September 16, 2019
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Private Military Contractors

General Assembly: Disarmament & International Security Committee

Topic: Private Military Contractors

Private military contractors are companies that make a profit from performing military and security duties, often on behalf of national governments. Their relevance and impact in conflict zones around the world has been increasing for decades. During the 1990s, it is estimated that the ratio of military personal to private military contractors was 50 to 1. That number is now estimated to be closer to 10 to 1, and with this growth has come more profitability for an already multi-billion-dollar industry. Currently, it is estimated that there are over 4,000 PMC personnel in Syria, a majority of which are employed by the Wagner Group. In December 2006, there were estimated to be at least 100,000 PMC personnel in Iraq. While PMCs are used in direct armed conflict, they are also often used as security. The United Nations uses private military contractors to protect its diplomats and humanitarian aid, as in the case of Afghanistan, where the company IDG Security Ltd. was contracted by the United Nations to provide security for humanitarian aid. 22% of organizations that provide humanitarian aid report having used PMCs for security.

Private military contractors have been responsible for many abuses while involved in conflict. For example, military contractors were present at Abu Ghraib, a prison in Iraq, where in 2003 the PMC CACI International Inc. used methods of torture, such as electric shocks and sexual assaults, against Iraqi prisoners, in violation of international law. Another example is the Nisour Square massacre, in which Blackwater Security Consulting shot and killed 17 Iraqi civilians, injuring 20 more. Incidences of abuses by private military contractors have shifted international attention towards them. Accusations of torture used by these contractors, as well as the shooting of civilians in conflict regions have highlighted the need for increased international regulation. The most prominent international treaty addressing the use of private military contractors is the United Nations Mercenary Convention. This treaty, which was established in 1989 and concluded in 2001, was in reaction to violence involving PMCs during the decolonization of Africa. The convention prohibits the use of mercenaries, which was defined as “[a person] recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict”. However, the effective scope of Mercenary Convention is very limited, as some of the largest militaries in the world, including all P5 nations, have not ratified the treaty.

In order to reduce instances of abuses by these contractors, the international community must work to establish consensus on the limits of acceptable use of contractors, both by the UN itself and by individual nations. The UN Mercenary Convention was an initial step in addressing concerns with PMCs, but in order to prevent more abuses by these corporations, more must be done to address the nuances and complications inherent in their operation. How can the international community address the way in which PMCs profit from conflict? What might potentially constitute an acceptable use of PMCs? Is there room for these companies to work ethically in our world?

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The role of Private Military Contractors(PMCs) have changed drastically over the years. In the beginning of their widespread use in the 70’s, PMCs were used mostly for security forces to defend against assassins, pirates, and terrorists. Recently though, PMCs have started to make a large presence in wartime affairs. Belgian, private-sector ships are known to use PMCs to protect from pirates around the coast of Somalia. This is the extent of PMCs military influence that the Belgian delegation sees as acceptable. The widespread use of PMCs in wartime, mostly due to their apparent lack of respect for traditional military rules and the Geneva Convention itself.

Belgium will not vote with any nation who sees PMCs in their current state as acceptable. PMCs at the least must be regulated and kept to the same standard as conventional military soldiers if used on the frontlines of warfare.

 

The Belgian delegation looks forward to discussing the terms of a resolution with the other delegates.

  • Belgium
  • Max VanderMei

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21 November 2019

SUBMITTED TO: Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)

FROM: Colombia

SUBJECT: Private Military Contractors

DELEGATE: Jyothika Vijay, Troy High School

 

            The pros and cons of Private Military Contractors are guaranteed to raise much debate, however it’s vital to keep both sides in mind as legislation is written and resolutions made. The UN itself has successfully used these Contractors, and due to the benefits brought from this, there is no way reducing the numbers of these Contractors will be successful. However, it must be acknowledged that crimes being made by Contractors are something that must be changed if peace is to be made.

            Colombians are said to “comprise a disproportionate percentage of the world’s PMC”. This can be largely attributed to the violence of the region and conflicts that lend themselves to a demand for protection. This need for military action has been acknowledged several ways by the Colombian government. One rather controversial way was to allow citizens to defend themselves against a rebel group in Colombia, and in this case, “defense” meant allowing them to form military groups to fight the rebels. The reasoning behind this being that it would be better to encourage them to fight than the alternative, which is that Colombians would turn to drugs and gangs for protection or possibly the rebel groups themselves. This indicates that PMCs are formed due to a need for protection, and are rather successful at fulfilling this need. Legislation to restrict the actions of these groups should encourage enforcing the laws through overseeing committees run by the UN. Encouraging the UN to fund and train PMCs of its own to help aid countries in conflict would provide a direct entry point for increased aid and peacemaking. This complex issue requires truly creative and original thinking on the parts of the Delegates, and Colombia looks forward to the unique resolutions that will be forged in committee.

 

https://limacharlienews.com/south-america/Colombian-private-military-contractors/

  • Colombia
  • Jyothika Vijay

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DISEC

GLIMUN 2019

SYRIA

TROY HIGH SCHOOL

 

 

 

            Military contractors have been increasingly useful all of the world. This multi billion dollar industry is involved in almost all countries. Syria has an estimated 4,000 PMC personnel making it a large part of this industry. Syria’s main PMC personnel is from a group called Wagner. Wagner Group is affiliated with the Russian Military that has been fighting on the side of the Syrian government to fight rebels and terrorist groups. Wagner group was also involved in the Syrian Civil War that took place only a few years ago. Syria is angered by the United States and their recent action that concluded in the killing of 200 Russian Wagner Group troops. Military contractors are not being supported in the way they should, Syria believes that these Military contractors help countries fighting off internal and external war. PMC allows countries to help gain stability within government power and help conquer problems internally. Syria also believes that these PMC act as a threat towards rebels from doing destruction. Syria also likes to state that information of the conflict between the United States of America and Syria was not properly broadcasted because lack of news source going around.

 

            The country of Syria believes that countries such as Ecuador should be allowed these extra forces. Syria would like to mention that there are reports of these PMC soldiers being a little extra in their actions towards prisoners, actions such as torture, abuse, sexual assault, etc. Syria would not oppose a rule that would apply to the foreign soldiers that helped prevent these actions from happening. Seeing that Russia seems to be a main provider in the country of Syria, Syria would look favorably to working out a solution that can encourage and continue PMC use but also limit any issues that arise with it. Once again, Syria believes in its fellow Military contractor “ Wagner Group” and will continue to endorse the act of PMCs to be able to exist and take action when needed to help out government officials.

