September 16, 2019
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Libya

General Assembly: Special Political Committee (SPECPOL)

Topic: Libya

Since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has been a powder keg. Alternating between ongoing stretches of outright civil war and fleeting periods of stability and progress, the country has failed to meet the optimistic expectations of the 2011 Arab Spring. The arc of the conflict can be broken into two distinct parts – the 2011 Revolution and Civil War which led to the removal of Gaddafi, and a Second Civil War which broke out in 2014. The story of the first is well-known, and ended with disparate rebel forces being consolidated into the National Transitional Council (NTC), recognized by the UN in September as the legitimate government of Libya. Despite the advent of the NTC, many differences between these rebel groups remained unresolved, sowing the seeds of a second civil war. As a result of elections in 2012, Libya as of early 2014 was governed by the General National Congress (GNC), a broad popular front composed of an uneasy alliance of Islamists affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood, and more secular moderates. The Islamists began to exert greater control over the government – voting to reinstitute sharia law, among other measures – and this resulted in secular-leaning General Khalifa Haftar launching a major military offensive aimed against the Islamists, code-named Operation Dignity.

Shortly thereafter, the GNC held new elections, which resulted in defeat for the Islamists; they subsequently refused to recognize the new House of Representatives (HoR), believing it to be dominated by former Gaddafi loyalists. Seizing Tripoli International Airport, they forced the HoR and Haftar’s forces to relocate to Tobruk. A ceasefire was signed in January 2015, and by the following December, a new unity government – the Government of National Accord (GNA) – was formed. After six months, however, Haftar and the HoR withdrew their support for the GNA and began moving their forces against their GNC rivals. Adding to the chaos was the rise (and later fall) of Islamic State forces in Libya over the course of 2016. As of September 2019, Haftar and the forces of the Libyan National Army (LNA), aligned with the Tobruk-centered HoR faction, have the upper hand. They have been laying siege to Tripoli off-and-on since April. Despite only exercising tenuous control over the capital, the GNA is still recognized by the international community as the legitimate government of Libya. Other countries in the region have been pulled into the conflict, either actively or through expressions of support – Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, Sudan, and Jordan on the side of the HoR, and Turkey and possibly Qatar on the side of the GNA.

Thousands of Libyans have been left internally displaced – many without access to basic services like electricity, water and healthcare. And today, lacking formal a single unified government, militias and armed groups, many with links to one of the two competing governments, exert control over large swaths of the country performing unlawful killings, acts of violence, disappearances, seizure of property and arbitrary detention. These forms of so-called “justice” exist while the official courts and legal system are largely too weak to function in a fair or timely manner. Abuse by these groups is not limited to Libyans, but has also affected refugees and migrants traveling through Libya’s borders, seeking safety and asylum in Europe. A new political settlement will be necessary – while secular forces may be in the driver’s seat, the Islamists aren’t going anywhere, and any lasting resolution to this conflict will have to take steps to accommodate both parties. In order to properly resolve this crisis, all of these facets must be taken into account and addressed, lest the Second Libyan Civil War stretch long into the next decade.

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Submitted Position Papers

Committee: SPECPOL

Topic: Lybia

Country: The Hellenic Republic

Delegate: Caroline Janei, FH Northern HS

After the death of Muammar Gaddafi, the president of Libya, Libyans elected the GNC. Unfortunately, the given deadline that they had to create a constitution failed to be met, plunging the country into chaos. There were many different powers fighting for control over the Libyan government, including the LNC, Daesh, and Al-Qaeda affiliated groups. There has been no central government and the country is currently split between the varying powers, though the GNA wishes to gain power, as to reunite the country. The number of weapons in the country only exacerbates the issue. Many of these powers are supported by other countries and are sending in arms, ignoring the international arms embargo of 2011. Because of the violence and the split government, many, if not most, Libyan citizens are without basic needs.

The Hellenic Republic has stayed fairly removed from this topic of conversation. Though, Greece has taken in several thousand refugees and continues to take in many more. Because of this influx of refugees, of course, Greece wants to end the violence. The Hellenic Republic, as a member of NATO, supports and helps provide for the NATO military troops that are currently in Libya, helping to try and protect the civilians. 

Greece suggests the full implementation of a unanimous resolution made within the UN, as well as a complete and total ceasefire, especially violence against Libyan civilians. 

 

  • The Hellenic Republic
  • Caroline Janei

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The situation in Libya is a painful proof of the tendency of the international community to turn its head at the atrocities being committed within different nations – especially when the country is having a socialist coup d’etat. This has happened on multiple occasions, including but not limited to Russia in 1917, China in 1946, and Ethiopia in 1974. Libya had a monarchy from 1951 until 1969, when Muammar Gaddafi staged an overthrow of the monarchy in favor of a socialist state. This coup d’etat set the stage for a changing political crisis that has been going on since. 

Canada’s involvement in Libya has been no exception to this neglect. Canada has only shown effort for the past eight years, starting in 2011. Even then, its involvement was completely based off of NATO agreements rather than a genuine humanitarian interest in the welfare of Libyan people. 

Canada firmly believes that earlier action ought to have been taken to aid Libya’s situation, and that Libya may have had a more stable government had it been given more attention in 1969 by the international community. We also believe that the instability of the Libyan government is a representation of the continuist failure that communist coups have proven worldwide as well as failure to vastly change a country’s form of government in too short a period of time. The international community must change its ways and no longer stand for this. 

 

The UN can solve the governmental crisis by 1) discussing the issue with both leaders of Libya’s factions 2) putting in troops from across the UN to maintain peace 3) merging the two factions into one united Libyan government without a centrally socialist system.

  • Canada
  • Giremt Benyam

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Angela Xu

Troy High School

Australia

     The ongoing fight for power and control between the General National Accord (GNA) and the General National Congress (GNC) of Libya has been drawn on for several years with no clear solution in sight. Not only has the conflict left a huge negative impact on the oil industry in Libya, after the Libyan National Army took over the National Oil Corporation 1 , the revenue generated from producing oil has gone directly to funding the GNC’s cause. This continuous cycle of economic and political instability has fueled a continually worsening humanitarian crisis. The Commonwealth of Australia remains neutral in this conflict, however, condemns both sides for the destruction and internal displacement this conflict has caused. Since the start of the conflict in 2011, the combination of economic instability, civil unrest, and armed conflict have caused an estimated 800,000 people to be in urgent need of humanitarian aid, of which more than half are internally displaced, and a quarter of which are children. 2 As oil production increases everyday, so does the number of people that are in critical need of healthcare, shelter, food, and other basic necessities. In the absence of a stable government, millions of people in the region are also facing human rights violations, a lack of infrastructure and education, Australia has worked with the United Nations in attempts to send aid to Libya, such as in Resolution 2486. 3 But without an increase in international involvement on this crisis, the death toll will continue to rise. However, Australia strongly urges member States to not get involved in regards to military aspects of the conflict (i.e. supplying arms, funding troops), for the only result will be added violence and instability in the region. Our delegation encourages this committee to making sending humanitarian aid our main priority. Apart from the few UN plans — such as the Humanitarian Response Plan 4 —- and the work of small nonprofit organizations, very little attention has been given to the lack of basic necessities and rights millions of Libyans have. The Commonwealth of Australia hopes to change this though leading by example, our government works with organizations like Red Star One to provide Libyans with over 150 tons of supplies and providing 25 million in relief efforts. 5 Even though a permanent solution that can bring an end to the violence and political instability seems unlikely due to the failure of previous compromises like the Libyan Political Agreement, Australia expresses its hopes that we can lessen the severity of the humanitarian crisis in the region through larger collaboration with nonprofits and other organizations to bring funds, medical supplies, food, and shelter to the hundreds of thousands of people in the region who suffer the direct consequences of this ongoing conflict. 

  • Australia
  • Angela Xu

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Rachel Kozlowski

Country: Hungary

Topic: Libya

The current crisis in Libya, a North African country, began with the civil war and fall of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011. A second civil war erupted in 2014, and there has yet to be a significant period of political stability in the country since. LIbya is of special interest to many countries due to it being Africa’s largest proven oil reserve. The official government, the GNA, is recognized by the United Nations but is split into rival armed factions and only controls a small portion of the state. Without a unified government, military groups commit atrocities throughout the country, thousands of refugees flee into Europe, and the Libyan public is left in turmoil and danger.

Currently, Hungary is working with Libya to provide health treatment to the people of Libya. The European Union is heavily affected by the issues in Libya, and the refugee crisis has left many leaders concerned over the safety of their borders. Without proper border security in Libya, terrorist groups and people smuggling will continue to endanger the population. 

 

The delegation of Hungary believes the European Union should first focus on securing the protection of the EU’s external borders to solve the refugee crisis. Hungary’s Prime Minister has proposed the development of a city on the Libyan coast for refugees to safely seek asylum. In addition to this, Hungary seeks to secure the Southern border of Libya to combat the illegal immigration and people smuggling that continues to pose a threat to Europe.

  • Hungary
  • Rachel Kozlowski

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Committee: SPECPOL (Libya)

Country: Saudi Arabia

Libya Conflict

Since the ousting and death of Muammar Gaddafi, the former dictator of Libya, in late 2011, the country has spent the last part of the decade embroiled in a conflict of democratic struggle and power. Most pressing to the development of this issue is the over 25,000 Libyans that have been left internally displaced in the midst of this conflict, left without many basic resources necessary to survival. Since the failed 2011 Arab Spring, the country has made a quick descent into chaos. Although the Government of National Accord (GNA) is still internationally recognized by the UN as Libya’s legitimate government, as of September 19, the GNA severely struggled to be recognized by Libya, only able to exert insubstantial control over the capital city of Libya, Tripoli. The opposing Libyan National Army (LNA) and House of Representatives (HoR), led by General Khalifa Haftar, have begun laying siege to the capital in hope for gaining political control. Additionally, an ISIS branch sprung up in the country as well, further complicating matters in the country. 

As of April 2019, Saudi Arabia has “promised tens of millions of dollars to help pay for the operation [in support of Haftar].” Saudi Arabia personally believes in the need to eradicate the presence of terrorist groups and militia in the country, a cause Haftar has dedicated himself to since the beginning of the emergence of the Libyan crisis when he was able to declare victory over ISIS in Libya in 2017. Haftar is an avowed opponent of Islamic extremism, an idealism Saudi Arabia earnestly supports. Recently, the GNA has been accused of aligning itself with some Islamist militants and political factions with links to the Brotherhood. Even President Donald Trump reversed US policy in Libya to back Khalifa Haftar, the eastern Libyan commander seeking to capture Tripoli. 

 

That being said, Saudi Arabia would also like to follow the United State’s initiative in encouraging a halt to violence and a return to political talks. Additionally, we support the condemnation of the use of force against civilians and of violations of international humanitarian law, with the credible prospect of international action should such actions escalate. The core of this issue still resolves that Libya must prevent the endangering of its civilians and undermine prospects for a better future for all Libyans.

  • Saudi Arabia
  • Katie Zhao

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Libya

Due to the assassination of Muammar Gaddafi Libya has plunged into a state of disaster, with civil war and bursts of growth in between. Many Libyans have lost their homes and daily live necessities like water, food and electricity. Most of the population is also internally displaced due to this massive issue. Both the groups, the islamists and the Libyans have tried to conceal their want for war but this has never worked out due the pursuits of both the groups at each other. The government of Libya is in crisis as well due to the split and the disagreements between the political leaders. The GNC initially allied the moderates of Libya with the Islamists, but they could never agree with each other but were put on cease fire on 2015. But that cease fire was broken and a second civil war had started. The Libyan government does not have the resources or power to sop this, so they require support of other countries.

 

Sri Lanka used to be a major supporter of Mummar Gaddafi’s work and were very close friends with him. Due to his assassination, the Sri Lankan Government was enraged and wanted the reasons for the assassination. Sri Lanka thought of this action as unnecessary. The country decided to capture multiple Libyan rebel force leaders and execute them due to their evil deeds. They also wanted to show the Islamist their hatred for them.

 

To solve this major issue, the delegation of Sri Lanka would like to us military force to solve the problem with the two groups. We would like the help of military forces to place soldiers in Libya Yao control the Islamist group and the actions they are taking. Sri Lanka can also recommend the country a 3 year cease fire in which both sides could have a convention to discuss their problems and come up with a solution in the 3 year time frame. We would have representatives from other countries there to recommend ways to solve this issue as a source of information.

  • Sri Lanka
  • Arya Prasad

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Topic B: Libya

The State of Libya has been lacking a stable authority that the citizens can depend on, ever since the fall of their long-term leader, Muammar Gaddafi. It has directly led to a power vacuum, with rival governments and groups separately taking over security and enforcement in the west and the east, civil war has quickly ensued. The residents of Libya are the ones feeling the effects, they have become refugees in their own country – their standard of living is slowly decreasing along with the political situation in Libya. Colombia prioritizes the safety of civilians caught in the crossfire between rival groups and mediation between the GNA and the LNA. In this current day and age with constant poverty and conflict, states must make the decision to take on their responsibilities under international law. Colombia has recently taken in 1.5 million Venezuelan refugees in a defense of brotherhood and unity. Though, unfortunately, the Republic of Colombia itself is not in an ideal situation or location to tend to Libyans in danger. Colombia still faces the remains of its own political rivalry similar to the Libya conflict. The disputes between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia have left the country in a state of weakness, even unable to provide for its own civilians and current migrants. This internal situation causes Libyans settling in Colombia to be very unrealistic, with such great cultural and physical distances. In the end, efforts must be made in Libya to address the root of the problem, finding common ground between the multiple authorities in the country. The Libya situation is not primarily a conflict that can afford solutions that take years to implement successfully, it is affecting human lives and the entire stability of a country at this very moment. The upcoming decade in Libya will be determined by the actions taken. Thus, Colombia advocates these following solution ideas – able states taking in Libyans, peace agreements between the two major groups and aid for local NGOs to provide assistance if relocation is not reasonable. First, states that have the immediate resources to care for Libyans seeking refuge, should try to take them in for the time being, as much as the current condition of their country allows. During a civil war, leaving a country can become a difficult endeavor. The more geographically close a country is, the more the danger can be reduced. Secondly, local NGOs, like the International Rescue Committee Libya (IRC) can be adequately supported with materials and funds to assist in-need Libyans from directly in the country’s borders. 

  • Colombia
  • Rena Foo

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Topic 2: Libya

Country: Syria

Delegate: Raeeda Rahman

            After the 2011 Revolution and Civil War, Libya remained unstable, for both the government and its civilians. The country continues to have no government, and Islamist groups are beginning to exert their power onto this unstable government. While many interventions have occurred, the GNC and GNA secure this government and provide a temporary alliance. Yet, many citizens remain impoverished and violent outbreaks occur, killing many civilians.

