with the rapidly increasing oil-wealth, the probability of chronic diseases might increase in the near future. This plan was targeted to solve the problem of obesogenic urbanization by targeting different demographics with different educational and informational techniques to instill a healthy lifestyle in the society.

 

The international community should follow the example of Kuwait and take steps to analyze and solve the issue of infant and child nutrition under individual governments and take into account the social, economic, and physical factors, as well as the different influences on different demographics. The most important demographic for solving infant malnutrition are the parents, because they influence their child(ren) for the most important years regarding nutrition. Educational services should be provided through the workplace and NGOs to help increase the understanding of the issue, which starts at birth. Promotion of different products through media should be regulated to some extent to reduce the exposure of young children to unhealthy habits. Among others, the stigma around breastfeeding should be addressed and reduced to help increase the chance of a healthy lifestyle for infants and children all around the globe.

 

  • : Kuwait
  • : Aliana Hermann-Campana

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Country:Brazil
Committee:WHO
Topic:Infant and Child Nutrition
Delegate:Harrison Powell
School: Williamston High School

Children lacking natural healthy nutrition has been declining in recent years. In some studies child obesity and disproportionate Body mass index (BMI) has been linked to child neglect. Children with a BMI of 85% or over have increased 23% among preschoolers, 34% among elementary students, and 34% among adolescents (US Database). The first act to directly combat child nutrition was the Child Nutrition Act in the US passed by Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1981 the WHO accepted the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes. Child nutrition neglect needs to be stopped because it can cause life long disparities. Lack of nutrition has been linked to hypertension, asthma, musculoskeletal problems and sleep disorders. It is also contributed to type II diabetes, depression and social stigmatization.

 

An innovative and fairly recent treaty passed by the UN is the Universal Health Coverage treaty (UHC). Multiple countries including Brazil have started taking action towards the UHC’s goal. Goals the UHC ask for is too make healthcare more affordable and easier access to medical attention in areas where there is not any. Brazil has passed multiple policy acts to reduce poverty which directly affects child care and nutrition. Brazil passed the Income Transfer Programme (ITP) in the late 90’s. The ITP made sure that at the end of every month poor families were given a certain amount of money to put them over the poverty line. It also made sure that women and children went to primary health centres and that older children attended school regularly. Brazil is now a very successful country and produces the 4th highest GDP overall in South America. Currently Brazil’s ITP is recognized as one of the most advanced strategies to help a population out of poverty and child malnutrition is at an all time low of 6% of children are stunted due to lack of nutrition.

 

The country of Brazil plans to keep following their ITP policy and putting it forward to the international scale and also meeting the quota of the Universal Health Care plan. Brazil believes that stopping child malnutrition is exceptionally important and believes the UN should be able to intervene on individual countries to stop child malnutrition. The country of Brazil believes all countries will join them to stop the fight against child malnutrition.

  • : Brazil
  • : Harrison Powell

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Fiji 

WHO

Infant and Child Nutrition

Kyle Ritenour

Williamston High School

 

Nutrition is a significant part of all human lives. Specifically nutrition in the early years of a humans life is crucial to key developments like cognitive and speech skills. Nutritional standards can be divided into two parts: undernutrition, which is composed of not consuming enough calories and macronutrient debt which is a deficiency of vital vitamins, and children and infants not receiving adequate nutrition can cause a variety of effects. These effects include stunted growth, diminished cognitive abilities, becoming more vulnerable to diseases and infections. These nutritional complications remain critical factors in developing children and infant deaths worldwide. Predominantly the issue of nutrition is experienced in poverty stricken countries, making it a key topic when concerning how to support impoverished regions. Many ideas around the world have been spoken about globally. Some ideas require nutrition labels on food packages or vitamin additives to food. The issues with these ideas are that about a seventh of the world suffers from no electricity and do not have access to supermarkets with these “labels” and cannot afford to purchase “fortified” foods to support their families. Ideas must be sparked by influential global powers regarding how to support the less fortunate population in the world that experiences poverty and does not receive substantial assistance.

Fiji does not suffer as greatly as some other countries, but they still have a 28% population below the poverty line. 98.6 percent of citizens of Fiji have access to electricity. Fiji is extremely active in the prevention of child malnutrition. They have implemented multiple Programs and actions with WHO in their country. These actions have decreased the percent of malnourished children in Fiji significantly. Some past programs include FPAN (or Fiji Plan of Action for Nutrition). FPAN was initiated and published in 2010 and lasted for 4 years. This plan calls on NGOs to be active in participation of nutritional programmes, establishes a base for agricultural research on disaster preparedness and healthy crop production. Promotion for child nutrition is also encouraged at school in Fiji. The last goal of FPAN is to improve availability of nutritious food and increase land for agricultural purposes.