 

 

 

https://www.google.com/amp/s/russianmilitaryanalysis.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/u-s-strikes-and-russian-pmc-casualties-in-syria-fact-vs-fiction/amp/

 

https://russianmilitaryanalysis.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/u-s-strikes-and-russian-pmc-casualties-in-syria-fact-vs-fiction/amp

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/24/world/middleeast/american-commandos-russian-mercenaries-syria.amp.html

  • Syria
  • Brandon Chabay

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Saudi Arabia, Ridaa Khan

Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private Military Contractors

Troy High School

 

     The delegation of Saudi Arabia recognizes resulting issues that come with hiring private military contractors in the use of equipment, vehicles, but most of all, personnel.  History has shown that PMC workers included in national military ventures and missions have a pattern of corruption. The United Nations Mercenary Convention was held but to limited success. The resolution produced from this convention was ratified by Saudi Arabia, as part of our goal to organized military action but in these latter years, the effects of many powerful nations not accepting the resolution or abandoning its goals have come to international attention.

     The initial drafting of solutions to abuses caused by PMCs has been proven by reality to be unfruitful. The exact states which are involved in military disputes and need do utilize their military against conflict are extremely unlikely to limit the use of PMCs in any way. In fact, Saudi Arabia is looking to expand the use of private contractors to beyond the basic exchanges in the near future, to bolster the transactions through a process of expanding our military trade systems. Our goals involve a new sphere in which PMCs will be included in the manufacturing sector of the military. This investment plan is the future for Saudi Arabia and likely other nations which means any new resolutions to be made on PMCs will have to acknowledge this or it will lead to more insolvency.

   Saudi Arabia stresses a realistic approach that addresses corruption without limiting what is necessary for a state’s trade and military operations. This could be addressed with better intelligence sharing between the multiple arenas of private contractors to the employing governments. Encouraging a shift in sectors for where PMCs are hired, as Saudi Arabia is doing will not only allow for the continuation of existing alliances but a new venue for the exact opportunity that PMC workers tend to look for. Saudi Arabia is seeking to unify solutions on this topic and create resolutions that will address the root problem while acknowledging current and future uses of PMCs.

 

  • Saudi Arabia
  • Ridaa Khan

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DISEC

Sri Lanka 

Rohan Kolli

Private Military contractors

Troy High School

 

 

In this day and age, we rely more heavily on Private military contractors than ever before, Private Military contractors have existed since the Cold War. In the 90’s armies outnumbered PMCs by 50:1 but now its only 10:1 in only 20 years, at this rate, PMCs may grow as large as the armies themselves. These PMCs are hired by nations as security for the nation. Many PMCs are responsible for horrible acts of war such as killing innocent civilians, sexual assaults, and much more. Take the Nisour square massacre for example when 17 iraqi civilians were killed by a PMC. This goes to prove why PMCs are another obstacle to world peace as they disrupt many regions across the globe. 

A possible solution that could help solve this issue is not to ban PMCs but instead to make sure that a nation’s own military is being used for its own purposes however it can still be used for protecting delegates travelling the globe for various affairs as keeping them in undeveloped countries can have its setbacks such as abuse of civilians. This shows why it is necessary to regulate the use of PMCs very strongly. If every country were to take appropriate measures to regulate PMCs, the effectiveness of the PMCs would be much higher.

 

 

Sources:

https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/south-asia/sri-lanka-aims-to-demilitarise-island-by-2018

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-asil-annual-meeting/article/regulating-private-military-and-security-companies-a-comprehensive-solution/8999D0D25EEF3D5347A682B8F5B000DB

 

https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/173-sovereign/30555-pmcs-myths-and-mercenaries.html

  • Sri Lanka
  • Rohan Kolli

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Private Military Contractors

Regarding the controversy around PMC’s, The United States would like to stress the importance of intent vs. action. Private Military Contractors are absolutely a positive part of the UN, and should continue to be employed as they help millions. It is important to consider the options. We can get rid of PMC’s, or we can take measures to ensure that they are qualified and trained to be in that position. It is important to teach these people not only their military duties, but their duties as humans. They are to protect, not abuse. We believe that utilizing background checks, rigorous training and education, and other precautions to prevent the wrong people from coming into a position such as a PMC. The UN should carefully consider the roles that PMC’s fill as well. It is important to note that they are people too, and perhaps are not emotionally prepared for the tasks with which they are presented. It is for this reason that the US believes in increasing training, as well as stressing the importance of discussing mental health.

  • United States
  • Elise Kennedy

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The issue of the use of private military contractors is not a small one. With the trend of an increasing number of PMCs seen there are many pros and cons. Some of the negatives would be there are many of the PMCs tend to use methods that are not within the rules/ laws of war. And with this their have been cases of PMCs performing torture and sexual assault. Many of the private military contractors are hired by different countries’ governments, so if illegal actions are taken this could be seen as the government responsibilities. A pro towards this are that many PMCs are in place to do jobs such as security in places where there are not the resources to have a military presence. With PMCs, even though many of them are paid by governments, they can work outside of the borders of their countries politics which could be helpful in many cases. 

 

Italy sees PMCs as a positive thing in some cases. For example PMCs are employed when other options are not available for use in the case of maritime protection. Italy would be in support of a revolution that includes more guidelines for what PMCs can do and used for, and or includes a resolution to any of the issues mentioned above. 

  • Italy
  • Devin Smith

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Disarmament and International Security Committee 

Private Military Contractors

Finland

Claire Michiko Verbrugge

 

Stemming from the end of the Cold War, the need for military troops heavily decreased. The chaotic nature of modern warfare resulted in the availability of cheap and dangerous arms which was exemplified in situations in Kosovo and Rwanda. In recent international military and humanitarian interventions, such as in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Africa, the use of Private Military Companies has increased drastically. Since PMCs can offer military and security limits without prior warning on countries, a growing number of governments rely on firms to fill staff and holes inside their national military. To improve their capacity to add to international tasks, states are arranged to redistribute military center capacities recently considered ‘inherently legislative’. In spite of these improvements, PMCs can be inadequately managed (Schneiker). The killing of civilians by the Private Military and Security Company Blackwater in Baghdad in 2007 attracted tremendous amounts of media and political attention. The incident and its aftermath showed the harmful effects of the use of PMCs by governments, international organizations and private clients. Not only can PMCs pose a threat to local populations; their misconduct can also put the international operations at risk and cause major damage to their clients’ reputation (Schneiker).

 

Finland, only recently has developed a practice of contracting PMCs and at least two Finnish PMCs have begun to operate.  Finland’s current practice in relation to PMCs has grown out of efforts to adapt to circumstances and responsibilities. These have been recently encountered in Afghanistan where hiring PMCs to provide security for governmental officials working on the ground has become a necessity (Tapio Rasila). Additionally, Finland wanted to provide security for finnish officials who worked in extreme locations outside of Finland. Although there can be consequences to PMCs, there are certain benefits when it comes to outsourcing military operation to PMCs. In 2011, Finland became a signatory of the Montreux Document which discusses parameters set for PMCs and poses more questions for the United Nations about the regulation of PMCs .

