September 16, 2019
Username:
 In Central African Republic

Country: France
Delegate Name: Anna Crum

The Central African Republic (CAR) Civil War started with the 2004 CAR Bush War where General Francois Bozize overthrew the country’s first democratic president. Bozize seized Bangui, declared himself president and dissolved parliament. A transitional government is set up and Bozize is named the winner after a run-off vote. In August of 2005 20,000 people were homeless due to flooding in the capital and in June and continuing into the future people of CAR fled to Chad relating to this forgotten disaster. In December 2006, French fighter jets fired on rebel positions to support government troops who were trying to regain control of areas of the northeast. In February of 2007 the People´s Democratic Front signed a peace accord with President Bozize. In September of 2007, the UN Security Council authorized peace keeping force in order to protect those in Sudan from the violence that was spilling into the country from Darfur. In February of 2008, Uganda Lord’s Resistance Army rebels raided CAR. In June of 2008, the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UDFR) and the Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD) signed a peace agreement with the government that would involve disarmament and demobilization of rebel fighters. In September of 2008 Parliament adopted an amnesty law seen as the last remaining obstacle to successful end of peace talks between the rebels and the government. Things took a bad turn in 2009, in January the National unity government unveiled; it included leaders of the two main rebel groups. Main opposition UVNF criticizes the changes to the cabinet as insufficient. Later that same year in February Ugandan LAR rebels crossed into CAR. In March French troops reportedly deployed in Bangui after rebels infiltrated the capital. In April the government and rebels continue to clash. The UN Security Council decides to create a UN peacebuilding office for CAR to work on the ongoing instability in the country. In August the UN reported that more than a million people were affected by the civil unrest in CAR. In February of 2010, Rights groups, opposition and France called for proof into claims – denied by the authorities – that rebel leader Charles Massi was tortured to death in government custody. An election is set for April 25 in 2010 but opposition does not approve of this date due to fear that the election may be rigged. In April the election was postponed and Bozize’s term was extended until the election could take place. In May the UN Security councils voted for forces to withdraw from Chad and the CAR.

In January of 2011 Bozize won another term. CAR is said to be in a chronic medical emergency due to epidemic disease, conflict, and economic downturn in December 2011. In march of 2013 Seleka rebels took the capital and seized power while Bozize fled. The Rebel Leader Nichel Djotodia suspended the constitution and dissolved parliament in a coup, later that year he was sworn in as president. In September he dissolved Seleka. In October during 2013 the UN Security Council approved UN peacekeeping forces to be deployed. The troops were in addition to, and meant to help, the African Union troops on the ground as well as the French troops controlling the airport. The next year in April the council authorized a force of 12,000 peacekeeping force troops. In May of that same year, 2014, French and Estonian troops took charge of the airport security in Bangui due to a mandate from the European Union. In July a tumultuous ceasefire is put into place between Muslim Seleka rebels and Christian anti-balaka while talks happen in Brazzaville. Later that year, in September, the UN formally took over and augmented the African Union peacekeeping mission that had been renamed MINUSCA. In January of 2015, a year of fighting could have ended but the CAR government rejected a ceasefire deal made in Kenya between two militia groups, they said that it was not involved in the talks. The UN also accused Christian militia of ethnic cleansing. In this same year, it was discovered that Seleka fighters were illegally supplied with guns made in China and Iran due to research commissioned by the EU. In 2015 the UN says that tens of thousands have been forced to flee their homes due to surging violence in the CAR. These people have to flee to escape killings, rape, and pillaging by militias. In May there is a judicial investigation opened by prosecutors in France into alleged child abuse by French soldiers. In December of 2015 a new constitution was approved in a referendum. After a peaceful pass off of parliamentary and presidential elections the court annulled the results of the parliamentary poll supposedly because of irregularities. In 2016 Faustin-Archange Touadera won the presidential election in a run-off. In April of 2017 Uganda withdrew forces from the CAR after fighting the Lord’s Resistance Army for five years. A month later there was an upsurge of violence, partially blamed on the withdrawal of foreign forces. In this same month several UN peacekeepers were killed in a number of attacks including those on a base and a convoy. Tens of thousands were left without support in July of 2017 when several aid agencies withdrew because of violence. The UN refugee agency says that continuing violence has caused the highest level of displacement since 2013, the start of the crisis. More than 1 million people had been forced to leave their homes. In November of 2017 the mandate of MINUSCA was extended another year by the Security Council. Numbers were increased to 13,000 troops and police. In the beginning of 2018 the situation in the country is getting worse according to the International Committee of the Red Cross as half of the population is in need of humanitarian aid. Later that year in July three Russian Journalists were killed. They were reportedly working on a documentary about Wagner, a mercenary company that is Kremlin-linked and believed to be active in CAR. In 2020 President Touadera won re-election but Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, his main opponent, disputed the result. As of 2021 there are almost 16,000 MINUSCA personnel present throughout the country. Recently, France has frozen military ties with CAR after massive miss information campaigns attacking the French government and suspending about 10 million euros ($12.1 million) in budgetary support for CAR. France has frozen ties with Malian forces until it’s coup leaders comply with international demands to restore civilian rule.