The prime minister of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi, was assassinated on October 20, 2011. Since then, organizations such as the GNC have taken control of the country, claiming it was for the better of the nation. GNC was formally elected, but after many years pf no reelection, the GNC continues its power within the country. Accusations of the GNC being corrupt, suppressing the rights of women, and overall detrimental for the country’s future have been faced. Members within the GNC have boycotted and threatened to institutionalize sharia law, the Islamic law. GNC has been also connected to many political leaders’ assassinations. Because of this, there is a general discourse amongst the civilians. The country remains in parts, with different groups having different portions of the country. Many citizens are left without water, electricity, healthcare. Additionally, military groups from within and other countries continue to infiltrate and cause panic amongst the citizens.

While many peace efforts have been made, both through the UN and not, none have provided any immediate effects. This war is a war on terrorism, rather than the interest of the nation. Because of this, most efforts for a resolution do not cooperate with these terrorist groups, and more violence and attacks occur as backlash. Each resolution requires full cooperation from all territorial groups and and equal contribution from each. The resolution required will need to be achieved in parts, such as the three-point peace plan proposed by Ghassan Salamé.

Syria does not have any direct relations in Libya’s civil war. However, Syria continues to face similar issues with terrorist and islamic groups threatening the government and causing a nation to deteriorate and uproar in chaos. Syria believes the only way to solve the extensive problem in Libya is to come to a peaceful agreement between all groups and political parties. The most important resolution will need to be an immediate government.  This will establish protection for Libya’s civilians, especially providing water, electricity, and healthcare for all. To establish this government, peaceful interventions between GNA, HoR, and other terrorist groups through the UN and NGOs will need to take place. A full democracy will need to ensure that violent outbreaks will not occur, and no threats take place. Afterwards, proper boundaries for each group will take place, ensuring that each group is satisfied with the territory and civilians currently living there will not be affected. NGOs and the UN will also ensure refugee protection for incoming refugees and those currently staying within Libya.

The situation in Libya is currently of utmost importance for the nation itself as well as the other nations involved/surrounding it. Refugees from surrounding countries will need protection, and the civilians living in Libya require basic human needs to fulfill their life without anyone infringing on their rights. The solution above bears in mind the importance of cooperation between all members and will guarantee a successful result without diminishing the nation’s national sovereignty.

  • Syria
  • Raeeda Rahman

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After the first Libyan Civil War ended in 2011 control over the military and politically was unstable. Fighting between factions escalated in 2014 with the House of Representatives, in the city of Tobruk, claiming to be the legitimate government of Libya. The House was supported by Field Marshall Khalifa Haftar and the Libyan National Army. A rival government was later established in early 2016, in Tripoli, known as the Government of National Accord (GNA) with Prime Minister Fayez Al-Sarraj the support of the UN and several other countries. Many attempts were made to negotiate between the two governments and to organize elections. A conference was to be held to recommend to the House of Representatives and High Council of State dates to hold parliamentary elections. The conference also aimed to create a unified government between Sarraj and Haftar as well as creating a framework for a constitution. This Libyan National Conference was set to be held in April 2019 but was postponed due to the advancements of Haftar’s forces and the Western Libyan Offensive. On April 4th Marshall Haftar declared war on the GNA and stated that he would take Tripoli by military force. Soon after Prime Minister Sarraj and the GNA presidential council responded by ordering the mobilization of all security forces.

On February 22nd, 2011 Peru became the first of several countries to cut diplomatic relations with Libya in response to the actions of dictator Muammar Gaddafi and his regime. This severing of diplomatic relations was done in “hopes of highlighting the grave situation in Libya”. Peruvian President Alan garcia condemned the developments in Libya and said ““Peru expresses its most energetic protest at the repression carried out by the Libyan dictatorship of Muammar Gaddafi against his people, who are demanding democratic reforms to change a government led by the same person for 40 years.” Peru does not wish to become involved in the issue only to draw attention to it in hopes that something will be done.

 

Peru does not condone the violence against civilians that is occuring in Libya with the current civil war. Peru believes a no-fly zone should be implemented over Libya to ensure fighter jets are not used against civilians. Peru also suggests that the UN place sanctions on Libya to possibly coerce the country to stop fighting so that negotiations may begin and peace can be restored.

  • Peru
  • Nicholas Lagazo

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Special Political Committee

Libyan Crisis

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Jesse Yang

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The asassination of Muammar Gaddafi has plunged Libya into a state of disaster, with civil war and bursts of growth in between. This conflict has led to thousands of Libyans left to be internally displaced, without access to basic services such as electricity, healthcare, and water. Although the United Nations has tried to find an agreement to these conflicts, a stable solution has not been achieved. The Government of National Accord (GNA) is internationally recognized as Libya’s legitimate government; however, as of September 19, the GNA has been struggling to be recognized by Libya, with only tenuous control over the capital city, Tripoli. The opposing Libyan National Army (LNA) and House of Representatives (HoR), led by General Khalifa Haftar has been laying siege to the capital since April. These dire circumstances require immediate action from the United Nations.

 

As a similarly sized third world country, The Republic of the Union of Myanmar relates to Libya on its struggle with internal conflict. Myanmar is in a similar position, with Bangladeshi terrorists hurting the country. Due to these circumstances, as well as the geographical and social divide between the countries, Myanmar is a poor candidate for Libyan refugees to relocate to. Myanmar is located in Southeast Asia, which would be a drastic change of culture, religion, and language for the vast majority of Libyans, who are Islamic. Myanmar also believes that it will not be able to send Libya much in the form of financial aid, due to Myanmar’s economy being very undeveloped. However, many non-governmental organizations (NGO) could help Libya, such as the International Rescue Committee (IRC), an international organization that provides healthcare and protection to displaced and vulnerable Libyans, and is one of the few that support people inside Libya. This humanitarian relief provided to people inside the country can serve as a base for refugees until they are able to emigrate safely to another country or until the conflict can be resolved.

 

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar believes that solving the Libyan crisis must involve multiple different answers. For short term relief, Libya and the United Nations can work together with NGOs such as the IRC to support internally displaced Libyans with their basic needs such as water, electricity and healthcare. The United Nations and Libya can build off of their temporary solution to the displaced persons by finding suitable countries for the vast number of refugees, most of which are Islamic in religion. This country should have open refugee policies, be geographically close to Libya, be stable and peaceful, accept muslims and the islamic religion into their society, and have enough open land for refugee camps. One potential candidate could be Algeria, which borders the western front of Libya, is an islamic country, is quite large, and has no major internal conflicts. However, Algeria has set a precedent of inhumanely treating and turning away sub-Saharan migrant refugees, so Libya and the United Nations should proceed with caution. Finally, the United Nations and warring factions of Libya must come to a peace agreement that leaves both parties contented, assuring the world that a repeat of the past will not happen.

  • The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
  • Jesse Yang

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The civil war that has been going on in Libya for the past 5 years has been a grueling power struggle between the different factions of Libya. During this fight for governmental power, the people have been struggling to keep even basic needs, such as electricity and basic safety. While many factions have tried creating treaties with the others, no group has been able to come up with an agreement that satisfies each group’s wants. 

 

It is assumed that all nations want such a situation to end, but on to where Palestine’s support resides, it’s on the side of ISIL. Seeing as ISIL is pursuing a government controlled by Shari’a, which is similar to our governmental system, we support them fully. Seeing as 97% of the population of Libya as of 2019 is 97%, the most suitable system of government is one based on the Sunni Islamic faith. Any other concepts of government seem to be riddled with western influence which, if put into place, would impede on Libya’s sovereignty. The State of Palestine asks that we try to pass the governmental power to the people of ISIL, in order to respect the sovereignty of Libya and to protect the practice of Islam in the Middle East.

  • Palestine
  • Navid Hasan

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The delegation of the Federal Republic of Germany strongly believes that the sensitive situation in Libya would be best solved through diplomacy. The civil war in Libya was instigated when the dictator Gaddafi was overthrown in 2011. The House of Representatives of Libya , has been fighting with a rival force, the GNA or Government of National Accord, which has been endorsed by the UN, which forced the HoR to move to Tobruk from Tripoli.[1]  Further escalation of conflict would be extremely destabilizing. Any foreign presence in this sensitive region could further destabilize the current civil war and undermine further attempts to bring peace to this highly unstable area. The Federal Republic of Germany made the decision in 2011 to not get involved in military action against the dictator Gaddafi and the delegation of Germany still stands by this decision[2] The government of Germany continues to avoid conflict. The delegation of Germany realizes combat can be a useful tool in extenuating circumstances, but the risk of failure is just too great to risk intervention. However, the delegation of Germany does not believe that Libya should be left to fall further into civil war. Germany believes that the UN must act on behalf of the legitimate government of Libya at Tobruk.[3] Germany also believes that greater attention needs to be paid to the local violators of the international arms embargo on Libya. These governments, such as the UAE and Turkey, further destabilize the situation in Libya facilitating the importation of arms, which could intensify the combat indefinitely.[4]  

            The delegation of Germany believes that there should be strong diplomatic support for the GNA at Tripoli, coupled with denouncing of the HoR and IS forces within Libya. In addition, violators of the arms embargo should be denounced, with the threat of sanctions. This will aid in drying up the flow of weapons and munitions to Libyan factions, and thereby disable the war, perhaps permanently. Additionally, the UN should take greater diplomatic action to help facilitate its goal of national elections in Libya by 2019, so that the GNA’s legitimacy cannot be questioned, and the possibility of a peaceful Libya grows.[5]

 


[1] Malone, Barry. “Gaddafi Killed in Hometown, Libya Eyes Future.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 20 Oct. 2011, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya/gaddafi-killed-in-hometown-libya-eyes-future-idUSTRE79F1FK20111020. 

[2] Herf, Jeffrey. “Berlin Ghosts.” The New Republic, The New Republic, 24 Mar. 2011, https://newrepublic.com/article/85702/germany-libya-intervention-qaddafi-merkel

[3] “UK, Germany Affirm Support to Libyan Government of National Accord.” Middle East Monitor, 4 Apr. 2017, https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20170404-uk-germany-affirm-support-to-libyan-government-of-national-accord/. 

[4] Wintour, Patrick. “Germany Plans Libya Conference to shore up Arms Embargo.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 13 Sept. 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/sep/13/germany-plans-libya-conference-to-shore-up-arms-embargo.

  • Germany
  • Jameson Gerrits

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The Special Political and Decolonization Committee

Libya crisis

The Commonwealth of The Bahamas

Joshua Hay

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The country of Libya has been in a state of disaster, alternating between civil war and small periods of progress. Since the fall of their leader Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has not been able to regain a stable lead or government. The government of Libya is in crisis with the western half currently being led by a UN backed government out of Tripoli, the capital of Libya. The United Nations, however, has struggled to assert any strong control due to warring militias. The civil wars in 2011, and then in 2014, have left the country in peril, along with many of its inhabitants. Libyans are seeking refuge in European countries, aiming to escape the conflict for their own safety. Almost 60,000 displaced people must be relocated, but into the right nations. The Bahamas have a high crime rate and illegal immigration is common. There is the possibility that Libyans will illegally flee by boat and plane to the Bahamas. Although The Bahamian people wish for them to have refuge, logically they should be relocated into European nations. An agreement between European, Islamic and Libyan national forces is absolutely necessary.

 

Due to the mass distance between The Bahamas and Libya, the issue is not as pressing as to other countries. Libya has been in a state of total chaos, with its governments failing and its people suffering. The Bahamas stands with the United States on many topics relating to Libya. For example, the Bahamas stood with its ally and many other democratic and  free countries to condemn the Libyan attack on the American Consulate in Libya which unfortunately led to the killing of the U.S. ambassador.The Bahamas chose to reiterate its commitments to freedom and democracy as pillars for an ordered and peaceful society. The Bahamas have so far taken no action to help, but instead have chosen to partner with the United States in protecting our borders from illegal immigration or refugees. Already, many of our own citizens are in fear due to the existential drug crisis. After Hurricane Dorion, the Bahamas have thousands of refugees needing to be relocated, and seek their own help. 4000 refugees have already fled to the U.S. As such, at this time the Bahamas can not take in any refugees from Libya. The Bahamians do not believe they can afford to help Libya personally, and seek to keep themselves protected and safe. However, they do believe that assistance is necessary for European nations in taking in refugees from Libya along with helping implement a new political settlement. 

 

The Bahamas propose that the only way to resolve this crisis is through a dual party government. There shall be a voting congress consisting of islamic and Haftar’s forces. The United Nations must put efforts towards reaching an agreement with both sides in order to conserve the safety of the Libyan people. If no agreement can be reached, then the Bahamas is open to donating money to european countries in efforts to take in refugees and secure the safety of the Libyan people. The NGO Refugees International can help promote refugee intake in Europe and organize relocation.

  • The Bahamas
  • Joshua Hay

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Following Muammar Gaddafi’s overthrow in the 2011 Arab Spring and the victory of the rebels, a power vacuum formed in Libya. The many rebels of the civil war failed to peacefully resolve their differences, despite their absorption into the National Transitional Council following the overthrow of Gaddafi, and later into the General National Congress. The GNC initially allied the moderates of Libya with the Islamists, but the latter began asserting much more power. General Khalifa Haftar led a military operation against the Islamists, along with the new but unrecognized House of Representatives, then signed a ceasefire and recognized the new Government of National Accord, but eventually withdrew their support. This was the beginning of the second civil war, which is mainly between the internationally recognized GNA and the HoR. The civil war has caused a multitude of problems for the citizens of Libya and they have been left without basic services thanks to the lack of a strong, unified government. Militias in support of the two competitors perform acts of violence and control large portions of the country. The Libyan legal system is far too weak to be able to deal with these groups.

 

Indonesia is in support of the Libyan Government of National Accord. As a fellow member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Indonesia views it as its duty to preserve and develop democracy in Libya. The OIC wishes for all parties in Libya to resolve their conflicts through peace and to avoid any form of armed escalation. The Indonesian foreign minister has lambasted the attacks of the HoR on GNA controlled Tripoli, denouncing such attacks as war crimes and has called for an immediate end to conflict in Libya. U.N. ambassador Dian Triansyah has called for mediation from the U.N., as well as the commitment to a ceasefire and de-escalation for such measures to prove successful. 

 

Indonesia believes that this civil war must be ended through means of peace rather than force. As said by the ambassador, it is vital that a ceasefire be put in place and for the U.N. to provide mediation to both parties. A ceasefire should come first, because without it, there would be no guarantee of peace and any work to be conducted by the United Nations would be made much more difficult. The U.N. would be the mediator between the GNA and HoR, and it shall ensure that both parties leave the table with something to gain from a ceasefire. Afterwards, the goal of the U.N. should be to provide talks between them so as to unite Libya under one government. Another major priority must also be the reinstallation of new, unweakened, and uncorrupt Libyan courts and legal systems. This would make sure that the violence of the bipartisan militias could be kept under control and it would halt the escalation of any new conflicts.