 

Finland suggests that there should be more transparency with Private Military Contractors. With this shift, it is becoming increasingly difficult to assign responsibility. Additionally, appropriate licensing and registration systems may be established to ensure that contracts with private actors are fulfilled in a professional manner and in accordance with international law (Schneiker). Finland hopes that an adoption of an instrument that can provide oversight, registration, and licensing could be discussed and implemented.

  • Finland
  • Claire Michiko Verbrugge

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Maxwell Burnham Côte D’Ivoire

Kalamazoo Central High School                                            DISEC: Private Military Contractors

 

As a representative for the country of Côte D’Ivoire, we believe that Private Military Contractors (PMC) do more harm than good for the world. These PMC’s are mainly hired by western new world countries as protection. But the misuse of these PMC’s have been very noticeable and infamous in the past. PMC’s actively disrupt the peace within developing territories with just their presence alone. Côte D’Ivoire believes that these PMCs should be held accountable for their actions while in other countries.

            In order to end the high PMC influence, the minister of foreign affairs for Côte D’Ivoire tried to accede to the 1977 Organization of African Unity convention to end the presence of these mercenaries within Africa. There have also been multiple cases of these PMCs trying to overthrow legitimate, democratic governments.

 

          Côte D’Ivoire is not alone in wanting to remove PMCs from developing countries. Developing country Poland had come out as a co-founder of the Montreux Document,which addresses the illegal usage of PMCs that directly violate international law. With the presence of PMCs within eastern countries, it is in the belief of the people of Cote D’Ivoire that these Mercenaries leave our country. The pure strength and power that PMCs hold over the people must be put to an end.

 

  • Cote D'Ivoire
  • Maxwell Burnham

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15 November 2019

SUBMITTED TO: Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)

FROM: Republic of South Korea

SUBJECT: Private Military Contractors

DELEGATE: Anja Peters, Royal Oak High School

 

Over the past several years, private military contractors, have increased in business and prevalence significantly, the ratio of military personnel to private military personnel has gone from 50:1 in the 1990’s to 10:1 in just a short few years. There are huge numbers of PMC personnel in Syria and Iraq, also not so coincidentally those are big zones of conflict. These PMC’s inflict mass amounts of abuse on people within their control and area, for example the prison in Iraq and that situation. Although there is so much abuse going on in these companies, the money involved makes the situation difficult because it is one with great power and influence. PMC’s can be hired to protect people in areas of high conflict, like in Syria and Iraq however these PMC’s in war zones can be classified as unlawful combatants. It is unsure whether PMC’s are considered mercenaries in these kinds of situations. 

 

South Korea barely has its foot in the door with PMCs, and we are open and looking forward for many discussions on how PMCs should be regulated and handled. The UN Mercenary Convention was a progressive step in moving forward with what actions to take next, although many countries didn’t sign and we need to address those differences in committee as well. South Korea believes in strong regulation of PMCs in order to reduce the abuse going on with these private companies. 

 

  • Republic of Korea
  • Anja Peters

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

The People’s Republic of China

Gaurang P. Vaidya

Forest Hills Eastern

 

With the lingering threat of terrorists’ organizations and planned attacks against innocent civilians, China’s approach towards the spread of private military contractors is nuanced with its goal to protect Chinese citizens around the world. The world has seen a dramatic implementation of privatized security, with companies operating in 50 nations and the industry valued at nearly 702 billion Yuan (USD 100 Billion) (Tekingunduz). The problem arises when the corporate-minded private military contractors (PMCs) are not held responsible for their violations of humanitarian laws due to no preexisting mechanism to prosecute their actions under a universal international jurisdiction (Crowe). This leaves security corporations even less incentive to safeguard the human rights of civilians and instead focus on the mission of protecting the asset, continuing a vicious cycle of humanitarian abuse. Allowing PMCs free reign in armed conflict, as the status quo, may breed a similar situation to the British East India Company in mid-18 to the mid-19th century.

 

The Belt Road Initiative, brought about by the honorable President of the People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping, intends to link global economies from Asia, Europe, and Africa with power grids, highways, and other strategic infrastructure projects (Chatzky). With Chinese workers and engineers abroad working diligently to implement this, they must be protected from civil unrest and potential risk from invaders. To combat this problem, China has instituted consultants from Frontier Service Group who specialize in logistics of construction, security of the sites, and safety of the workers where the People’s Liberation Army cannot (Schmidt). This consultant group has stayed far from paramilitary operations, reinforcing that private consultants can be used for international construction projects that globalize the world rather than promoting warfare. Although harboring 4,000 registered private security companies, China understands and discourages the use of mercenaries due to their potential to abuse human rights and promote global unrest, as seen in Iraq. (“Private”, Sheikh). China has also publicly opposed mercenary activities globally, the Chinese Ambassador to the United Nations Ma Zhaoxu saying, “mercenaries pose a threat to peace and stability” to the UN Security Council (Xinhua). In 2008 China aided the Government of Switzerland in formulating The Montreux Document, which set parameters on the usage of PMCs, instituted hopeful regulations, and addressed the legal questions. With expressed support from 52 other countries, it has unwavering support from China and poses new questions to the DISEC committee: How can PMCs be used to promote growth and development? Who must regulate the PMCs, and what is an acceptable use of PMCs? (“Montreux”)

 

The UN Mercenary Convention, written during the African decolonization, is now outdated due to new developments and the need for private security by nations and the United Nations. The DISEC committee must develop a comprehensive to accommodate for the global changes in demand for reliable security while still protecting human rights under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. China suggests that this committee establishes the acceptable use for PMCs in the situation of promoting infrastructure throughout the world and for the security of humanitarian aid workers. The UN should advise against the use of mercenaries due to their history of humanitarian abuse, as seen in Syria and Iraq. Additionally, PMCs should have standardized uniforms, badges, and markings, resulting in decreased civilian confusion in ‘Home States.’ China also aims for PMCs to register with local authorities, presenting their agreement with the ‘Contracting States’ for that deployment. Finally recommends that Officers of the Human Rights Council establish a PMCs regulatory agency that will protect civilian human rights and ensure that PMCs are acting accordingly under newly produced international legislation (“Officers”). The DISEC committee must act with caution, ensuring nations’ national sovereignty and right to self-determination.

 

Chatzky, Andrew, and James McBride. “China’s Massive Belt and Road Initiative.” Council on Foreign Relations, ForeginAffaris.com, 21 May 2019, www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-massive-belt-and-road-initiative.