France has four goals that it would like to focus on with the Central African Republic (CAR) Civil War and the conflict in the country. Again and Again the UN has seen agreements signed then broken, deals made and then unmade. For the sake of the people of the Central African Republic as well as for the country, surrounding countries, and the world as a whole France wants stability in the country. Instead of plans falling through, France would like to see a stable government in the CAR with stable control. The people of CAR deserve a stable life, and the start of this is a stable government, without constant conflict or changes of power. France’s second goal is making sure that all countries, the EU, and the UN are doing their job and not hurting the people that have already been through the unspeakable travesties they have faced. There have been to many cases of abuse of power, child abuse, and even possible war crimes being committed. As the countries that are providing aid, we must make sure that we are helping in every way possible, always being part of the solution, and never part of the problem. France wants the massive anti-France campaigns in the country to stop. France hopes to work closely with the CAR in the future but as these unstable conditions continue, France cannot currently keep it’s military ties. France wishes for the disinformation to stop as well as for coup leaders to comply with international demands to restore civilian rule. France is looking to support the people of CAR. Finally, France also hopes for the leader or leaders of the country to share the same goals of peace and prosperity that France, and the UN as a whole, have. France hopes that with time and stability the lives of everyone in CAR will improve drastically and the country can become a strong ally.

Although France has not necessarily signed any legislation relating directly the the Civil War in the Central African Republic France has been involved in the fight for the people of the Central African Republic and peace. In December 2006, French fighter jets fired on rebel positions to support government troops who were trying to regain control of areas of the northeast. In 2009 French troops reportedly deployed in Bangui after rebels infiltrated the capital. French troops controlled airports and French along with Estonian troops took control of airport security in Bangui. France, as part of the UN and EU, has been involved in the decisions of the UN and their choices to use peacekeeping forces and set up MINUSCA to aid the country as well as the decisions of the EU to send in troops to support the country. Currently 2.9 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance due to violence in the Central African Republic. An estimated 581,362 people have been displaced internally. And there are 14,749 UN personnel there. 1.3 million children in the CAR are in need of humanitarian assistance and 14,000 child soldiers have been recruited on all sides of the conflict.

While France is open to exploring new solutions we do not intend to further our financial support or send more troops into the country to support Malian forces until the disinformation campaigns have stopped, as much as possible, and for the government to be open to opposition figures in politics. France wants the people to decide and for them to have choices and be able to voice their true opinions. France is interested in the possibility of integrating Anti-Balaka structures into the security structure at village level. France thinks this could reduce violence and increase stability in the country. France would also be open to limited groups from both sides being integrated into the state security system. This could encourage reconciliation and help unite the country. France believes that this should be one of the possible solutions to the conflict that could be applied. France is open to many possible alliances if goals align. France is also particularly interested in the stances of the US, Germany, the UK, and Russia.

Sources:
https://apnews.com/article/central-african-republic-africa-central-africa-europe-france-e00cbffd3052c79e003eac997a62f5ca
https://reliefweb.int/report/central-african-republic/solutions-conflict-car-better-understanding-lasting-peace
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13150044
https://www.worldvision.ca/stories/disaster-relief/central-african-republic-conflict-fast-facts
https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/violence-central-african-republic

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