 

To resolve these global issues, countries and NGOs around the world must work together. They will be requested to start producing more nutritious foods. This could be encouraged using an incentive program. Having a larger number of nutritious foods on the food market increase will cause prices of those nourishing foods to decrease. It will also aid in developing a culture where eating healthy is encouraged resulting in parents supplying their children better foods. In addition the promotion of “healthy eating” though increased media time is crucial. Media outlets could include magazines, tv commercials, and posters. WHO could also possibly create a programme where less wealthy countries child population can consistently and effectively distribute vitamin rich foods. These foods would go to children who live in households that cannot afford “healthy” foods. This will fix the issues of poverty stricken countries young population not having a choice on nutrition, where they receive food that their parents provide.

 

  • : Fiji
  • : Kyle Ritenour

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Committee: World Health Organization
Topic: Infant & Child Nutrition
Country: Poland


Infant and Child nutrition is a very prevalent topic in today’s world. It is a topic that includes every continent, both developed and developing nations, both east and west. It affects so many because it is a multi-faceted topic. There are many aspects, all of which require special care and attention. Nutrition is a much larger topic than just satisfying hunger. Children all over the world are plagued by stunting from malnutrition, obesity from empty calories, and Type 2 Diabetes from high sugar intake. Although it is important to end hunger, eating the wrong way can create a whole plethora of new health problems such as stunted growth or obesity. In 2018 roughly 21.9% of children under five were reported as having stunted growth attributed to malnutrition. Another 5.9% of children under five were reported as being overweight from poor nutritional practices. These issues are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, but affect every place on the Earth. Poland believes that through a combination of educating children about nutrition and what makes up a healthy diet we can help give children a better chance at eating properly and avoiding potential health risks. It is also key that parents learn this information so that they can make the right choices for their young children. It is another belief of Poland that through funding aid programs, children everywhere can get a filling and nutritious meal that eliminates the chance of health risks.
Poland has contributed upwards of a million dollars USD to the World Food Programme, a branch of the United Nations that helps get children the food and nutrition that they require to be healthy in life. Poland has ratified the Food Assistance Convention treaty, a treaty that organizes food and nutritional aid to nations in need of such help. Domestically, the Polish government has taken it upon themselves to educate children about healthy eating habits such as limiting sugar and salt intake and eating a proper amount of fruits and vegetables. This is a key step in allowing children to become self dependent when it comes to making healthy dietary and nutritional choices. Because of these actions taken, Poland is on course to meeting its goals on stunting caused by malnutrition in children.
In conclusion, Poland suggests that the W.H.O. take an educational route that builds an understanding of proper nutritional and dietary practices in children and their parents. Children should be able to understand why an eating decision is healthy so that they can make the right decision every time. Parents should also receive this information so that they can make the right choices for infants and very young children. Poland also suggests an increase in funding to proper organizations that can help with the education process and the challenge of actually getting nutritionally rich food to families in need. Poland would support a resolution that has similarities to the Food Assistance Convention treaty ratified by Poland and many other nations and provides a clause that supports the education of families about dietary and nutritional needs. Poland looks forward to putting forth it’s ideas to combat malnutrition and hopes that there are many like-minded nations that support the educational approach that Poland has in mind to combat the issue of malnutrition in infants and children.

  • : Poland
  • : Tyler Ragan

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Good nutrition is the bedrock of child survival, health and development. Well-nourished children are better able to grow and learn, to participate in and contribute to their communities, and to be resilient in the face of disease, disasters, and other global crises, but for the millions of children suffering from malnutrition, the reality is stark. Every year, around 3 million children die due to undernutrition. For millions more, chronic malnutrition will result in stunting – an irreversible condition that literally stunts the physical and cognitive growth of children. Stunting affects 165 million children under 5 years of age around the world, and it can trap those children in a vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition.

Sweden has done a lot for child nutrition, only 23.5% of boys of 7 years of age are overweight and only 6.8% are obese. In addition 26.3% of 8 years old are overweight and 9.7% are obese. 22% of 7 year old Girls are overweight and 5.1% are obese. Of 8 year old girls 23.5% are overweight and 6.8% are obese.

 

One step we can take to fix the problem is we can have richer countries with higher obesity rates can take excess food and distribute it to countries with high malnutrition rates. An extra step to this is that malnutrition rich countries need to evenly distribute food regardless of poverty. A second thing we can do is we can have any extra area turned to greenhouses and farms to distribute more food. 

  • : Sweden
  • : Bryce Emmons

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