Crowe, Jonathan and John, Anna, The Status of Private Military Security Companies in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations Under the International Law of Armed Conflict (December 19, 2017). Jonathan Crowe and Anna John, ‘The Status of Private Military Security Companies in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations under the International Law of Armed Conflict’ (2017) 18 Melbourne Journal of International Law 16. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3090583

“Montreux Document – a Process Aimed at Governments.” Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, 5 Aug. 2015, www.business-humanrights.org/en/conflict-peace/special-initiatives/initatives-on-private-military-security-companies/montreux-document-a-process-aimed-at-governments.

“Officers of the Human Rights Council’s Thirteenth Cycle (2019).” OHCHR, www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/Bureau.aspx.

“Private Military Contractors.” GLICA.org, GLICA.org, 13 Nov. 2019, glica.org/private-military-contractors/.

Schmidt, Blake. “Blackwater Mercenary Prince Has a New $1 Trillion Chinese Boss.” Bloomberg.com, Bloomberg, 9 Feb. 2019, www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-10/blackwater-mercenary-prince-has-a-new-1-trillion-chinese-boss.

Sheikh, Salman Rafi. “China’s Blackwater-Style Private Armies.” Asia Sentinel, 3 Sept. 2018, www.asiasentinel.com/econ-business/china-blackwater-style-private-armies/.

Tekingunduz, Alican. “Are Private Military Contractors Any Different from Mercenaries?” TRTWorld, 16 Oct. 2018, www.trtworld.com/americas/are-private-military-contractors-any-different-from-mercenaries-20680.

Xinhua. “China Firmly Opposes Mercenary Activities in Africa, Says Chinese Envoy.” New China, 5 Feb. 2019, www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-02/05/c_137799740.htm.

 

 

 

  • The People's Republic of China
  • Gaurang P. Vaidya

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Disarmament & International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Union of Myanmar 

Shiva Rajan

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Private military contractors have been the cause to many abuses. The PMC is a private company which provides security and combat for financial gain, and although thy provide security they have caused many problems and are responsible for many conflicts. For example, they used methods of torture like electrical shocks and sexual assualts against Iraqi prisoners in 2003 for a financial gain. Another example of abuse from PMC is the Nisour Square Massacre, this massacre killed 17 and injured 20 Iraqi civilians. In 1990 the ratio between military personal and PMC was 50 to 1, but now the ratio is 10 to 1, this shows the increase of private military contractors in one decade. In 2006 it was estimated that there were at least 100 thousand private military personnel in Iraq. 

 

Although private military contractors help sustain peace, they are contempt to the civilians rights. An example of the private military contractors abusing civilians rights and lives is at Abu Ghraib in Iraq. Private military contractors tortured Iraqi prisoners with electrical shocks and sexual assault, and another example of civilian abuse is the Nisour Square Massacre. In the event of this massacre, Blackwater Security Consulting killed 17 and injured 20 more Iraqi civilians. Myanmar is taking steps towards fixing this crisis by attempting to incorporate regulations to private military contractors.

 

In order to achieve the goal of decreasing abuse from private military contractors, there must be rules and regulations to the use of contractors, and to achieve this goal the global community must perform to create these regulations and limits. The UN Mercenary Convention was a step towards directing this issue, but additional work must be done to address and set limits to private military contractors. 

 

  • Myanmar
  • Shiva Rajan

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Country: Equatorial Guinea

Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private Military Contractors

Delegate: Samhith Ginjupalli

School: Saginaw Arts And Sciences Academy

A private military company (PMC) is a private company providing armed combat or security services for financial gain. PMCs refer to their staff as “security contractors” or “private military contractors”. Private military companies refer to their business generally as the “private military industry” or “The Circuit”.The services and expertise offered by PMCs are typically similar to those of governmental security, military or police forces, most often on a smaller scale. While PMCs often provide services to train or supplement official armed forces in service of governments, they can also be employed by private companies to provide bodyguards for key staff or protection of company premises, especially in hostile territories. However, contractors who use offensive force in a war zone could be considered unlawful combatants, in reference to a concept outlined in the Geneva Conventions and explicitly specified by the 2006 American Military Commissions Act.[3] There has been controversy over whether PMCs in active combat zones should be considered mercenaries.

Due to Equatorial Guinea being the 3rd largest producer of crude oil, many oil companies, both foreign and local, hire private military companies as a means of protection. The main private security company contracted by oil companies inside the country is owned and controlled by Army General Armengol Ondo Nguema, President Obiang’s brother, and National Security Advisor. The former mercenary, Simon Mann, sentenced to 34 years and later pardoned by the putsch of March 2004 returned to Equatorial Guinea to work as security advisor Obiang. According to the London newspaper ‘The Independent’, Mann, 58, educated at the exclusive boys’ school of Eton and former officer in the Special Air Service British (SAS), began his “first day” as a security advisor since his release. Since 1979 there have been 12 coups to overthrow the government involving private military companies. Due to these attempts, President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo has dominated all branches of government in collaboration with his clan and political party, the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), which he founded in 1991.

 

Private military contractors are very important to ensure the security of the various international businesses situated in Equatorial Guinea. Because of this Equatorial Guinea Offers our own military so that no attempts are made in overthrowing our government as it had previously.

 

  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Samhith Ginjupalli

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15 November 2019

SUBMITTED TO: Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)

FROM: Russian Federation

SUBJECT: Private Military Contractors

DELEGATE: Sophia Papp, Royal Oak High School

 

Private military contractors are essential for enforcing security around the globe.  As observed in the United Nations efforts to provide relief in conflict zones, such as in Somalia,  privately contracted armed guards are a necessity to both protect civilians and humanitarian aid workers.  The Aid Worker Security Database reports that in 2018 alone, 405 major attacks on aid workers occurred, 69 of which were on UN staff, emphasizing the need for PMCs for security.1  In addition to the protection of aid workers, PMCs play a key role in the protection of political figures, such as the protection of Central African Republic President Faustin-Archange Touadéra by Wagner.2  The ability to employ the services of a PMC, as shown in the case of President Touadéra,  provides an alternative method of security to receiving Western military aid, an ability that must be protected in order to minimize the influence of Western political pressure on African and Middle Eastern nations.  

 

While private military contractors prioritize maintaining peace, the abuse of military power and disregard for civilian rights witnessed in events such as the Nisour Square massacre highlight a need for accountability and proper military training.  The most effective means of accountability for PMCs are regulations at the national level, through which PMCs are examined and legally charged if they are in violation of domestic national law. Given the privatized nature of such contractors, it must be emphasized that PMCs act independently of the nation in which they are based, and that therefore it is the private contractor that it is to be ultimately held accountable within their national judicial system.  The violation of humanitarian rights by PMCs can ultimately be accounted for by poor military training and insufficient education on behalf of the PMC. As asserted by Journalist Pratap Chaterjee at a meeting of the UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries, “Contractors hired for translation and interrogation are often unqualified and ill-trained in human rights standards. Many people are imprisoned, in large part because of poor translation. Chaterjee suggests a number of recommendations that he feels the UN Working Group on Mercenaries should adopt to try and provide “best practice” guides and to “name and shame” PMSCs that violate international law.”3  Such shortcomings can be addressed by international standards for conduct, perhaps a method of licensing PMCs assessed by an unbiased UN research body, such as the UN Working Group on Mercenaries, to have met ethical standards of enforcing security.  