  • Indonesia
  • Sebastian Padilla

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The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has been observing the current political crisis occurring in the country of Libya.  Each crisis that they have encountered on their road to independence has been littered with the remnants of western powers. The civil wars and the elections that follow have all been countered with opposition from the western powers.  The influences on Libya are not only a violation of the nation’s sovereignty but threaten all other nations in the region.

The Glorious Republic believes that the autonomy of Libya is just as important as its own.  Their sovereignty cannot exist with the influences and pressures from the outside world seeping in through its borders. The DPRK does agree with most nations in the sense that Libya needs to become stable in order to be considered a sovereign nation. We strongly believe that the model for this type of development is similar to that of Egypt, a sovereign nation recognized stable despite the influences of the “Arab Spring”, which  has strong western support. In addition to stability, Libya must have a leader who is willing to sacrifice and suffer for the betterment of the country similar to that of our Supreme Leader. The DPRK has benefited greatly from the sacrifices our Supreme Leader has taken on our behalf. We cannot continue to move forward as Korea without the leadership we have. It is imperative that strong leadership be promoted alongside stability within the nation of Libya, for the two go hand in hand.  

 

The action that is recommended by The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is for the United Nations not to condemn the strong leadership that does exist in Libya. Rather, the committee should be fostering the idea of helping create an environment of stability around that leader, as that, as well as the disenfranchisement of the leadership of Libya, has ultimately led to the nation’s downfall. The DPRK has always been a beacon for strength and stability, and watching Libya attempt to achieve that only to be bullied and abused by western powers has been saddening. The delegate wishes to see that culture diminish in the coming committee session, as the United Nations is about supporting and allowing for the success of all nations to occur, not to suppress the weak and kick them while they’re down. 

  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Olivia Jackson

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Committee: SpecPol

Topic: International Drug Trade

Country: Thailand

Delegate: Melvin Lopez

School: Fishers High School

 

Libya’s government has been a great issue for the Libyan people that must resolved. Not only have the Libyan people been suffering but have also been lacking basic needs such as electricity and health care through out the country. Keeping this in mind Libya’s government has not been able to proceed in helping the country become stable and secure due to the actions of the Islamist by not wanting to cooperate with the government therefore rebelling against the Libyan government. This then resulting in two civil wars in the past decade with no clear solution taking place between the Government of National Accord (GNA) and Islamist with innocent people having to suffer and escape Libya from places from Tripoli. If nothing is done sooner, the outcome can become much worse and take even longer to resolve between the two.

Thailand recognizes both parties struggles to a better understanding on how the country should be ran and who may run it. But Thailand for sure knows that the people Libya should not have to suffer due to these foolish acts to supposedly resolve this government issue by the Islamist. In the first three months of 2019, some 15,900 refugees and migrants arrived in Europe via Mediterranean routes. Hundreds of which die on the trips due to long durations of time on the boats with little food and water. Meanwhile others may die in cities like Tripoli under capture by Islamist groups and allies in rebellion. Funding though has been provided the UN and other organizations to help intercept immigrants that may be fleeing to places like Europe in order to get them registered for financial aid and assistance.

Thailand response to help the country of Libya is to help further aid refugees and support with financial aid and basic needs. Countries in Europe and others may also be of help by helping refugees stay for a period of time in a controlled environment. Thailand expresses that the countries within the UN should help the countries current government by send few troops from each country to not fight but stand alongside and control the current capital in order for the country to further discuss equal representation for both parties with no involvement of war as a solution. By doing so the process may commence slowly but will help ensure a better future for now.

  • Thailand
  • Melvin Lopez

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Bella Centilli, Mattawan High School

Kenya

SPECPOL: Libya

 

Since Muammar Gaddafi fell from power, Libya has been more unstable than ever.  Two competing governments are fighting for control over the country, causing little to get done because of the constant arguing.  Because of the civil wars and political unrest, citizens are left without basics such as water, electricity, and healthcare. They are being caught in the crossfire due to their government’s lack of stability and security, which is not fair.   To resolve the issue of the competing governments and achieve long-lasting peace, an agreement must be made that compromises with both sides. 

 

After Gaddafi died, Kenya recognized the National Transitional Council as Libya’s government.  Shortly after, the NTC dissolved and gave their power to the General National Congress. The relationship between Kenya and Libya is rocky because of the conflict between the HoR and GNC.  Though the bond between the two countries was growing for a while, it has been announced that Kenya will close its embassy in Tripoli, however, Libya still has an embassy in Nairobi. Whether the relationship between Kenya and Libya will expand or contract remains unknown and is dependent upon how the issue of their government will be resolved. 

 

Kenya would like to help protect the citizens of Libya and, to do that, we must resolve the issue of the conflicting governments.  Kenya believes that the UN should recognize the GNC as the true government of Libya, and discuss how to ensure peace in this unstable country. 

 

  • Kenya
  • Bella Centilli

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The nation of Senegal does not support the HoR nor the GNC, and wishes for the conflict in Libya to end, as it comes to the expense of millions of civilians living within and outside of Libya. The bloody history of this civil war happened after the Arab Spring, where Ghaddafi was killed and the HoR was established. The GNC essentially split up from the HoR, as they were more hardline and were opposed to Ghaddafi’s more secular rule. They wanted the establishment of Islamic, or Sharia as the law of the land. Thse 2 opposing sides, along with the presence of ISIS in Libya, has resulted in a war with no clear resolution. The Torbuck led government and the GNA which is recognized by the UN, should be split into 2 separate states: East and West Libya, to not cause more conflict. It is already been shown that these 2 factions cannot coexist and work together, so it must be done for the sake of the millions of displaced civilians who just want to come home and have a opportunity in life that was tragically taken away from them. Senegal has no personal stake in this war, and would just like for there to be less of a conflict that could potentially come to our doorstep. For the best interest of our nation and other nations, we must put an end to this.

  • Senegal
  • Tahaa Munir

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During the Arab Spring of 2011, the Gaddafi government of Libya was thrown out of power by the end of the year. This new government held power for 2 years until instability struck again and sparked a second, and still ongoing civil war. The United Nations intervened with a “no fly zone” over the nation during the first civil war, and NATO with allies assisted the anti-Gaddafi forces with air support. The UN intervene in the second civil war with resolution 2174, which called for an immediate ceasefire and peace talks, it eventually fell apart and the civil war continued. 

 

 Bulgaria voted in favor of both of the previously mentioned proposals. Bulgaria has also voted in favor of intervening for the sake of human rights during the Yugoslav wars. Bulgaria also assisted NATO forces during the 2011 libyan conflict and we have also assisted NATO in other conflicts. We would likely assist NATO in a possible intervention. Bulgaria has a past of refusing refugees, especially ones from islamic majority nations like Libya. 

 

Bulgaria wishes for nothing but for peace within Libya to be the outcome of this council, and our plan reflects this. Bulgaria proposes a 3 step plan to help alleviate the situation in Libya. First, we suggest the movement of medical and other essential supplies into the nation. Second, we suggest another cease fire, enforced with the help of the Security Council. Third, it would facilitate negotiations between the warring parties with the hope that this will bring the conflict to a permanent close. 

  • Bulgaria
  • Benjamin Grantonic

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Committee: Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL)

Topic: Libya 

Country: Cuba 

Delegate Name: Grace Griemsman 

Over the past few years, the tension in Libya has slowly risen to the point of a breakout civil-war.  With the Second Civil War of Libya in 2014 came the battle between the General National Congress (GNC) and the Government of National Accord (GNA) for the power to be the head of government. Because of these two civil wars, it has left the country without a singular government, which is causing even more problems for the people of Libya. For example, gang violence and murder have greatly risen in Libya over the past few years.  Also, many people have found themselves with a lack of electricity, food, and water.

Although Cuba wants the people of Libya to be ruled by one form of government, we do not believe that we should get involved in helping the movement at this time. Cuba still believes that one of the main reasons many countries want to get involved in helping Libya is to gain access to the plentiful amount of oil in Libya rather than the protection of Libyan citizens. If more countries were to get involved we feel this could lead to a larger problem between the nations.  

 

On the other hand, we think that once the UN has a well-structured plan to help Libya we must help the Libyan people find safety first. In the past, there has been support of former Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi by the Cuban government, but we now agree that the importance of the Libyan people and the support for their safety is necessary to end this civil war. We believe that when the UN gets involved, we must focus on getting civil liberties for Libya citizens before anything else. Cuba believes the right to life is the most important right a human has.

  • Cuba
  • Grace Griemsman

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Country: Sweden 

Committee: SPECPOL

School: Williamston High School 

Topic: Libya

Delegate: Molly Bowling

 

The problems in Libya have been continuing since 2011, this proves them to be an ongoing issue that needs to be addressed. Most of the problems stem from unaccountable militia,  Some linked to the interior and defense ministries of the United Nations-backed Government of National Accord (GNA), and others linked to the Libyan National Army (LNA) affiliated with the rival Interim Government—continued to clash with each other in various parts of the country, such as efforts to reconcile main parties in the east and west failed. In Libya’s south, Tebu, Tuareg, and Arab armed groups continued to clash for control of territory and resources. Major violence, including frequent attacks on oil installations, disrupted the economy and public services. Around 200,000 people remained internally displaced, as of October. Armed groups, some of them affiliated with the GNA or the Interim Government, carried out extrajudicial executions, attacked civilians and civilian properties, and abducted, tortured, and disappeared people. This is clearly a problem that needs to be dealt with and the delegation of Sweden looks forward to finding a solution. 

The Swedish decision to get involved in the Libya crisis was the result of a combination of factors, including feelings of altruism, the legal basis for the operation, the involvement of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the operation, the political power play in the Swedish parliament and Sweden’s availability of military resources. On 29 March 2011, after weeks of harsh domestic political debate on how Sweden should respond to the international calls for a peace operation in Libya, the Swedish government decided that Sweden should participate in the United Nations (UN) sanctioned no-fly zone over the North African country. The decision also followed a clear pattern of Swedish foreign policy, that is contributing with peacekeeping and peace enforcement troops to UN-mandated missions.  Sweden by coincidence had relevant military resources on standby, which could be deployed quickly to Libya. Thus, the Swedish decision making was characterized by an element of chance, but also based on their foreign policy decision making. 

 

Sweden has played a major role in the libya crisis. They have increased humanitarian aid, and taken part in helping the country get back on its feet.  Money, which has been dedicated to international efforts to evacuate non-Libyans who have fled to a third country to escape the violence, brings Sweden’s total aid contribution to the war-torn country since March to 60 million kronor. Sweden believes that other countries need to take more action in order to help this war torn country. Sweden, which is not a member of NATO, has also agreed to limited participation in the operations against the regime of Libyan strongman Muammar Qaddafi by helping enforce the no-fly zone over Libya with eight fighter jets, but has said it would not take part in any ground strikes and encourages other nations to do the same. This problem has gone on too long, the delegation of Sweden looks forward to finding a solution. 

 

  • sweden
  • Molly Bowling

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SUBMITTED TO: SPECPOL

FROM: South Korea

SUBJECT: Libya

 

The conflicts in Libya have dissolved into unnecessary violence motivated by senseless acts of greed. The violence has expanded from battlefields and is dangering the civilians in Libya. As the nation bounces from peace and progress to war and destruction more and more innocent lives are being claimed. The Libyan government has become a temperamental fuse waiting for the next opportunity to blow. As majority control within the government continues to change the UN must take a stance to support the powers that must aline with the values of our charter. Without definitive support or boundaries from world forces, the powers within Libya will only continue to violently explode and disrupt the progress of the nation.

 

As a body, we must begin to consider and answer the following questions. How can we communicate with the current powers about increased diplomacy? It is crucial that the powers within Libya begin to use diplomatic means to settle and benefit from conflict. As the current power struggles begin to settle the nation must learn to balance the beliefs of its people and government. What resources does the civilian population of Libya need? As the war has expounded the people of Libya have been exposed to war and the consequences of the battles. Without resources, the people of Libya are put at risk of severe human rights violations. In addition, not only are the citizens of Libya at risk but the dozens of refugees using Libya as a path to Europe are in danger. Although we are not in the committee to solve the refugee crisis we must take them into consideration as they are also greatly affected by the conflicts within Libya. Lastly, and most importantly we must address how we can build and support consistent growth within Libya. As the nation yo-yos between peace and war the economy, agriculture, and trade profits of the nation have paid the price. Without the stability of power the nation can not grow and will continue to struggle. We must encourage the nation of Libya to transition powers carefully, the ultimate goal is to lift up and continue the growth of Libya.

  • South Korea
  • Katherine Mooney

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

Libya

People’s Republic of China

Kyle Korte

Forest Hills Eastern

 

50,605 refugees and asylum seekers. 268,629 internally displaced persons. 3 competing power centers. The civil war in Libya has been a bloody five year conflict with no end in sight. Since Muammar al-Gaddafi’s death in 2011, Libya has struggled to state-build. A promising government, the General National Congress (GNC) was put in power in July 2012 but faced challenges from Islamist militants and other armed groups. The rival government vying for power, the Libyan National Army (LNA) launched a campaign in 2014 against these militant groups; however, the militant groups formed a coalition, marking the start of the civil war. These three factions continue to compete with each other, especially over the oil fields, despite many attempts to intervene from other states and intergovernmental organizations. The unstable conditions in Libya have made it incredibly susceptible to human rights violations.

 

China has long respected Libya’s sovereignty and advocates a multilateral political solution to their civil war. The international community has witnessed in the past the instability brought about by military intervention and other non-political means, such as no-fly zones. In the past, China has refused to support any type of military intervention in Libya and has remained mostly neutral on the topic. The international community should respect the sovereignty of Libya and facilitate a political solution multilaterally. Countries with influence in Libya should wield that influence wisely and support push for resolution between the competing factions to facilitate a ceasefire and return to political dialogue The active role of intergovernmental organizations is vital to any solution proposed for Libya. The United Nations, African Union, and any other regional organizations must coordinate and cooperate in order to secure peace and stability in Libya. One key aspect of their role must be ensuring the safety and stability of civilians. Currently, the humanitarian assistance in Libya is lacking and improving this situation is of utmost priority to this committee. 