 

While the United Nations Mercenary Convention outlines what qualifies as “mercenaries” and prohibits their use, it is deeply flawed in its inability to recognize the necessity of recruiting military services from abroad to secure peace, in its unreasonably broad interpretation of what constitutes as unlawful use private military contractors, and lastly in its crippling lack of international support.  Rather than banning the use of any private armed personal, the committee should recognize the frequent use of acceptable PMCs and focus on working to address the conduct and operations of PMCs. After all, PMCs are often employed where the United Nations has failed to secure peace in a timely and cost efficient manner, suggesting that their very use is sometimes the result of a failure of the international community to determine an alternative to their use.  

 

The Russian Federation looks forward to working with the members of the DISEC committee to work towards developing a comprehensive mechanism of holding private military contractors to humane standards, in respect to their right as private entities to conduct military operations to secure global peace.

 

1https://aidworkersecurity.org/incidents/report/summary

2https://www.defenseone.com/ideas/2018/05/russia-back-africa-and-making-some-very-odd-deals/148371/

3https://www.globalpolicy.org/pmscs/50489-recommendations-for-overseeing-government-contractors.html?itemid=1455

https://www.fpri.org/article/2019/10/diplomacy-and-dividends-who-really-controls-the-wagner-group/

  • Russian Federation
  • Sophia Papp

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Cuba

Carly Krupp

 

Private Military Contractors (PMCs) are a widely debated topic around the world. Helping in direct conflict as well as being used for security, PMCs make a profit by helping military and security tasks. As a multi-billion dollar company, the ratio of military personnel and private military contractors has decreased from 50 to 1 to 10 to 1. This shows the rapid increase in PMCs and explains why these industries have increased their earnings over the years. Although they help the military and security, they also pose serious risks and concerns. These concerns include: a weakened central military, legal violations due to torture, and third world countries. 

As war erupts, PMCs come in to help the military with specific duties. The way their profits are made allows them to make more money for their companies as war conflict continues. The international community can address this by maintaining a balance within these private military organizations by creating more regulations for PMCS. These rules will help restrict legal violations by promoting peace within these companies, to avoid problems such as the occurrence of when a private group was deployed to Iraq, and entered the city of Fallujah where they “mistreated women and children, and tortured and murdered local men and teenage boys.”

 

An acceptable use of PMCs would only occur with serious rules and regulations set in place. They have a powerful ability to control themselves and self-regulate being that they are private institutions. This gives them the ability to violate human rights, including sexual assualt and torture while deployed, and disobey domestic laws. Cuba believes that there is little room for these companies to work ethically in our world. The lack accountability needed to make sure that the violation of human rights isn’t perpetuated further. PMCs work for countries, like the United States, who have the money and resources. Third world countries lack these funds and are automatically put at an economic disadvantage, lowering their use for available military aid and raising the risk of violation among their country.

  • Cuba
  • Carly Krupp

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DISEC– Private Military Contractors

Mattawan High School

 

Private Military Contractors (PMCs), private company providing armed combat or security services for financial gain, have increased in relevance greatly over the last century.  Abuses of these companies has become a major talking point in the global community, and their role in the security of nations is often questioned.  In Iraq specifically, it has been found that many of these companies have been abusing the power they have, having been accused of torturing foes and shooting civilians.  PMCs play an important role in some nations, but for developing countries, having a stable national military should be more important.  

Kenya has increased the number of PMCs in the nation to protect the general public and businesses, almost having 2,000 companies.  Kenya would look favorably upon a treaty to ensure that these companies are using their power correctly, and maintaining their business in an appropriate way to maximize national security while not sacrificing the morality of the nation.

Kenya supports treaties that would require PMCs to undergo proper training and to monitor the actions of these companies.  While they play an increasingly important role in the national defense of Kenya, Kenya believes it is of utmost importance to make sure each member of these corporations are fit to serve.  Kenya plans on continuing the usage of PMCs to ensure crime is combatted, but is willing to work with other countries to ensure that these companies do not go unregulated.

 

  • Kenya
  • Klay Kelley

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Committee: DISEC

 Topic Area B: Private Military Contractors 

Country: Senegal

 Delegate: Milan Colzani

 School: Fishers High School 

Private military contractors (PMC’s) have had a large presence within African countries such as Senegal since their conception. Their use within Senegal continues to increase, despite decreasing crime rates and increased political stability as time goes on. This is due to the continuously expanding trade that Senegal benefits from because of its reputation as being the country in Western Africa that has the largest amount of political stability. The expansion of free trade between other nations and Senegal has led to more business opportunities within Senegal, which requires higher levels of security. Senegal has used not only PMC’s to help protect our businesses in the past, but we have also used PSC’s (Private Security Companies). 

The delegation of Senegal strongly agrees with the use of PMC’s as an alternative to public officers as they have been proven to be safer when utilized to protect businesses within the region. However, public officers are still the largest utilized type of law enforcement in terms of protecting civilians. As business expansion continues to grow in Senegal, the use of PMC’s and PSC’s will continue to grow as well. While Senegal understands that PMC’s in many countries haven’t been successful in the past within other nations in terms of corruption and other violations, Senegal will continue to use them. 

Understanding this, Senegal will continue its use of PMC’s and PSC’s, however, we have solutions on to how to make their use less corrupt in other nations. These include imposing further regulations on PMC’s to make sure that they remain accountable in the region that they’re serving in, as well as providing more oversight to them in general. Additionally, it’s important to create a uniform set of standards that each PMC has to abide by, which allows for them to be uniform in nature, and makes sure that they abide by Democratic values. Sources: 

O’Brien, Cyrus. “The Dynamics of Private Security in Senegal.” Review of African Political Economy

vol. 35, no. 118, 2008, pp. 655–659. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20406563. 

“PMSCs: Risks and Misconduct.” PMSCs: Risks and Misconduct, Global Policy

  • Senegal
  • Milan Colzani

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Private military contractors are largely unlawful and destructive companies that allow large countries to impress abuses on smaller countries with sheer might. The private military contractors represent an alarmingly large portion of the total personnel of Western intervention overseas, and are almost totally unchecked by their host nations. There are innumerable examples of acts of gross negligence or outright cruelty committed by the employees of PMCs, which is to be expected given that they are untrained and yet have access to weapons and machinery. PMCs turn war into profit, with no regard for the human lives of the countries they are in. There are thousands of PMCs worldwide, but most are concentrated in the Middle East where they make an already raw situation worse. 