  • People's Republic of China
  • Kyle Korte

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Committee: Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL)

Topic: Libya

Country: Equatorial Guinea

Delegate Name: Emily Kinnicutt

School: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy (SASA)

The situation in Libya is truly one of chaos, corruption, and terrorism; a tale that has proven to be present in the regions of Africa in the past. The ongoing conflict in Tripoli has led to an increasingly negative effect on the citizens and neighboring nations of Libya. Not only has it led to 395 civilian casualties since the most recent offensive on Tripoli launched by Haftar in April, but also 106 fatalities. Approximately 120,000 people have been displaced from their homes, and many were forced to flee to other nations. Currently, the Government of National Accord (GNA) and the House of Representatives (HoR) both are in the process of detaining migrants, with approximately 5,000 detained under inhumane conditions. There has also been proof of international law violations and crimes from all parties, with residential areas, such as Abu Salim, Ghrarat, Suq al-Jum’ah and Hadbah, where civilians live, being constantly targeted with airstrikes, healthcare facilities being targeted (19 ambulances and 4 facilities struck), and water supplies in  the Tripoli and Misratah regions being attacked. Radical Islamists, as a part of the group ISIL, have a strong hold on Libya, with approximately 500 to 700 fighters (UN Secretary General Report, August 30, 2019). ISIL has claimed responsibility for a total of four attacks in Libya since April, and have continued to kill and kidnap civilians as the government have turned their armies against each other. Unconfirmed reports of mercenaries and foreign fighters in the region have also surfaced (UN Special Representative to Libya, Ghassan Salamé, May 2019). It is clear that this conflict has much complexity, and, if care is not taken, could potentially result in a drawn out, bloody war. 

 

The Republic of Equatorial Guinea has had an active role in assisting to resolve this conflict. Not only have we ensured that the issue in Libya is brought up in Security Council and have been fighting for stability primarily is West and North Africa, but we have also hosted meetings of the African Union in which the parties of the Libya crisis were convened to attempt to negotiate the situation. Equatorial Guinea condemns the violence in Libya, citing the aggression launched against Tripoli by Haftar. Our president, Teodoro Obiang, has stated that the fight against terrorism is not by attacking the rightful government and that “… There is no military solution to the Libyan crisis… “, so there is a need to return to a peaceful and political path. Equatorial Guinea would also like to stress the importance of maintaining the African Union (AU) as a central figure in conjunction with the UN in resolving the situation in Libya, as the African-led discussions have proven to yield positive results. There have also been clear violations of the UN arms embargo over Libya, and Equatorial Guinea and the African Union would like to stress that external interference in the conflict that do not follow the AU’s plan to promote dialogue and national reconciliation, especially for selfish causes, as they will only divide Libyan stakeholders further. Equatorial Guinea would like to acknowledge and commend the (UNSMIL) role in expediting reconciliation in Libya along with a plethora of national and international NGOs, as they have played a necessary role in assessing and assisting the situation.

 

Equatorial Guinea would like to promote, through this resolution, the security and increase in humanitarian and societal assistance. Humanitarian actors have developed the Tripoli Flash Appeal and the Libya Humanitarian Response Plan for 2019, but both initiatives have fallen completely short on funding, so it is recommended that nations that would like to assist donate to initiatives like these rather than focusing on exerting military power. Equatorial Guinea also would like to emphasize the importance of respecting the UN arms embargo in place. Also, we would like to stress the importance of ensuring that the International Organization for Migration (IOM), UNFPA, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Food Programme’s (WFP) assistance and entrance into Libya be encouraged by member nations. It is also important to bring together all the stakeholders of Libya before engaging in further conflict to promote political reconciliation. First, a truce should be developed between the parties, much like the truce during Eid al-Adha. Then, the international parties involved in this conflict (nearby and influential) should convene to prevent any further interference. Finally, after the development of a plan by external mediators, the Libyan stakeholders should meet and hopefully come to an agreement. Equatorial Guinea is excited to work with other member nations see that we can come to a consensus on this issue.

  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Emily Kinnicutt

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Cote d’Ivoire

Special Political Committee(SPECPOL): Libya

The conflict in Libya since July 27 has rapidly escalated, and communication is breaking down. Tensions prior to this were extremely high since roughly 2014, when the General National Congress (GNC)could not reach any agreements on larger issues. In addition to this, several members of this assembly were accused of channeling funds to conservative Islamic militant groups, creating a conflict of interest. The crisis reached a breaking point when an airstrike was conducted on an airfield near the capital, Tripoli. The attack killed four civilians and wounded seven. According to information given to us by Libyan officials, they believe that the attack was ordered and carried out by those loyal to the warlord Marshal Khalifa Haftar. Marshal Haftar did this as a part of Operation Dignity, a campaign he started to drive out the Islamic militant groups ISIL, one with many ties to the government. By resolving the issues in Libya politically, this conflict can be resolved without firing another shot. 

 

There has been a lack of communication with the Libyan government, with not much word regarding whether fighting has started between the several belligerent parties or not. Despite this, there is enough information present that a plan of action could be determined. Because of the conflict of interest among GNC members, the first step would be to eliminate any religious bias in agendas of the members. This could be done by finding the members responsible and removing them from office. However, if military action is necessary, the best course of action would be to first eliminate the presence of the militant group known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, or ISIL. This could potentially involve allying with Marshal Haftar in these efforts. Peacekeeping forces could also be deployed to help with these efforts, but this is also not advised. In the end, it is advised that a resolution be passed to try and mitigate the conflict and create a compromise between all belligerents in the conflict.

  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Ian Pardee

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Libya is a mess.  That’s putting it kindly.  It barely even has a government formed after the death of Muammar Gaddafi.  Multiple civil wars and instability in the nation has stripped all of its residents of their basic rights.  What they are doing is inhumane and not right and this must come to an end.

 

Nigeria does not like what is going on in Libya.  Especially since one of the attacks on a Libyan hub ended up killing a handful of Nigerians.  This problem is becoming too much and needs to be brought to an end as soon as possible. Nigeria will support any solutions or programs that are put together to bring the country of Libya back to peace and out of wartime with itself.  When it begins to affect other countries. that’s when the international community needs to step in and do something about this. Innocent lives are being slaughtered because of this.

 

A solution could be first trying to contain this issue to Libya.  It is spreading elsewhere with it’s wicked ideologies that Nigeria wants nothing to do with.  Any plan to solve the problem with the terrorists will be heavily backed by us as well. The safety of our citizens is the number one priority as it should be every country and when another country is not taking this seriously enough and it’s problems become other countries problems as well that is where the line is drawn so this must be contained at the very least.

  • Nigeria
  • Connor Williams

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Delegation from                                                                                                                                        Represented by

Libya                                                                                                                                                          Jack Starling

II. Libya    ddddddddddddddd

Libya, taking into account the findings of a recent UN mission, which observed that in early 2019 the advance of Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar and his Libyan National Army (LNA) towards Tripoli has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of soldiers and multiple civilians as well as causing thousands of injuries through airstrikes and ground forces, calls upon member states to increase diplomatic efforts with the LNA in an effort to defend the citizens of Tripoli and the GNA from Haftar’s advance. Additionally, the delegation of Libya urges the UN to partner with local NGOs such as the Libyan Red Crescent so that they can more effectively deliver medicine and vital treatment to and evacuate citizens from the conflict zones of Libya. Deeply concerned by a 2018 report by the Panel of Experts of the International Sanctions Committee on Libya, which found evidence that Jordan, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan have not abided by the United Nation sanctions on Libya to ban military support to the parties involved in the Libyan conflict, specifically noting that 1,000 Sudanese Rapid Support Forces, as well as arms, were transported into Eastern Libya and the LNA in July of 2019, Libya recommends that the UN lift the Libyan arms embargo off of the Government of National Accord (GNA) of Libya. This embargo only serves to hurt the good and law-abiding people of the GNA because the LNA and the General National Congress (GNC) refuse to cooperate and receive support through illegal means regardless of legislation or international law. To once more build off of these offenses, Libya encourages the United States, the European Union, and other world powers to use their influence to stop international support by their apparent allies for the violent and volatile militia known as the LNA and to stop tolerating this blatant condonation of the LNA by their trade partners such as the United Arab Emirates.

  • Libya
  • Jack Starling

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Country: Israel

Committee: SPECPOL

Topic: The Situation in Libya

Delegate: Owen Hart, Forest Hills Northern High School

 

Libya has seen a continuous state of chaos and civil war following the death of Muammar Gaddafi, there have been several attempts to create a stable united governing body in the country. None have succeeded. As of now, there are two main groups fighting over control, the House of Representatives (HoR) supported by General Khalifa Haftar and the Libyan National Army (LNA),  and the Government of National Accord (GNA). A result of this continued conflict and lack of any unified authority in Libya has been a resurgence of ISIL and several human rights abuses including extrajudicial killings, disappearances, seizure of property and arbitrary detentions. These persist as there is no strong form of government to combat them. Libya’s infrastructure has also been severely crippled by the persisting conflict.

The State of Israel has had a strained relationship with Libya due to its policies and attacks on people of the Jewish faith. A faith and people that the State of Israel was created to provide a haven and respite from persecution like that enacted by the Gaddafi’s regime. The State of Israel has not violated the arms embargo on Libya nor has it funded either side to destabilize the region or interfered in its politics.

 

The State of Israel believes that a UN mediated political solution between the two sides to be the only solution to provide lasting unity. Without the cooperation of both parties, militias and terrorist organisations will continue to thrive and survive, with no end to the fighting. Libya needs a capable and authoritative government that can exercise the rule of law and power of the courts. Also, the State of Israel believes that targeted assistance to institutions and groups that can ensure stability and manage finances publicly is key to Libya’s rehabilitation.

 

  • Israel
  • Owen Hart

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After the death of Muammar Gaddafi Libya has descended into a highly unstable and concerning state. The nation has been plagued with acts of violence and civil war for much of the past decade. The governance of Libya has been similarly unstable with multiple regime changes and two civil wars plaguing effective governance. France has had a dedicated interest in the security and general welfare of the citizens of Libya and has taken an active role as it was the first country to recognize the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya to help aid in a stable transition. France believes that negotiation with Libya’s governance must include the LNA and General Haftar. While the GNA is currently the internationally recognized government, the situation in Libya is still at odds with the invasion of Tripoli in April earlier this year. Additionally, the financial interests of France with its oil assets in the eastern region of Libya are of significant concern to France. French companies like Total have spent hundreds of millions of dollars by lawfully purchasing the rights to reserves and resources of oil. This has been done under the supervision of the National Oil Corp which is Libyan state-owned. The practices of the central bank which got 24.5 billion dollars in oil revenue in 2018 also needs to be addressed to ensure that the Eastern factions are properly compensated. However, any settlement must place the citizenry of Libya first and ensure that the human rights of Libya’s citizens are in a safe and secure framework.

  • France
  • Luke Spitzley

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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Special Political Committee(SPECPOL): Libya

 

Libya is a state in distress. The nation is ruled by three major players; a government operating out of Tripoli, known as the Government of National Accord, the Turbuck government with the House of Representatives and the former General National Congress, and lastly various Islamist rebel groups. The current situation is directly affected by the two civil wars that ragged the country in 2011 and 2014. The 2011 revolts and rebels overthrew the stable Qadaffi government, out rose a government made of up of some anti-Gadaffi secularists, but also foreign-backed Islamist rebels. Quickly after the Islamists implemented Shari Law the second civil war began in 2014. This conflict has thus continued up until the current status since September 2019. The Government of National Accord was formed but not recognized by the House of Representatives. There have been recurring sieges of Tripoli, which have cost the lives of over 1,100 Libyan civilians. 

 

Islamic State jihadists have become active primarily in Wadi al-Ahmar a city in northern Libya, however, it claims territory in several other major cities including Tripoli, Benghazi, Sirte, and Al-Khums. Ensuring terrorist groups like the Islamic State, Al-Qaeda and their affiliates are not able to retain control of territory in Libya, and their influence is diminished. These groups have consistently attacked the Libyan national army and civilians in the area. 

 

Algeria borders Libya and thus we are directly affected by what occurs in North Africa. We have consistently opposed the intervention of European and American military in the region, such as that which overthrew Gaddafi and to a degree caused the current turmoil. We will continue to oppose such an intervention, and focus more on unifying the current governments. We recognize the legitimacy of the Presidential Council and their Government of National Accord located in the western half of the nation. However, we are in no way opposed in principle to eastern-faction leader Khalifa Haftar and his House of Representatives ruling all of Libya at some stage. But we are concerned about the uncompromising, polarizing, and inconclusive nature of his military approach, along with his frail coalition.

 

Algeria will aim for a resolution that addresses the stability of the nation, the humanitarian effects on the Libyan civilians and the democratic processes of the nation. Finding peace and stability whenever possible should be the utmost priority when adopting a solution to the crisis. Reconciliation between the Government of National Accord and the GNC’s House of Representatives is however only the start of greater stability in northern Africa. Algeria would look to ensure that the Islamic State, Al-Qaeda and other Islamist terrorist organizations are kept out of the region without any serious territorial claim and that the various clans and rebel groups that control parts of southern Libya are kept from igniting further conflict and civil war. 

  • Algeria
  • Tony DiMeglio

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Griffin McEvoy, Mattawan High School

Iran

Special Political Committee(SPECPOL): Libya

 

After the death of Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has been a bomb ready to explode. Libya is extremely unstable, having had multiple civil wars in the past decade. To combat this instability, they attempted to put a government in place which was rendered ultimately pointless due to the House of Representatives refusing to recognize it. Due to this instability, the lives of those in Libya are in danger, and our solution must advocate for the protection of civilians.

Iran as a country recognizes the GNA as a government, and we plan to support them through their civil war efforts. Iran is known for their fierce human rights, and seeing the effect these civil wars have on those in Libya is unacceptable. The main component of our solution should deal with the protection of civilians, both those who reside in Libya and those who seek to leave. Each should be allowed to do so safely. The country of Iran condemns the attacks on civilians, and subsequently we see the HoR as a terrorist supporting group. We plan to provide aid to those who support anti-terrorist organizations, and hope to work towards helping the citizens of Libya.

 

Iran has a mission to find some route we can take to effectively solve the issue at hand, while at the same time help the civilians. Terrorist organizations are not to be reasoned with, and we need to put our full support behind the GNA to ensure citizen protection. The need for a quick solution is necessary because everyday multiple civilians are unrightfully killed. As the UN, we should recognize the GNA government, and discuss ways to not only solve the problem, but in a manner that protects innocent civilians.

 

  • Iran
  • Griffin McEvoy

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Samantha DePerno, Mattawan High School

United Kingdom

SPECPOL: Libya

 

Muammar Gaddafi falls and Libya’s legislative body, the House of Representatives, allied with the LNA and Interim Government. A lack of a true government has caused Libya to constantly go between civil wars and periods of stability and progress. Unaccountable militias continued to clash with each other in various parts of the country, as efforts to reconcile main parties in the east and west failed. In Libya’s south, Tebu, Tuareg, and Arab armed groups continued to clash for control of territory and resources. These armed groups attacked civilians and civilian properties, and abducted, tortured, and disappeared people. Not only are people disappeared, but many have become internationally displaced. Around 200,000 people remained internally displaced and At least 1,000 families had been displaced by the fighting to other towns. These internationally displaced people are left without basic needs, which is most concerning and needs to be addressed as soon as possible.