Iran finds PMCs to be disgraceful and dangerous. They are just another way for the United States and other Western countries to impress their military might on the tumult of the Middle East. Iran finds US presence in the Middle East to be too big already, and PMCs present nothing more than another example of aggression on their part. One of Iran’s closest neighbors, Iraq, has one of the worlds largest concentrations of PMCs, and their provocative behavior has already leached onto Iranian soil and ignited serious political tension between Iran and the US. Iran sees private military contractors as a serious threat to their ability to sculpt the development and reconstruction of nearby countries such as Iraq and Syria and as a great risk to their own future as an autonomous country. 

 

Iran believes that all countries should be required to explicitly record and report the numbers of contractors working worldwide, and that there be a strict minimum standard of training which all defense contractors must undergo. In addition, countries should hold contractors who commit crimes accountable in military courts, and there should be a worldwide database of contractors found guilty of misconduct, and a ban on their ever again working as a military contractor.

  • Iran
  • Hannah Willit

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Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private Military Contractors
Delegate: Nora Gauss

School: Fishers High School

 

Private military contractors have long been debated around the globe, with those in support stating they work towards keeping the peace and those who stand in opposition claiming they are far more violent. In 2017, 23.6% of respondents in Bulgaria confirm cases of crimes, violence, and/or vandalism. This percentage is the highest in the EU. Knowing that there is an issue with violence, the Bulgarian government couldn’t rely on their own military, a militia of only 27,000 standing troops (as of 2014). This is far too large of an issue for the nation to deal with on its own. By employing, private military contractors (also known as PMCs), the country gets a boost in safety of the people. But, in turn, also have to deal with the abusive affairs.

 After multiple reports of inefficient policies regarding illicit ordeals, Bulgaria passed legislation that allowed mayors to contract private security companies. This would help the nation to remain safe, as some of the most violent areas were being more heavily guarded. By contacting private security corporations, schools, parks, reservoirs, and other municipal buildings would remain guarded and secure. In the past, we have worked to curb any possibility of abuse from PMCs, with mixed results. In 1994, Ordinance No. 14 for the Issuance of Permits for Guarding of Sites and Private Individuals by Physical and Legal Persons was passed. This ensured that those who had been involved in criminal activity could not control the military contract. Not only that, but in 1997, all private companies had to discontinue violent practices like racketeering and extortion. Though these efforts persisted throughout the 1990s, we see today that there are risks. Though Bulgaria has made great strides in ensuring that PMCs are safe, we cannot guarantee that there is no risk of  criminal activity.

This is why Bulgaria supports the us of private military contractors, to an extent. Due to action taken in the past, the private military contractors that we employ have less abuse and are able to focus on their original intent: to keep the people safe. This would be beneficial to the people, if PMCs were not known to be abusive. However, since we acknowledge there are risks with signing private military contractors, we support restrictions on these military companies. We have used them in the past and are going to continue to use them in the future. If new illegal practices arise in Bulgaria, we will work to find an alternative. One idea is to hold these companies responsible for breaking any domestic laws. Currently, Bulgaria only prosecutes individuals, not corporations. We propose a piece of legislature that is able to change this, so that we can hold PMCs accountable, if there is misconduct that requires a national response.

 

Sources:

Cain, Phil. “Eastern Europe’s Private Armies” Public Radio International, 21 August 2010,

https://www.pri.org/stories/2010-08-21/eastern-europes-private-armies

Dickinson, Laura A. “Accountability of Private Security Contractors under International and Domestic law” American Society of International Law, 26 December 2007,

https://www.asil.org/insights/volume/11/issue/31/accountability-private-security-contractors-under-international-and

Leviev-Sawyer, Clive. “Controversy as Bulgaria empowers mayors to contract private security firms to guard entire towns” Independent Balkans News Agency, 19 January 2018,

https://balkaneu.com/controversy-as-bulgaria-empowers-mayors-to

contract-private-secu

rity-firms-to-guard-entire-towns/

“Survey: Bulgaria is the Most Dangerous Country in the EU: The Highest Number of Crime, Violence and Vandalism” Sofia News Agency, 27 November 2018,

https://www.novinite.com/articles/193509/Survey%3A+Bulgaria+is+the+Most+Dangerous+Country+in+the+EU%3A+The+Highest+Number+of+Crime%2C+Violence+and+Vandalism

 

  • Bulgaria
  • Nora Gauss

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Madeline Tietema

Country: Peru

Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private Military Contractions

Forest Hills Northern

The topic of international private military companies is controversial for many reasons. They are both very beneficial to countries in the protection of their citizens, but they also contribute to the chaos that has been going on with terrorist groups worldwide. The United Nations has been extremely critical of private security contractors, but has been increasingly turning to the contractors in their missions abroad. On the one hand, these companies facilitate the security of many nations so that the government need not handle every conflict. According to Virginia Foxx, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, “Many contractors operating in Iraq have been subjected to a great deal of scrutiny. While I understand there may be some waste as contractors operate in a war zone, a vast majority of the work done by our military contractors is praiseworthy. American contractors deliver critical supplies, infrastructure and security in an incredibly hostile environment.” She goes on to explain that the individuals that make up these troops are well trained and equipped and work side by side with the United States’ military to protect its citizens; however, she fails to encompass the negative aspects of these organizations. Countless mishaps have occurred in part by private military contractors resulting in the harm and death of the citizens of countries that use these companies all around the world. According to Foreign Policy Director, Peter W. Singer, “Army investigators have reported that six employees of private contractors were involved in incidents of abuse, but potentially more may have been involved in other crimes in Iraq and elsewhere.” This outrageous event and many others must be taken into consideration by the United Nations effective immediately.

 

To this point, the United Nations’ efforts to regulate the private military industry have been largely inadequate. Panel discussions have taken place in the United Nations’ General Assembly to discuss the implications of what they describe as “privatization of war.” Though many members of this assembly would opine that private military contractors must be somehow taken under control, the U.N.’s top security official, Gregory Starr, the former head of U.S. State Department Security, has also been advocating an increase in the use of private security firms. According to columnist Colum Lynch, “the embrace of a private security contractor marks a shift for the United Nations, which has relied on governments to supply peacekeepers to protect U.N. staff.” Amongst all of these opinions and discussions, measures have yet to be taken for the creation of an answer to this ongoing debate.

In the country of Peru, there is one prominent military contractor: Defion Internacional. Defion Internacional is a Lima, Peru based Private Military Company that recruits and trains security, administrative, logistic and professional services personnel to provide world wide services. With offices based internationally, Defion Internacional recruits, vetts and trains personnel for different companies around the world. Defion does not solely contract for security guard services. The company also hires personnel for work outside of the security industry such as food services personnel, language instructors, insurance agents, professional medical services to name a few. In short, this organization is very beneficial to the country. In a resolution, Peru would like to see more regulation to prevent human right abuses regarding this topic, but not be stripped of a very positive aspect of its national security. Peru looks forward to working toward a settlement that is agreeable and advantageous for most countries in this committee.