The United Kingdom’s relations after Muammar Gaddafi’s 1969 coup were extremely poor, with Gaddafi’s government taking a combative anti-Western stance and developing weapons of mass destruction. Despite these setbacks, relations began to improve during the 1990s, and peaked in December 2003 when Libya announced that they would abandon their weapons of mass destruction programmes. UK Prime Minister Tony Blair then travelled to Tripoli, met with Gaddafi and declared a “new relationship” between the countries. After this, relations between Libya and the United Kingdom were close and positive from 1969-2011 after the British Armed Forces helped rebel forces to topple Muammar Gaddafi’s regime in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. The UK formally recognised the rebel National Transitional Council (NTC) as the government of Libya in July 2011, which improved their relations. However, security conditions have deteriorated since 2014, when the United Kingdom suspended operations from their embassy in Tripoli, into a second civil war. Diplomatic relations with Libya were retained, as embassy staff continued to work from within neighbouring Tunisia.

With civil wars and violence continuing and growing in Libya, the Special Political Committee has gathered to draft and pass a resolution to solve this problem before it becomes worse. The United Kingdom believes that in order to create a more stable union this committee should suggest to use extreme measures to prevent such dangerous violent outbreaks and civil wars. It is because these violent outbreaks that Libya is in much distress. They cause chaos that can disrupt the government. Therefore this committee needs to pass a resolution as quickly as possible, before further violence ensues. 

 

  • United Kingdom
  • Samantha DePerno

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

Libya

Republic of Azerbaijan

Emma di Pretoro

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Nowadays, the country of Libya is being “led” in two different parts: the western half of the country is run by a UN-backed government based in Tripoli, and the eastern half is ruled by Khalifa Haftar, who used to be a close ally of  Colonel Muamar Gaddafi before they had an argument in the 1980s. Haftar fled the country and lived in Virginia for almost 20 years (spending part of that time with the CIA) before returning to Libya to assist in the overthrow of Gaddafi. Libya has lived in instability since the overthrow of Gaddafi in October 2011. Since then, irregular militias hold power in large territories while up to five governments have been succeeding in the struggle to gain control of the country. In addition, in 2014 the armed groups that overthrew Gaddafi in three years earlier faced control of the country until today, thus causing a civil war. 

 

After Azerbaijan regained its independence with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, on October 9, 1991, the Azerbaijan Armed Forces were founded, as stipulated in the Armed Forces Law. In 2002, Azerbaijan had 95,000 active elements in its armed forces, in addition to 17,000 troops in paramilitary troops. The armed forces are made up of three branches: the army, the air force and the military. However, they also encompass several military subgroups that can intervene in national defense if required. Among these are the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the State Border Service, which includes the Coast Guard. The Azerbaijan National Guard is another paramilitary force that operates as a semi-independent entity of the State Special Protection Service, an agency under the president’s control.

The country of Azerbaijan cooperates closely with the UN in various peacekeeping programs, so it has deployed soldiers for peacekeeping in Iraq and others in Afghanistan. In 2011, the budget for military spending was $4.6 billion. The Ministry of Defense Industry manufactures small arms, artillery systems, tanks, night vision binoculars, aviation bombs, automatic military vehicles, airplanes and military helicopters. In 2011, at the same time that the countries of the Arab-Mediterranean area suffered repression by area governments resisting the push for democracy known as the “Arab Springs”, Libya suffered an armed revolt against the Muammar Gaddafi regime that led to a civil war. The UN Security Council, through its Resolution urged to take all necessary measures for the protection of the population, which led to the intervention of several Western countries subsequently led by NATO. The United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) was created as a result of the civil war that took place at that time. UNSMIL is not a military mission, but a political one led by the Department of Political Affairs. It aims to help the National Transitional Council rebuild the State of Law and other institutions of the country. Its mandate was last extended on 13 September 2018 to last until 15 September 2019. The institutions created in 2012 were not able to control armed confrontations between different settled factions that in turn controlled important territorial areas, including oil fields with their commercial management. In 2014, the “Operation Dignity” took place, whose objective will be to depose the CGN, formed at that time after different alliances, by a majority of Islam, as well as to end the Daesh terrorist cells established in important enclaves of Libya. In 2015, the “Libyan Political Agreement” was reached, establishing the “Government of National Agreement” (GAN) and the Tobruk Assembly is recognized as Parliament. The government led by Al Sarraj (GNA) has international recognition, although not with part of the Libyan armed militias. The LNA, since its creation, controls the east and south of the country and, in January 2019, initiated a campaign to control the oil fields of the south and move to the west of the country, in order to take Tripoli.

In 2015, Azerbaijan and Libya explored ways of developing cooperation as the country`s foreign minister Elmar Mammadyarov has met his Libyan counterpart Mohamed Al-Dairi. They highlighted traditional friendly ties between Azerbaijani and Libyan nations, saying there were fruitful opportunities for cooperation in political, economic, energy fields. Mammadyarov expressed desire that peace and stability would be restored in Libya. He also stressed the importance of further strengthening the solidarity in Muslim World. Mohamed Al-Dairi, in turn, stressed the significance of 3rd global Baku Forum, and he also noted the importance of studying the experience of Azerbaijan, saying economic, social, infrastructure projects held in the country served to well-being of people, AzerTac state news agency reported.

 

Azerbaijan supports a new resolution that includes an increase of humanitarian aid -that is, provide food, a place to reside, and all the needs that fulfill basic human rights- in order to reduce human suffering. Azerbaijan is seeking to decrease military conflict and violence against civilians.

 

  • Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Emma di Pretoro

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee 

Libya

Republic of Finland

Maddie Thompson

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

The stretches of instability in Libya remains unresolved amid a brewing second civil war. This is a topic of discussion because of the thousands of displaced Libyans lacking in basic services. Based on the citizens’ general dislike for immigrants, the Finnish government has decided that Finland would not be the best place to send these displaced people too. The integration of Muslims culture into Finnish society is very difficult. There are common concerns of increased levels of crime, the disinterest of learning the Finnish language, and the expense of immigration centers. 78% of the country are members of the Lutheran Church, most saying they would “rather live next to an alcohol rehabilitation centre than a mosque.” 

 

The topic of immigration is a widely debated issue in Finland. Originally “Finland government said it was willing to double the number of refugees it was willing to accept this year up to 30,000 from [previous] 15,000.” Although the number of refugees that applied that year only ended up being 3,600, most from Iran and Somalia. The national level of government is highly divided on this topic. There is a small amount of allowance for immigration on the national level. There are no treaties or conventions on this topic that save the debates in parliament. Many government officials, specifically the heads of political parties, have spoken on this topic. No consensus has been reached because of the differing viewpoints of the parties. The Finnish government cannot afford to bring in immigrants. Finland’s economy is down and has been in recession for three consecutive years. Finland is attempting to support the EU to better manage migration and participate in developing common migration and asylum policies. Under the Geneva Refugee Convention (1951)  Finland has to partake in providing international protection to those in need. The Aliens Act sets standards and procedures for how international protection is granted. Finland intakes around 1,500-6,000 refugees per year since 2000, there is a common stigma around other cultures. It is very important to many Finns that the country keeps a strong Finnish sense of nationalism. 

 

Finland recommends that the countries of the United Nations continue their policies. An intervention in the civil war would be beneficial. Other countries should actively participate in the intake of displaces people as well as use military effort to steady the country that has been at war with itself for decades.  

 

 

 

  • Republic of Finland
  • Madison Thompson

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COMMITTEE: SpecPol

TOPIC: Libya

SCHOOL: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

 

In early 2011, anti-Gaddafi forces created a committee called the Nation Transitional Council, to seize control of the Libyan government after overthrowing Gaddafi. The government began to fight back against the rebels, and the government used too much violence. There was even more backlash to Gaddafi, as the International Criminal Court issued an arrest against Gaddafi. Gaddafi was out of power, but there were still loyalist forces that held out for 2 more months, and then eventually fell. After the revolution, there were lots of rebel groups spread about, varying in size, capability, and influence. They were not united, but they also were not against each other. Some militias evolved into criminal networks and gangs, straying far from their original purpose. Many of these groups refused to stop fighting after 2011, using their weapons to fill positions of power. The National Transitional Council wanted all of these groups to register under the ministry of defense, and they were given a salary to give them legitimacy and a reason to unite. On the 11th of September, 2012, militants attacked the US consulate, killing the ambassador and 3 others. This caused an outcry from the legal militias and resulted in the raiding of several Islamist militia bases. To respond to those raids, the Libyan Army raided several militias’ headquarters and ordered them to disband. This violence escalated into the second Libyan conflict, which is still ongoing. This conflict is between different rebel groups who each want control of Libya, and it has mostly been between the government and the Council of Deputies, a council that was elected democratically in 2014 and is internationally recognized as the Government of Libya, and the rival General National Congress, the rival Islamist government. They have agreed to unite as the Government of National Accord, although there are no details on its authority and specifics have not been agreed upon. The Libyan government, which lies in eastern Libya, has the Haftar’s Libyan National Army and has been supported by airstrikes from Egypt and the UAE. The Islamist government, which lies in western Libya, has rejected the results of the 2014 election and is recognizes the Muslim Brotherhood as its leader, and is backed by many militias, and supported by countries such as Qatar, Sudan, and Turkey. There are also smaller groups, that support the Islamist government, which consists of armed groups that change sides. To put into perspective the amount of casualties from the Libyan Crisis, a quote from Salamé, a Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya, “The damage done to Libya will already take years to mend, but unless fighting around the capitol Tripoli stops, the country risks descending into a civil war, which could lead to the permanent division of the country.” 

 

The United Nations has taken an active role in the development of Libya. In 2015, the UN arranged a cease-fire, and in 2016 the UN-supported a new government in Tripoli. Shortly after, the Islamist government suspended its operations and succeed their power to the new government, the aforementioned Government of National Accord. Because of the UN intervention, the rival leaders were able to reach an agreement to reunify the eastern and western part of Libya’s National Oil Corporation. In December of 2017, the Libyan National Army seized Benghazi after 3 years of fighting and has now launched an offensive plan to seize Tripoli. Again, quoting the UN Special Representative to Libya, “Mr. Salamé said despite scaling-down non-essential UN staff in Tripoli and Benghazi, ‘we remain in Libya alongside the Libyan people to deliver as best we can’, with over 42,000 receiving aid so far.” Most of that aid is coming from the projects organized by the UNDP. The UNDP has done a lot of projects in Libya. The Stabilization Facility for Libya started in 2016, is one of the largest projects that are ongoing in Libya. The goal is to strengthen the legitimate and internationally recognized state of authorities and national unity. It will do this by making opportunities for restoring relationships locally through community conflict monitoring and reduction, by including the government in plans, and practically improving the basic services of the cities where the SFL works. As the lives of the citizens improve, it will give the government opportunities to demonstrate its value and prove its worth. The SFL has already restored water and power and sewage for 12 cities and has repaired many schools, universities, and hospitals. The SFL is the largest and most successful out of all of the projects taking place in Libya, but many others are existing and thriving as well, thanks to the UNDP.

 

To quote Claude Heller, a Mexican delegate who co-sponsored a resolution that “energetically condemned” the use of violence that was used to repress the protests in Libya, “Unlimited respect for human rights was an obligation that must be ensured, and the Libyan Government was obligated to protect its population. Moreover, member states of the Human Rights Council had a duty to strictly observe human rights norms. For that reason, the situation in Libya was, even more, a source of concern, and Mexico felt that it was “necessary” to pass the current resolution suspending Libya’s membership rights in the Council until the rule of law was preserved there.” Mexico firmly believes that the government under Gaddafi was very out of place to commit the aforementioned atrocities of violence against the rebels, and stands with the Human Rights Council in the suspension of Libya as a member state to the HRC. The situation in Libya is a large source of concern for every nation, as human rights must be upheld. Mexico supports the new Government of National Accord, as it looks to be the furthest step to protecting the population.

 

The delegation of Mexico would like to see the safety of the citizens of Libya put first. The differences in political opinion must not interfere with safety, national sovereignty, or territorial integrity. Keeping in mind the number of casualties this crisis has already caused, Mexico’s main objective is to minimize the harm done to citizens while still creating a reasonable solution to the problem. Mexico recommends that SpecPol calls upon the Freedom House, Human Rights Watch-Libya, and UNICEF to fund an incentive for the development of Libya under the conditions that the Libyan National Army controlled by Haftar to not attack Tripoli, and the if the specific details of the Government of National Accord can be agreed upon by all parties.

  • Mexico
  • Gabe Howald

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November 14, 2019

Submitted To: SPECPOL

From: Rwanda

Subject: International Drug Trade

 

The situation in Libya is one of deep concern to the Republic of Rwanda. We must work to combat this issue in a two facet style approach. Firstly and possibly most importantly we must ensure the protection of the civilians of the world seeking to travel through or around Libya. Secondly, we must work to solve the tense climate surrounding the political situation in Libya. We must work together as a world but also as a region to solve this crisis. 

First of all before we can discuss solutions, we must figure out the questions we must have solutions too. Firstly we must determine who we want to present the solutions we come up due to the nature of how this conflict started? We must also ascertain how we dissuade outside parties from making this conflict worse by adding arms and or supplies to the conflict?

The Republic of Rwanda strongly believes that our main focus should be protecting the civilians involved in this conflict whether traveling through or otherwise. One of the founding principles of the United Nations has and always will be human rights and therefore we must take action to stop these outrageous killings. In July the African Union called us out “Reminds that the United Nations (UN), though its Security Council has the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security in accordance with Chapter VII of the UN Charter”. We must take actions towards protecting these civilians whether it be by recommending the use of peacekeepers or any method of protection that the committee chooses to use or recommend. Secondly we must also take steps toward solving the conflict in Libya. We have to be extremely careful about how we deal with the conflict due to the fact that many surrounding countries do not want outside interference in the conflict.

Overall the Republic of Rwanda looks forward towards taking swift and decisive action on this conflict.

  • Rwanda
  • Jake Wilcox

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DATE: NOVEMBER 10, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: SPECIAL POLITICAL 

FROM: SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM

SUBJECT: SITUATION IN LIBYA

 

The political complexity and numerous players in the situation in Libya has given it a spotlight in the U.N. The status quo presented to us today shows that current efforts have been futile in producing stability and solvency for the region. This is characterized by contestment of oil and air fields, private armed forces, smuggling, trafficking, and migration that weakens the recognized government and their goal of producing a healthier state. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam firmly believes in the preservation of sovereignty while also promoting the safety and fundamental rights of human beings. Vietnam proposes an intense examination of current efforts on the local, regional, and international level along with a reassessment of policy targets. 

In order to grasp an understanding of international efforts in Libya, one must look to security council resolution 1973 which outlined the endorsement of a third party to use force in order to protect the citizens well-being. The creation of this resolution was in response to Gaddfi’s pending invasion of Benghazi where the U.N had exhausted all peaceful options such as freeze assets, sanctions, and removal of membership in international organizations. The idea of other parties using force in a country not under their jurisdiction prompted an engagement of the U.N’s idea of responsibility to protect. Responsibility to protect (R2P) acknowledged the fact that as part of a country’s sovereignty to handle domestic affairs, it also meant that each country had an obligation to protect its citizens from harm. If the country is unable or unwilling to protect its citizens from mass atrocities and harm, then international force could be used for the purpose of saving human lives. This created a major debate about the use and scope of the term throughout the bodies of the U.N. This was a central focus in the Libya situation since NATO-allied strikes were endorsed by the U.N. Perhaps the most important part of the resolution though was it allowed the UN member States “to take all necessary measures…to protect civilians and civilian populated areas”of Libya. This was the first implementation of the R2P doctrine and represented a change in normative international policy. Critics of this approach to the Libya situation that military efforts abused this. Therefore, an important foundation for creating an impactful resolution is analyzing the effects of a R2P approach in Libya and its impacts.

Vietnam proposes several questions that the committee must answer in order to create meaningful policy. How do we deal with fundamental socio-economic problems such as smuggling and trafficking effectively alongside other efforts? How do we also create a revitalization plan that benefits all ethnic and tribal groups in the region? Finally, how will current migration activities be resolved? These questions will ensure fruitful policy that will bring hope to the people of Libya.

Vietnam would like to see as part of a committee resolution a reassessment of current interventions and their effects on Libya. We must learn why current efforts have not worked and use these failures as criterion for developing better frameworks. Vietnam also proposes an integrative plan that incorporates regional and international organizations to improve coordination for efforts in Libya. Vietnam looks forward to contributing to a positive impact in the North African region and embracing the principles of the U.N. 

 

  • Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Connor Brezenski

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false
false
false

EN-US
X-NONE
X-NONE

Topic: Libya

Country: Japan

Committee: SpecPol

 

Libya is certainly one of, if not the least stable countries within the greater Middle East and North Africa. The formerly unified nation was under the dictatorial rule of Muammar Gaddafi for decades. After his regime was overthrown in the violent 2011 revolution and civil war, the country has seen alarming instability, spreading to a level of regional significance. The well-known events of 2011 resulted in new tensions; and the sole commonality between disparate rebel groups, being that they opposed Gadaffi’s regime, was not enough to keep them on the same political trajectory. The modern tensions facing the country were born out of hostility within the newly formed post-war government, the General National Congress (GNC). These tensions arose between the various islamist groups, and the moderates, most notably General Khalifa Haftar, who would spearhead Operation dignity, an assault on the political opponents of the moderate faction. Haftar’s enemies then went on to seize the Tripoli International Airport and forcing Haftar, HoR, and the LNA to relocate to the eastern city of Tobruk. An attempt at a second new unity government, the Government of National Accord (GNA), ultimately failed after Haftar’s faction withdrew support and resumed outright conflict. This is where Libya and the other involved nations have left off. The delegation of Japan understands this is more than just a conflict between opposing political factions. Japan sees the deepening humanitarian crisis that has emerged both directly out of the violence of the 2011 and 2014 conflicts respectively; but also, out of human trafficking groups and others who have taken advantage of the power vacuum, driving high numbers of refugees and migrants into neighboring countries, including those in Europe. In short, the delegation of Japan finds that this dynamic cannot last.

The current situation in Libya is so severe, that it comes as no surprise that little action has been done regarding this instability. Divisions are more than just political, they are cultural, tribal, and even involve differences in religious views. Libyans have now been left in a situation of little to no access to basic resources such as water and electricity. They fear for their lives due to the tumultuous state of things and are now fleeing in massive waves. The fractured state of Libya and its future is unsustainable due to its very nature and may not resolve if rivals are allowed to fight indefinitely. Despite this unfortunate image, some action has been carried out. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) for example, has made relatively large strides in that it has provided critical services to Migrants and internationally displaced persons (IDPs); and has stabilized communities in the aftermath of violence in ways such as rebuilding infrastructure and improving the ability of local organizations to sufficiently deal with humanitarian issues. The IOM has also kept record of the movements and locations of Migrants, IDPs, and returnees for evidence based future action. Other action such as that of the UNDP has been less successful. The UNDP endorsed both the transition to democracy and the GNC, concepts which although positive, have nonetheless failed and done little to keep Libya from entering chaos.

The delegation of Japan sees the potential for a future in what is now Libya despite its current state. Japan would suggest that more work such as the relatively successful efforts of the IOM are followed through with. Japan also sees the tensions in Libya as un-resolvable. Libya is a war-zone and has seen its opposing factions attempt to unify and govern the nation in some way twice with the GNC and GNA, both of which did not last. Japan believes that if the hostile nature of relations between factions endures, the best solution may be to facilitate a partition of the country into an eastern and western half, while a third region in the middle could remain to be secured by international troops and guarded in order to prevent the outbreak of a third major conflict. The middle, internationally secured region would serve to prevent conflict and provide area for displaced and suffering individuals to congregate. This territory would also function as a base of operations for continued UN and international work to ensure the creation and long-term endurance of stability and prevention of humanitarian issues. This entire proposal may come off as dire, however the Libyan crisis is nothing short of dire, and actions mean more than vague reaffirmations that the situation is critical, just for things to escalate and the international community to idly watch as a nation destroys itself.

  • Japan
  • Ian Brown

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14 November 2019

SUBMITTED TO: Special Political

FROM: The Russian Federation

SUBJECT: Libya

DELEGATE: Amanda Morello, Royal Oak High School

 

The conflict in Libya is a prolonged proxy war stemming from extremist factions who seek to control both the government and Libya’s plethora of natural resources.  The spread of terrorist organizations after the fall of Muammar al-Qaddafi in October 2011 has resulted in a deteriorating political system, prolonged violence, and a multiplicity of human rights abuses.  With this unrest, this crisis is a plea for a new government and a revitalization of domestic policy.  Russia sees it as our moral obligation to restore stability and security to the Middle East and Northern African nations, protecting said regions from foreign interference.  Reaffirming the notions set in a number of Libya-focused resolutions, the Russian Federation would like to reiterate its unwavering commitment to national sovereignty, territorial integrity, and domestic unity.  Russia believes that all countries in the Special Political Committee should have the right to define their own policy in approaching this conflict, as well as the underlying issue of politics motivated by profit.  

 

Russian policy on this particular crisis was reaffirmed on the 4 September 2019 in a press briefing by H.E. Vassily Nebenzia, Russian Ambassador to the United Nations(1). Russia understands and fully agrees that there is no military solution to this conflict, thus seeing a strong need for the continuance of the UN arms embargo imposed in February of 2011. Russia is well aware, however, that there have been confirmed reports of nations who’ve deliberately violated the terms of this agreement(2). In addition to this violation, the lack of basic human necessities, a migrant crisis, illegitimate governing bodies, the use of media to promulgate false ideologies, and ill-natured foreign interference have proven the importance of UN Special Envoy Ghassan Salamé’s Three-Point Plan (August of 2019)(3):

  1. “A truce among warring parties during Eid al-Adha […] and concurrent confidence-building measures such as prisoner exchanges; 

  2. A high-level international conference to agree on a commitment to end the violence; better implement the arms embargo; and enforce international humanitarian and human rights law against belligerents; and finally 

  3. A reboot of the proposed National Conference in the form of an international meeting of influential Libyans to discuss political, security, and economic elements.”

 

UN Resolution 1970 (26 February 2011), Resolution 1973 (17 March 2011), Resolution 2434 (13 September 2018), and all subsequent resolutions on Libya must be considered within the Special Political debate.  Most importantly is Resolution 2434, which not only prolongs the UN Special Mission In Libya, but also secures social, political, and economic discourse between the Libyan Political Agreement and the United Nations Action Plan(4).  Furthermore, it emphasizes the need to monitor human rights, coordinate well-meaning assistance and humanitarian aid efforts, and stabilize conflict zones. The Russian Federation expects continued briefing of this situation as it progresses, stresses the importance of the contributions of regional organizations in discussions, and hopes that the United Nations expands its mission in Libya to prevent further attacks on vital infrastructures.

 

With that said, the Russian Federation asks this committee how they will work towards a solution that will not only protect the people of Libya but return this region, wrecked by neo-liberalism and misguided western policy, back into a legitimate government. Russia will work towards a resolution that continues the United Nations Action Plan for Libya. As noted prior, Russia sees national unity as a primary objective. Thus, agreed upon in the spirit of compromise under the Special Representative of the Secretary‑General, all regional organizations must have a seat at the table for a representative peace talk when holding parties accountable for their actions. Those who have capitalized upon the current situation by using rape, torture, forced labor, trafficking, and detention as weapons of war for personal strides must also be held accountable.  Drone technologies and mechanized warfare tactics in this region must, too, be regulated and taken from the hands of third parties whose interest isn’t in the Libyan people but in furthering a manipulative agenda.

 

The Russian Federation insists that the stability of the global community stems from the removal of politics motivated merely by profit. The west, namely the United States and its NATO allies, cannot pretend that their foreign policy is simply concerned with human rights. It is evident to Russia and its allies that western greed, masked as well-to-do policy, is one of the greatest threats to the international order. Motivated by international security, Russia sees its role in Libya as one to reverse western ambivalence, prevent a weaponized economy, and eliminate war players. The Russian Federation reminds members of this committee to consider their actions as they pertain to the stability and domestic needs of a region in social, political, and economic turmoil.  

 

The Russian Federation looks forward to working with members of the international community to preserve national sovereignty, promote domestic unity, and maintain territorial integrity.  In order to achieve an applicable solution we must not let differences in political ideology get in the way of protecting civilians. The Russian Delegation, through the General Assembly, will be committed to upholding international principles outlined above as it seeked to educate and guide its foriegn counterparts in making sure the global community is as sound as it can be.

1. Russia On Libya – Security Council Media Stakeout (4 September 2019). 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GryHggN8QGc. Accessed 11 Nov 2019.

2. “Why Are Countries Breaking The Arms Embargo On Libya?”. Aljazeera.Com, 2019, https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestory/2019/11/countries-breaking-arms-embargo-libya-191110185526923.html. Accessed 12 Nov 2019.

3.  “Salamé Lays Out A New Three-Point Plan To Resolve The Conflict In Libya | Menas Associates”. Menas.Co.Uk, 2019, https://www.menas.co.uk/blog/salame-lays-out-a-new-three-point-plan-to-resolve-the-conflict-in-libya/. Accessed 11 Nov 2019.

4.  United Nations Security Council. Security Council Extends Mandate Of United Nations Support Mission In Libya Until 15 September 2019, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2434 (2018). 2019, https://www.un.org/press/en/2018/sc13501.doc.htm. Accessed 12 Nov 2019.

 

  • The Russian Federation
  • Amanda Morello

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Dominican Republic

Special Political Committee: Libya

 

The Libyan conflicts since the 2011 Arab spring have had tremendous impacts on the wellbeing of its citizens and the country’s climate as a whole. First came the 2011 revolution and civil war, which did not solve any problems, and then came a second civil war, which came in 2014. As a result of elections that took place in 2012, in 2014, Libya’s ruling party became the General National Congress(GNC). This party consisted of some “secular moderates” and Islamists affiliated by the Muslim brotherhood. Fast forward to September 2019, after a new government was formed, the Government of National Accord (GNA), General Khalifa Haftar and the House of Representatives refused to recognize this new government, resulting in the on-and-off siege of Tripoli. All of these events have left many Libyans displaced and in harm’s way. I would like to stress the importance of protecting these civilians and finding a solution to the problems Libya faces as well as preventing any more civilian casualties. 

 

In the past, the Dominican Republic has shown its support for the civilian population affected by the ongoing conflicts, and the 2 civil wars.  The number one priority for the Dominican Republic as of the moment is to come up with a solution that enables the civilians to either continue to love their lives safely or exit the country to seek refuge. In either case, the Dominican Republic would like to denounce the attacks on civilians and focus on keeping the migrants heading through Libyan territory to remain safe. As the Dominican Republic has taken part in the Security Council’s 8611th meeting on the topic of Libya’s ongoing conflicts, it would like to continue to provide support to the countries that are actively trying to find and implement solutions immediately. The effort to find a resolution about Libyan conflicts occurring today should be of utmost importance for all parties involved.

 

In this committee, the Dominican Republic’s main objective is to find ways to help solve the conflict and to find ways to keep civilians out of harm’s way with the help of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. We would like to see a transparent dialogue between the parties involved in order to find a fair solution and outcome. As we know that this conflict is and has been extremely deadly, an efficient yet effective solution is what we are hoping to achieve. In any possible resolution, the Dominican Republic urges other delegates to follow the arms embargo already set forward which will help cool down the flames of the conflict as the arms embargo has been flaming it for quite a while.

 

  • Dominican Republic
  • Taj Dhillon

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee 

Crisis In Libya

Federal Republic of Somalia

Jacob Potter

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The fighting between governments in Libya create a hostile environment for citizens caught in the middle of the fighting. The effects of the civil war has left thousands of people displaced internally, stranded without basic needs such as water or electricity. With rival governments fighting for control of the country, important issues cannot be resolved and citizens suffer the consequences. Peace cannot be achieved until a political agreement is reached between the General Khalifa Haftar with the House of Representatives(HOR), the General Nations Congress(GNC), and the United Nations backed Government of National Accord(GNA). 

 

As a country that faces similar issues to those faced by Libya, Somalia understands how governments fighting for control can damage a nation. Somalia has been in Civil War since 2011, and has seen the effects of ongoing violence on citizens firsthand. With Islamic groups causing chaos and damage throughout the country, Somalia, with help from other countries, has fought the issue and reduced the Islamic groups to the point in which the national government maintains control. Nevertheless, Somalia cannot create peace throughout the country with the ongoing presence of Islamic Militants and rival governments in many areas. The national government maintains limited control and power over the country, resulting in many issues being left unresolved. The same is true in Libya, where few issues can be resolved as rival governments remain unwilling to cooperate. The UN has sent support missions to restore public security and promote law in Libya, and has initiated economic recovery. With UN help, human rights and public services will need to be protected. Somalia supports United Nations intervention to resolve the issues and end the Civil war to stop the chaos.

 

Somalia urges a resolution to be made between the GNC, HoR, and GNA, to end the fighting. The UN must help unite the country to create peace for its citizens. Somalia encourages the UN to implement peacekeepers into Libya to alleviate the conflict and prevent further skirmishes. Furthermore, the UN should urge the HoR, GNC, and GNA to create a singular government that can solve the issues facing Libyian citizens. Diplomatic means should be used to urge General Haftar, as well as the GNC, to cooperate. If the United Nations fails to regulate the situation, violence, chaos, and the deaths of more innocent people will persist.