  • Peru
  • Madeline Tietema

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Israel

Elliot Baker

Forest Hills Northern

Private military contractors (PMCs) have played a large role in global affairs, from guarding diplomats and humanitarians associated with the UN to participating directly in conflicts. These PMCs have been involved in human rights violations, as have other non-government-controlled military groups, such as the UN’s own peacekeepers. In fact, the UN has hired PMCs many times and says that “these services are needed to protect the organization’s staff and worldwide operations.” While other nations might see the issue being the private nature of PMCs, human rights violations are perpetrated by some national militaries, such as the beatings detained citizens have received at the hands of Lebanese authorities.

 

Since the establishment of the State of Israel, Israel has aimed to advance its military sufficiently to be able to defend against attacks and unjustified uprisings from within its territory. This wouldn’t be possible without the simultaneous advancements in private security and PMCs, which have also grown into a multimillion-dollar industry within Israel, and resolutions attempting to ban PMCs would have detrimental effects on the economies and security of other such nations including P5s such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and China. The profits that PMCs make will also go back into the global economy, so while these companies do profit from conflict, it can actually aid the international economy. The use of PMCs is also cost-effective, and a much more viable defense strategy for developing nations that might not have the resources to fully staff and arm a standing military, while also limiting casualties of that nation’s citizens. Furthermore, Israel disagrees with some of the alleged human rights abuses that have occurred within its borders, namely the deaths of Mariam Abu Ismail and Ibrahim Taha, who were killed after disobeying requests to change lanes at a checkpoint and throwing a knife at officers. If PMC officers aren’t allowed to defend themselves against possible enemy combatants, then it will only lead to more death as enemies are allowed to easily defeat officers.

 

While recognizing the concerns of other nations, Israel believes that PMCs are a necessary tool in global affairs and that their benefits outweigh the accusations of human rights violations. Israel would find resolutions looking to ban PMCs unsavory but might look favorably upon any resolutions affirming the role of PMCs in aiding in the security of nations.

 

  • Israel
  • Elliot Baker

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Throughout the world private military contractors have abused their power, taken advantage of what they are allowed to do. While there are advantages to the use of private military, we feel as though the recurring problems need to be addressed by the United Nations as a whole. As PMCs develop within nations, the nations become more reliant on the resources and services that PMCs provide in times of war. Therefore, PMCs are able to undermine the government, and begin to prosper when they cause the nation to go to war. 

India recognizes that this cycle is one that leads to too much power in the hands of these contractors and is one that needs to be put into check. India looks forward to working with other countries to address the concerns with these contractors and is willing to take any steps towards eradicating the corruption that these corporations have brought along with them. While we believe that contractors can play a significant role in the success of the building of a nation’s military, we feel as though they should not replace the military power altogether.

 

We feel as though we should be a strong example of how to conduct on military matters and should be replicated if equal success is wanted. Currently, the nation of India has no official PMCs which has not hindered our success in war in the slightest. While many may argue that the removal or regulation of these contractors is a hindrance to their success as a nation, we feel as though the denial of corruption is what is clouding their vision.

  • India
  • Joey Mooney

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DELEGATION OF LIBYA

SUBMITTED TO: Disarmament and International Security Committee

TOPIC: Private Military Contractors

DELEGATE: Pratham Patel

SCHOOL: Saginaw Arts & Sciences Academy 


Private military contractors (PMC) are often used for humanitarian aid but recently, the use of PMCs has led to unethical conflicts such as infringements on human rights. Currently, Russia, in an effort to support the Libyan National Army (LNA), is sending many contractors to Libya. Libya has asked the United States to help us resolve this conflict. Libya recognizes that the misuse of PMCs can destabilize a country but deems them necessary to fight back against LNA and its allies. Libya proposes that the UN create a guideline for justified usage of PMCS

 

In an effort to fight off foreign countries invading Libya and supporting the rivals, the Government National Accords (GNA) of Libya employs PMCs. Not only are the PMCs used to keep the civilians safe from the LNA but also large terrorist groups and criminal gangs that run rampant in Libya.  Even though Libya has a UN Arms embargo Russia keeps providing LNA with more and more mercenaries and supplies making the GNA dependent on PMCs. The GNA controls Libyan Armed forces, naval forces, and coast guards and the LNA has multiple different militias such as 7,000 regular units, 18,000 mercenaries, tribal militias,  foreign mercenaries, and more. These PMCs assist Libya and save countless innocent lives so Libya supports the use of PMCs but is understanding of the fact that rules and regulations need to be placed in order to stop the infringement of human rights. 

 

Libya is in support of regulating PMCs for they help our civilians stay safe. Libya proposes that the UN investigates whether using the PMCs is absolutely necessary and just. The delegation of Libya asks the UN to create new guidelines for the usage of PMCs and an effective way to enforce said guidelines but also believes that it is very important to have national sovereignty. Libya looks forward to working with everyone to create proper guidelines for the use of PMCs.

  • Libya
  • Pratham Patel

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Private military contractors are increasingly becoming an essential part of developed nations security, with nations like the United States being the biggest customer of PMCs. While they have some benefits such as less bureaucratic tape to cut through to make use of them, they are inherently flawed. There is no evidence that they are actually cheaper in the long term, because often contractor’s insurance will be just as high as any other military benefits, especially in the United States. For developed nations, often times the contractors will be not as well trained and motivated as personnel serving their country. The role of a military is security of the country, and when private contractors are used to enforce other nations will, or their own, it takes security from the public and makes it a business. PMCs may increase safety overall, but in nations with instability, a state having a strong military to maintain order and protect its people is important to keeping governments, and not companies, in power. 

 

South Sudan understands the need for private security, especially in fragile states, but believes that private security should only add to a military presence, not replace it. South Sudan sees incidents such as Baghdad’s Nisour square massacre, in which Blackwater security opened fire on innocent Iraqi civilians, leaving 14 dead and 18 wounded. South Sudan is a fragile state, but working to stabilize the nation is the top priority. 

 

The role of PMCs is fluid, and South Sudan believes the role of PMCs should be less about combat roles, and more about security for individuals or groups. For example, an effecting use of PMCs would be diplomatic missions from a smaller, less developed country with little resources to move military personnel. The United Nations has been known to use PMCs when going to potentially dangerous states. One thing that must be done, however, is make it easier to hold security personnel who act out of line accountable. After the Nisour incident, it took almost 7 years to find them guilty in US courts, and the United Nations could take on the burden of prosecuting security employees to prevent bias. 

 

Sources:

https://www.globalpolicy.org/pmscs/contractor-misconduct-and-abuse.html

 

Are Private Contractors Really Cheaper?