  • Federal Republic of Somalia
  • Jake Potter

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AR-SA

Topic: Libya

Committee: SPECPOL

Country: Qatar

 

 

       Hello fellow delegates and honorable chair. The crisis in Libya continues to worsen and support must be brought to this developing nation. Since 2011 there has been ongoing warfare between revolutionaries and the ruling government. The first revolution was a success, and Qatar is very much supportive of the new General National Accord that was put in. The problem that has arisen is the Libyan government has not had the proper support it requires from the United Nations. Specifically, the new Libyan government requires resources to maintain stability within its country and region. This problem of militias gaining influence and power is very common throughout the middle east and northern Africa. By taking the necessary measures and allowing Libya to maintain its culture and customs, the country could transform into the parliamentary republic it seeks to become.

       The United Nations has already sent a support mission to Libya, but it had been discontinued in 2018. In Qatar, in order to keep it safe from invasion from neighboring countries there are American bases that help guard the natural resources and people of Qatar. We are very grateful for this and think that Libya would greatly benefit from such support because of how destabilized that are. If we use the framework of the previous support groups, then we will be able to help Libya reach a place of stability

       The countries that provide the funds should help monitor and establish these programs, if they so choose to stay, they should be allowed to, but not change any course of action that the government tries to take. In order to keep Libya an independent nation there needs to be support from the United Nations military personnel to keep neighboring or other countries from invading and establishing their own imperial governments. If the United Nations does what the United States is doing in Qatar then there will be constant safety provided for them. Once the Libyan government is able to function and does not require the United Nations protection there should no longer be any foreign intervention unless it is requested by Libya. The introduction of a monitoring group may prove to be useful because that group can step in and provide support if there is a new conflict. Any threat on the sovereignty of Libya will not be taken lightly and Qatar will happily aid their Muslim brothers during any conflict.

       The first course of action that must be taken is that there needs to be funding sent to the Libyan government. The militias in Libya have arisen because the government does not have the funding it requires to carry out various tasks, such as, a well-structured schooling system, a well-trained and disciplined army that is willing to keep the country safe from any threat to the people, and a welfare program that will provide free healthcare for the people. If such action is not taken there will be severe consequences, in that there will be a continuation of human trafficking by the militias and unprecedented violence. Human trafficking has been taking place when people have tried to go to Europe through Libya, and once the Libyan border patrol takes them away, they are held in camps and often trafficked to other areas. Qatar will happily provide funding for these projects and we hope to inspire other nations to fund the cause.

       We cannot allow governmental instability to continue in Libya. We should help Libya carry out whatever actions it wishes to conduct as long as it is accepted and appreciated by the people. Otherwise, there may be further protests and that could lead to further instability. Qatar is very much willing to fund any projects that they wish to carry out as long as it does not conflict with what is stated in the United Nations Charter. Various other powers should also help train and discipline the Libyan military if they ever need to combat terrorism that takes place.

 

 

  • Qatar
  • Salmaan Seraji-Bozorgzad

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Special Political Committee 

Libya

Democratic Republic of the Congo   

Hannah Ferrer-Medina

Forest Hills Eastern High School 

 

Libya has been in disarray since the Arab Spring in 2011. The downfall of Muammar Gaddafi was not only violent, but also has sparked a bloody civil war. From the Second Civil War in 2014 emerged two groups grappling for power: the National Transitional Council (NTC) and the General National Congress (GNC). Originally a part of the NTC, the GNC branched off in early 2014 as a broad group of both Islamists and secular moderates. The NTC on the other hand wanted to establish a government under a constitution, as supported by the UN that September. However, the GNC pulled through in the Second Civil War. They had also held reelections, causing the GNC to become more secular. After a ceasefire between the NTC and the GNC in 2015, the two governments formed the Government of National Accord (GNA). But, the leader of the NTC, General Khalifa Haftar, pulled his support six months in. This was done in conjunction with the NTC pushing against rival forces of the GNC. Haftar and the Libyan National Army banded together to take over the capital of Tripoli. As of now, the GNA is still globally recognized as the official government of Libya.

As much as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)  empathizes with Libya, we can not do what is beyond our capabilities to help. DRC also is going through a civil war and cannot fully support the displaced refugees from Libya. Fortunately, DRC is willing to provide support through the UN and through other NGOs.

   The most pressing issue through the Libya civil war is the wellbeing of citizens. The health and safety of citizens in this war torn zone is essential, and can be aided through NGOs and other organizations. DRC is willing to at least partially aid for Libya and it’s displaced citizens.

  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Hannah Ferrer-Medina

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Special Political Committee (SPECPOL)

Crisis in Libya

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Will Roossien

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Libya has not had a stable government in over eight years. A revolution and two civil wars that sparked these conflicts that lead the country into ruin. Thousands of displaced Libians have been left without access to clean water or electricity. This crisis is important because the lives of thousands are at stake. We believe that large countries should ultimately be the first ones to take in refugees. These inhumane conditions are also accompanied by oppressive militias.  

The crisis in Libya is one that Trinidad and Tobago has never experienced. Trinidad and Tobago do not see this as a pressing matter and are more concerned with the displaced people illegally entering our country. Trinidad and Tobago believes that homeland and border security are an important matter and that our citizens safety is a number one priority. Trinidad and Tobago does not have the resources to have a background check on every immigrant, and should not be liable to take in a large influx of refugees when our country does not have the resources or the space. This would lower the standard of living for our citizens and increase their taxes due to the need for resources.

Trinidad and Tobago believes that our committees resolution should include a way to assure border security and would ask for a country to take in these refugees that is able to support them. This is important to our country and we would like to seek out other countries that may have the same views as us, and that could help in the drafting of a resolution. Trinidad and Tobago is a small island country. We are completely unable to support refugees and completely oppose the idea of bringing in refugees. Our resources are to scrarce without refugees and would hurt the local economy as well as our citizens.

 

  • Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • Will Roossien

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

Libya

The Republic of Turkey

Anika Deshpande 

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Civil war gripped the nation of Libya after Muammar Gaddafi’s death in 2011. This placed the citizens and those passing through the country in danger by factions of the House of Representatives (HoR) and the Government of National Accord (GNA). According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), there are over 50,500 registered refugees and asylum seekers within the country’s borders. The Libyan civil war garnered the attention of neighboring countries, including Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey, siding with either of the factions. The Special Political and Decolonization Committee must create a resolution that both handles refugees properly and helps form a single government under which both the Islamists and secularists can coexist. 

 

Turkey has provided military aid in the form of drones and armored vehicles to the GNA. Within Turkey’s borders, Libyan citizens have the ability to conduct any kind of business without harassment.  President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has set in place military cooperations with Libya, to “disappoint those who want to turn Libya into a new Syria”. While Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Sudan, and Jordan have sided with Haftar’s HoR faction, Turkey recognizes itself as a supporter of the anti-HoR campaign to remove Haftar and his former pro-Gaddafi allies from power. The United Nations also supports the GNA, the “rightful government in Tripoli”, as Oytun Organ called it, a member of the Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies. It is clear that the HoR is only a group of terrorist supporters. They are closely aligned with those who supported Muammar Gaddafi’s reign, which was widely known as sympathetic to several terrorist groups. 

 

All nations should agree to accept all Islamist refugees from Libya into the European nations, as Italy has been doing, to reduce casualties as the power is turned over to the licit government. Countries should advocate for the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA), which is backed by the UN. Other countries should also provide arms to the GNA in order to weaken Haftar’s rebellion to the point where the GNA can finally preside over Libya as a formal, unified government. A resolution that advocates the acceptance of Libyan refugees and provides financial and military aid to the GNA will be the best path for the international community to take in order to restore peace in Libya.

  • Turkey
  • Anika Deshpande

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

 

Libya

 

Portugal

 

Praneet Gundepudi

 

            Unfortunately, political splintering, wars, and rebuilding are common and sometimes necessary aspects of a properly liberated nation, and especially in the case of Libya, the international effects extend outside of the nation itself. Many African and Asian nations have the responsibility of dealing with the integrated religious nature of their governments handed down to them from prior governments, and doing so, marginalized religious separatists groups get a false sense of power and attempt to seize control of the government which the radical Islamists in the Grand National Congress of Libya have done. Currently the efforts of the United Nations have been undermined as domestic conflict has erased all the progress the UN may have made, and now, Libya remains in a fractured political state of the more secular House of Representatives (HoR) backed by the Libyan National Army (LNA) and the majority of neighboring national support versus the Grand National Congress (GNC) / the Government of National Accord (GNA).

 

            Much of the functionality of the GNA is solid as it has a multi-cameral government, however, the dominant issue is the lack of secularity within it. Even if an entire nation is unified under a single religion, there may be different interpretations or sects of the religion itself. Therefore, what may be proper by one group may be seen as irrational by another. When analyzing successful states, such as Portugal, much of their success is derived from their secular governments in which religion is not an actual factor. However, in the case of Libya, where the religious organization has the power to overtake the secular government, compromise is the only viable option. Portugal has one branch under its Prime Minister, and other countries may have multiple branches such as a Congress or a Parliament, but the purpose of such an organization is to be able to represent the citizenship body, which Libya does not have. Additionally, Portugal has had a stable head of government for much of its existence as a Republic, and one of the main reasons the GNA failed was due to the instability it had at the leadership. At one point, Libya has had nine separate deputy presidents at one point while Portugal has only ever had one Prime Minister at one point. The splitting of power and instability may make decision making more difficult and reduce the order within the government, allowing it to collapse from the inside, which should not happen. In the rebuilding phase, it is imperative for the influential Western nations to set the precedent for the government in its formation for the future.

 

            It is imperative for there to be an oversight committee to watch monitor the progress of leadership in the government of Libya formed by ambassadors of the most politically stable and secure Western nations of the United Nations. Their main role will be to ensure that there is only a proper leader at once as well as ensure that the government is accommodating for a bicameral decision-making body. Due to the necessity of the Islamic sector in the government, there must be a compromise between it and the secular section of the government to create two branches of decision-making politicians. Not only should the United Nations model the new government after the Western nations, but they should also ensure that it is maintaining the same trajectory over time, and not collapsing as it is currently.

  • Portugal
  • Praneet Gundepudi

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

Libya

Cambodia

Braxton Orban

 

After Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi’s capture and death in 2011, civil war and political turmoil has ravaged the North African country. Two factions, the secularist House of Representatives (HoR) led by Khalifa Haftar and supported by the Libyan national army, and the Government of National Accord (GNA) provisional government which has received international recognition. This fighting threatens the safety and security of the Libyan people; according to the UNHCR, 1.3 million Libyans need humanitarian assistance. Also, the Libyan port city of Tripoli is a key location for other refugees and asylum seekers from the Middle East and Africa attempting to reach Europe. In order to resolve the current conflict in Libya, the Special Political and Decolonization Committee must devise a solution with a united government pleasing both secularist and Islamist groups and a manageable resolution to the present refugee crisis. 

 

Although Cambodia is separated geographically, economically, and politically from Libya, Cambodia’s current government’s humanist and Buddhist ideologies show that Cambodia is in favor of a policy of peace and stability in Libya. After the Cambodian Civil War and Vietnam War demolished Cambodia’s economy and wellbeing, promises of peace and hope have revived the country to a middle-income Southeast Asian nation. Cambodia hopes that, through the diplomatic resolution of current tensions, Libya can have a similar comeback. Although Cambodia does not have a set position of the rightful faction to rule Libya, it hopes that the sides can see past their differences and find a fair and civil resolution.

 

If the United Nations’ goal is to create a better, safer, more peaceful world, then immediate action must be taken to ameliorate the situation in Libya. In 2015, the UN administered a ceasefire for all parties involved in the civil war, but it has not been effective. Currently, the people of Libya and the thousands of refugees travelling through it are at risk for violence and peril due to the war. Cambodia prioritizes immediate security of the Libyan people over a political solution. Immediate action must be taken to end this urgent situation.

  • Cambodia
  • Braxton Orban

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India

Committee: Special Political and Decolonization Committee

Topic: Libya

Delegate: Paul Janes

 

India and Libya are very strong allies, and because of this India will support Libya in any thing that they vote on. India and Libya have had strong bilateral ties since the 60’s, and have had a flourishing relationship ever since then. India welcome the Security Council resolution 1506 in support of Libya. The height of their democratic ties was in 1984, but they have kept their diplomatic ties alive since then. Additionally India and Libya have enjoyed close economic ties. In 1978, the two countries signed a framework agreement, which was the beginning of consultations on economic cooperation between the two countries under Indo-Libyan Joint Commission (ILJC).  The ILJC meets yearly to discuss their economic relations, and will continue to do so. The two countries have a strong cultural connections as well, which serves to draw the citizens of the two countries together. This cultural bond has served them well for when the Prime Minister of India visits Libya, which last occurred in 2007. India established a democratic mission with Libya in 1969, and have kept it since. They established this in Tripoli, and have kept it there despite the controversy surrounding Libya. India urges the committee to help Libya as opposed to placing more sanctions on them. The only way to resolve the problems in Libya is if there is aid, I recommend the committee provide it to them. While it isn’t necessary to have every member committee on board, it is necessary that some of the Western countries are willing to provide aid. 

  • India
  • Paul Janes

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Forest Hills Central

New Zealand (Aotearoa)

Special Political Committee (SPECPOL): Libya

 

Since 2011, there has been a detrimental humanitarian crisis occurring in Libya. The North African country has a corrupt government, insurgency groups, and just overall poor living conditions. These all converged upon each other leading to civil unrest and the 2011 uprising. It started with the Arab Spring protests, which then led to a civil war. Foreign militaries intervened, and the former leader, Muammar Gaddafi, was then ousted and killed, which led to much civil discontent and ultimately, a second iteration of the civil war. All of this unrest in the State of Libya has naturally led to many casualties and a mindset of “everyone for themselves”.

 

Because this is a crisis in only the State of Libya, who are not partners in trading with us, this has naturally not had an effect on New Zealand. We do believe, however, that no human rights violations, such as the ones going on in Libya right now, should go unchecked, and we have a history, being a member of the United Nations since its founding, to be concerned about violations of human rights anywhere on earth. This crisis, however, does not have a domestic history within New Zealand, and can, therefore, be left without too much explanation.

 

As the delegate of the nation of New Zealand, we believe that it is only the right for these United Nations to help with any humanitarian crisis, no matter how small or large it is, and this one, being rather large, requires immediate attention.

 

Therefore, I propose that we should pass a resolution that would set up a good interim government that would hold Libya over until the civil war, once again, ends, and when that is over, we will assist Libya in holding free and fair elections, where the Libyan people can elect any leader they would like. While we are at it, we would urge them to take another look at their constitution and make sure they close any of the loopholes that allowed the destabilization of the nation-state in the first place, and if that is going a bit too far, then we would at least help them pass anti-corruption laws, which are not at all present in the Middle East, but they really need to be.

 

Along with this, I urge other countries to come up with resolutions of their own that would fix this crisis and bring an end to all human rights violations in the State of Libya.

  • New Zealand
  • Victor Jammal

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Country: Fiji
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Libya
Delegate: Jasmyne Bush
School: Williamston High School

 

Ever since the fall of  Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has been a powder keg. The country of Libya has failed to uphold the expectations of the 2011 Arab Spring because of ongoing civil wars.  The peak of the conflict can be broken into two distinct parts – the 2011 Revolution and Civil War which led to the removal of Gaddafi, and a Second Civil War which broke out in 2014.  Other countries in the region have been pulled into the conflict, either actively or through expressions of support – Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, Sudan, and Jordan on the side of the HoR, and Turkey and possibly Qatar on the side of the GNA. Thousands of Libyans have been left internally displaced, many without access to basic services like electricity, water and healthcare. And today, lacking formal a single unified government, militias and armed groups, many with links to one of the two competing governments, exert control over large swaths of the country performing unlawful killings, acts of violence, disappearances, seizure of property and arbitrary detention. These forms of so-called “justice” exists while the official courts and legal system are largely too weak to function in a fair or timely manner. Abuse by these groups is not limited to Libyans, but has also affected refugees and migrants traveling through Libya’s borders, seeking safety and asylum in Europe.

Just recently, a Fijian citizen was killed in a bomb attack in Benghazi, Libya. Seniloli Tabuatausole, was working for the United Nations Support Mission in Libya at the time of his death. He and two colleagues died when the vehicle they were travelling in was hit by a car bomb outside a shopping mall. Fiji’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York, Satyendra Prasad, said Mr. Tabuatausole was a proud Fijian who gave the ultimate sacrifice in supporting UN operations in some of the most difficult regions of the world.Fiji Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama, who is attending the Pacific Island Leaders meeting in Tuvalu, said his nation’s outsized role at the UN sometimes came with outsized sacrifices. The UN condemned the attack but said it would not evacuate its staff from Libya. The Security Council convened an emergency session in New York to discuss the latest developments in Libya.

 

Because a Fijian was harmed during said Libyan crisis, it is critical to stop it by any means necessary. Through diplomatic action and bilateral support, Fiji with the European Union (EU) is helping Libya return to peace and resume its political transition towards a stable, secure and prosperous country. The EU is the biggest donor of humanitarian aid and provides bilateral assistance, with measures tailored to the needs of the Libyan people in the areas of governance, health, civil society, youth and education, mediation and stability. Its CSDP civilian and military missions are assisting the Libyans in fighting smuggling and trafficking and addressing security challenges. The EU has been working closely with the UN, in particular on migration management, by supporting the UN Agencies’ work on protection and assistance of migrants, refugees and internally displaced people. Since the war erupted again in Tripoli in April 2019, the EU has redoubled its efforts to convince the Libyan, regional and international stakeholders that the only solution to the crisis is a lasting ceasefire and a return to political negotiations. Fiji can accept internally displaced people from Libya. The UNHCR will cover these displaced people by ensuring funding to Fiji to them. 

 

  • Fiji
  • Jasmyne Bush

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Country: Kuwait
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Libya
Delegate: Divya Reddy
School: Williamston High School

 

Beginning with the Arab Spring protests of 2011, Libya has been caught in an ongoing internal crisis. Since the protests and the fall of Muammar Gaddafi who was the de facto leader of Libya after the revolution, Libya has dealt with a civil war, a great deal of foreign military intervention, a decrease in available resources, and a large number of displaced citizens. Both the events of 2011 which resulted in the removal of Gaddafi and the 2nd civil war in 2014 led to a great deal of violence among Libyan citizens, as well as a great deal of instability in regards to the Libyan government and economy. Despite having the largest oil reserves of any African country, Libya is only producing a fraction of the amount it once was due to blockades set by rival groups and the general instability of the country. Since 2014, Libya has been governed by the General National Congress, however, Islamists began to exert greater control over the government which led to General Khalifa Haftar launched a major military offensive aimed against the Islamists, code-named Operation Dignity. The GNC then held new elections, but denied the recognition of the new House of Representatives, claiming it was controlled by Haftar loyalists. Haftar then retreated with the HoR to Tripoli and has control over that territory. Now thousands of Libyan citizens remain displaced without resources for survival, and Libya is left in political unrest. To end the civil war and return Libyan citizens to their rightful homes, Libya needs a new form of government that serves to unify the different parties and leaves no room for the corruption of power. 

Kuwait ́s primary concern with the current Libya crisis is the amount of hostility taking place among Libyan citizens. The foreign ministry is calling upon  Libyans to immediately cease hostilities in a bid to stop further bloodshed and stated that a political solution to the current crisis is the best means to secure Libya’s stability and maintain its sovereignty. Kuwait does particularly side with either Haftar or the GNC but urges all sides to resort to a political compromise as soon as possible to protect the safety of all Libyan citizens. Kuwait is also providing support to Libyan refugees located in southern Tunisia and other locations via the Kuwait Red Crescent. 

 

Representative of Kuwait in the UN Security Council Mansour Al-Otabi further stated that Kuwait will spare no effort to ensure the unity of the council in halting anything that would disturb the unity of the Libyan people towards the achievement of security and moral stability under the political solution, and expressed this is the best way to work towards a compromise under Libyan leadership. Representative Al-Otabi also expressed that the preferred plan of action for Libya is to amend the former Libyan political agreement, organize a national conference, prepare for the elections and provide humanitarian assistance to the people in need. Kuwait also stressed that all Libyans need to comply with paragraph five of the Security Council resolution 2259 of 2015 which affirms rejection at all attempts of the political process carried out by Libya, as rebellion groups and more hostility are what fuel the current crisis.

 

  • Kuwait
  • Divya Reddy

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Country: Denmark

Committee: SPECPOL

Topic: Libya

Delegate: Dane Webb

School: Williamston High School

 

The dilemma in Libya is an ongoing and very nuanced issue. There are many moving parts that need to be dealt with on many different fundamental levels. There are multiple facets that must be viewed, such as allowing Libya their national sovereignty to decide upon their own leader, whilst still making sure that said leader accepts and understands the duties this leadership bestowed upon them comes with. Along with that, theirs the issues of drastically increasing death rate, decreasing life expectancy, high poverty rate that coincides with constantly rising inflation, and insistent terrorism that plagues the nation. So what are we to do about it?

The first thing that needs to be done is an establishment of leadership. Libya needs a leader who is there to support the country on its recovery and reconstruction from this war torn state. One that understands the moral implications of his position and does not bow to corrupt policy for the sake of personal gain. Obviously the UN cannot overrule the national sovereignty of Libya, but it can offer endorsement and aid to potential leaders that UN sees fit to drag Libya out of the war torn status it has sadly found itself in for so long. Still, this does not address the issues of poverty and inflation, as well as mass migration due to displacement thanks to rampant terrorism, but if any of that is to be solved later, Libya needs a strong foundation of government to stand strong and guide its country trhough reconstruction.

 

Beyond that, the UN can urge bigger more stable countries to provide medical aid, financial aid, and possibly send UN peacekeeping troops to help the developing government establish themselves as the true Libyan government. Along with that, the UN can establish NGO’s for the purpose of gathering funding from the general populous to then give to the newly established Libyan government. I believe while this is a bit basic, it is the new start Libya needs on its path back from the depths of terror to a bright new future.

 

  • Denmark
  • Dane Webb

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Country: Brazil

Committee: SPECIAL POLITICAL COMMITTEE (SPECPOL)

Topic: Libya 

Delegate: DJ Emch

School: Williamston High School

This destruction all started with the fall of Muammar Gaddafi and sense then there has been no solution to a government. Sincethe fall the people living in Libya are struggling to get by, many people are struggling without basic utilities like water, electricity, and healthcare. There have been many government agencies trying to support and help Libya’s government but they haven’t found a good government yet. here is currently a corrupt government in placethat needs to be stopped.

Brazil has done a couple things in the past in the concept of Libya. First they have supported Libya in making a serious government that helps the people. There are people from Brazil that are living in Tripoli, Libya to help the community and excel in their own making. Brazil has said multiple times that they disagree with any military actions in Libya. Brazil has also disagreed with a couple of the UN decisions like the No-fly zone. 

Brazil wants to help make Libya a nation with a strong stable government. Brazil also wants  to see a no military or fighting solution, but wants to eliminate the corrupt government that is trying to govern Libya. Brazil wants to help with their political issues and their economic trade deals with countries with their oil. Brazil wants to side with the countries that agree with this and are willing to support to help this cause.

  • Brazil
  • Dennis J Emch

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Country: Morocco
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Libya
Delegate: Caleb Barker
School: Williamston High School

 

Libya has been in a constant state of war, unrest, and poverty since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi. After his removal from power in 2011, the General National Congress (GNC), a group of islamists, were voted as the official government of Libya. Because of this, many rebel groups were fighting hard for power, resulting in a neverending civil war, specifically General Khalifa Haftar, who launched a military offensive in an effort to stop these islamists. In 2015, the newly formed GNA replaced the GNC. This group however, quickly lost support from Haftar and war resumed.  These islamic state groups lost power over Libya in 2016, and as of September 2019, Haftar and the Libya National Army seem to hold a majority of the power. Despite this, the GNA is still recognized as the national government of Libya. The repercussions from these conflicts are massive, and many other nearby countries have suffered heavily as well. Large amounts of citizens live in poverty, and because of the lack of a central government, private militias and military groups are acting upon their own sense of justice, causing huge amounts of violent crime. Because of its geographic relation to Europe, immigrants moving through Libya to migrate to European Countries are also at risk. Because of the huge amount of damages caused by these wars and state of political unrest, it is essential that the issue be dealt with quickly and efficiently

 

Morocco and Libya have historically been on good terms at most points, and when the protests began against the leadership of Gaddafi, Morocco quickly sided with the citizens of Libya. Soon after the second civil war began, Morocco once again worked hard to help try and solve problems between Libyan rebel groups, and helped eventually form the GNA to replace the GNC. Algerian influence is growing in Libya however, and this has scared Morocco into attempting to gain more power within Libya. Morocco has worked very hard to support Libya through their times of need, but it never seems to help for long. This is why we need the support from more countries to help calm the tensions within Libya, as it’s impacting many other nations in negative ways.

 

Morocco has worked hard to try and calm the political unrest and violent conflict within Libya, and other countries need to be doing the same. The conflict is worsening as we speak, and although now only Libya’s neighboring countries seem to be suffering from it, the problem can quickly expand to affect countries across the globe. Diplomatic solutions have been tried many times over, yet any solution created through these means has not lasted long. The civil war in Libya is disastrous, and there needs to be a stronger military pressure from countries such as myself to put a stop to it, before other countries are affected even more than they already have been. The citizens in Libya are suffering, meanwhile these small militias are running around causing chaos, because of the lack of a central government. Because of this, it is clear that other countries need to take charge and do something about the mess that is Libya.

  • Morocco
  • Caleb Barker

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Country: Afghanistan
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Libya
Delegate: Caroline Munson
School: Williamston High School

Since the fall of Gaddafi, the government form and ruling party has changed intermittently from a National Transitional Council (NTC) recognized by the UN, to the General National Congress (GNC) in 2014 consisting of Muslims associated with the Muslim Brotherhood reinstituting Sharia law causing Haftar to attack. From there the elections by the GNC did not go in favor of the Islamists and instead created a House of Representatives. Tensions caused the HoR and Hafter’s forces to retreat to Tobruk, but they were minimized by a ceasefire signed in early 2015, and the creation of the Government of National Accord (GNA). The thought was that it was going to create a more stable era, but when Haftar and the HoR ended its support, attacks began. As of now, Hafter and the Libyan National Army (LNA) in cahoots with HoR are still in a state of distrust with the GNA. In addition to the evident political instability, this conflict has affected neighboring and European countries attracting refugees, as well as Libya’s trading partners as the two political powers are fighting over oil fields; one of Libya’s main exports.

Afghanistan is similarly struggling with two very different political powers dominating every aspect of life: the Taliban and the internationally recognized Islamic republic. The latest official president, Ashraf Ghani, was voted in by the first democratic election in decades in 2014. Afghanistan would most likely support the GNA in Libya, as it sympathizes with a country overrun with terrorist organizations and rival political groups. Afghanistan is in a constant state of danger, and the numerous troops from countries like the US may be making matters worse. Italy has tried to host peace talks and be a “middle-man” of sorts between the GNA and Hafter. The reasoning behind these good intentions however are principally to maintain peaceful relations with Hafter, although supporting the GNA, because his forces control the majority of the oil fields in the east of Libya. So are peace talks going to lead to ideal compromises for both parties in Libya or Afghanistan? 

 

To begin, the internally displaced citizens need to be moved away from hot-spot areas of conflict to prevent any more large-scale massacres. Any outside country being the “middle-man” has not been proven to be effective. Instead there must be a conference of both sides monitored by the UN, possibly including surrounding countries receiving immigrants, to get equal say in any negotiations. Of course, making sure the country is economically stable during and after this political crisis is important to the country’s growth, that is not the most pressing matter for the people. Afghanistan is currently in support of the GNA, but believes that a UN-initiated and led government cannot last forever if the country has any hope of becoming self-sustainable. Political leaders working in and with the GNA that are dedicated to any agreement between it and Haftar must reach a compromise that is best for the most citizens of Libya. Afghanistan would look forward to collaborating with other GNA-supporting countries as well as countries backing Haftar to help bolster any negotiations.

  • Afghanistan
  • Caroline Munson

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Madagascar on Libya

 

Committee: SPECPOL

Topic: The Situation in Libya

Country: Madagascar

Delegate: Alex Dukhan from Royal Oak High School

 

    Ever since Madagascar’s independence as a nation, Madagascar has been as progressive as we see here in the west. Madagascar has universal suffrage, equity among citizens, and a general sense of egalitarianism in all of Madagascar’s ventures. That is why madagascar seeks to aid Libya in returning to a stable governmental ground, and in Libya’s struggle against terrorism and radical islamism.

    Madagascar will be taking a progressive approach to this immense problem. With consequences on international scales, it is impossible to address everything and beget an accurate and helpful resolution, thus, Madagascar believes that a one-by-one approach can be successful. 

Libya has, in its letter entitled, “Letter dated 5 April 2016 from the Permanent Representative of Libya to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council,” shown an interest on the national and international scale in eradicating Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Madagascar believes that through aid and support, Libya can accomplish this task. To stress that point however, aid and support will be necessary to flow to Libya from other international powers. Madagascar is willing to aid in this effort.

Furthermore, Libya has also began proceedings to unite governmental corporations and banks in an effort to remedy the economic crisis within their country. Madagascar believes that this should be given a hands-off approach. After all, this economic crisis is Libya’s to re-stabilize. We, as the world, need not meddle in their personal affairs, lest we mean to destabilize things even further.

In closing, Madagascar wishes to help our allies in assisting Libya’s reconstruction and remediation, and in the betterment of all that wish to do so.

  • Madagascar
  • Alex Dukhan

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