 

https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R40764.pdf

 

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/od.html

 

https://news.un.org/en/story/2008/03/252012-private-security-companies-lack-oversight-and-regulation-un-working-group

 

  • South Sudan
  • Ben Wedepohl

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As a country with several large private military contractors Romania supports the use of of these corporations to act as military in areas of conflict. At times this may be very expensive for some nations but the cost is more effective than raising an entire Army. Romania does support limited regulations on the extent of authority that military contractors possess in international affairs.In this matter Romania believes it is up to independent nations to decide whether or not to use private military contractors 



  • Romania
  • Nicholas Wickerham

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Republic of Costa Rica

Hadley Urrutia

Forest Hills Northern

 

Private Military Contractors (PMCs), are privately owned companies which provide armed combat or security services for financial gain. The number of registered PMCs has increased and continues to increase by 8% annually. The main concern relating to PMCs in Central America is the lack of proper regulation. This means that agents could be involved in illegal and harmful activities such as abuse.

 

The Republic of Costa Rica has 630 private security companies, and has over 28,000 private guards for hire. Costa Rica wants to confirm that these services are used for the correct purposes by establishing a new policy which requires all businesses and entities requiring an armed guard to submit a safety evaluation. The evaluation submitted to the security ministry would explain why the service is necessary and needed.

 

Costa Rica wants to protect human rights and safety by governing the principles and activities of operational personnel, and believes there should be established regulations on private military and security services. This includes confirming that private military personnel undergo proper training, practice, and a psychological exam. It’s also important that up-to-date records with information on both personnel and on firearms, ammunition, and other equipment. By keeping accurate records and making sure all private military contractors are properly educated and trained, PMCs can be regulated and safe.

  • Republic of Costa Rica
  • Hadley Urrutia

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Indonesia is of the opinion that private military contractors have become an unfortunate necessity in the modern world and there is little if anything that can be done to curb their illegal use. Indonesia would look favorably upon a resolution which condemned their implementation and employment but is wary of the difficulty of such things while taking into account the national sovereignty of those involved.

Indonesia believes that at the present junction it is realistic and necessary to ratify a resolution condemning the use of private military contractors or at the very least building out a method by which their violations of human rights do not go unchecked. Indonesia is open and willing to any and all options that respect national sovereignty.

  • Indonesia
  • Jack Norman

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Private military contractors, those being companies which perform decisive military actions, have become reason for major concern in recent decades as their existence has become proportionately more active from numbering 1:50 with normal militaries today being 1:10, a dramatic increase.  The problem, in recent, revolves around abuse of power among these private armies. One under PMC in Iraq was known to have tortured many and overstepped international codes of human rights to achieve tactical goals. As this plague of abuses worsens this problem must see immediate attention.  

As a nation of great prowess and major world influence, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland would like to stress the importance of our acceptance of UK mercenary and military private groups.  These groups have provided immense aid in the war on terror, saving innocent lives for the past decade and a half. We believe these companies should be self-regulated, not having to comply with the rules of foreign powers as they risk their lives in the name of freedom and security.  Our contractors provide international civilian protection, leading the way in sensible warfare against dissenters of human rights. Situated around the world, we see no limiting factor in the scope of our operations.  

To solve this pressing issue, we would not accept over regulating counter-terrorist powers.  In keeping with the interests of our contractors, we cannot hinder their ability to complete missions with unnecessary and unwilling rules of war.   

 

  • United Kingdom
  • Mason Oudekerk

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Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private Military Contractors

Country: Seychelles

Delegate: Sam Sullivan

Private military contractors (PMCs) have been on the rise since the 1990s. Their demand has increased as many humanitarian groups have stated that they use PMCs for security and defense of their assets while in zones that may present a considerable threat. In recent years many reports of abuses have led a shift in the attention of the international community to look into the methods employed by PMCs. Cases such as the Nisour Square massacre in which PMCs were responsible for the shooting of Iraqi citizens resulting in 17 deaths. Another incident that has drawn international attention is the use of electrical shocks and sexual assault on prisoners at the Abu Ghraib, a prison in Iraq. These methods are in direct violation of international law. Efforts have been made to stop limit PMCs in military conflicts to avoid more reports of abuses. The most prominent of these was the United Nations Mercenary Convention. This convention lasted from 1989 to 2001 and was a result of numerous complaints about PMCs during the decolonization of Africa.

The nation of Seychelles does see how countries and organizations rely on PMCs for security from threats. The UN itself has used PMCs in the past in war zones such as Iraq or Afghanistan. As a country that solely relies on its voluntary coast guard and national guard see have virtually no use for PMCs. 

Seychelles is in full support for a resolution that would set up a list of acceptable situations for the use of PMCs. This resolution should also contain restriction to be placed on the PMCs in order to reduce the amount of abuses and to stop any further massacres or tortures. We also believe that this should be built on the initial steps taken at the United Nations Mercenary Convention.

 

  • Seychelles
  • Sam Sullivan

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Dominic Zaidan

DISEC

Mattawan High School

 

Private military contractors or PMCs have had a role in war for decades.  They have allowed countries to bolster their militaries. They provide much more than simple soldiers, they act as security forces, guarding assets that the military cannot or does not want to spare troops.  For countries that are not able to support a military or simply do not have the technology to support a military of their own, it allows them to hire a force to act on their behalf.

 

For years now, Nigeria has taken advantage of those that would lend themselves to our cause for money.  We have recently enlisted multiple organizations help in order to assist us in our fight against the terrorist organization Boko Haram.  Their assistance has allowed us to rescue some of their kidnapped victims. We believe that these mercenaries are extremely useful in our fights and are in favor of keeping them.

 

We recognize that there have been acts committed by these guns for hire that are unacceptable, however Nigeria is of the mindset that their usefulness outweighs the risks that come with their hiring.  Some regulations could be implemented, however oversight is not necessary and would be in violation of country’s rights.

 

  • Nigeria
  • Dominic Zaidan

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Delegation of Germany

DISEC

Private Military Contractors

 

Background: In the past, diplomatic conventions such as the Munich Security Conference have repeated the sentiment that national governments are the sole proprietors of world security. As recently as 2010, however, the self-proclaimed “deciders of war and peace” have been outsourcing their government monopoly on peace to the private sector. Back in 2010, when the United Nations prepared to expand their operations in Afghanistan, there were some less publicized backroom dealings in the works to increase security presence in regions such as Pakistan, where UN relief workers have been the target of kidnappings and killings.

 

Policy: Germany is a strong supporter for the use of private military and security companies, or PMSCs, and has actively urged the United Nations to grant contracts to more PMSCs as their demand becomes more prominent. Like most countries, Germany has had a policy shift dating back to 2010, where once we would refer to military endeavors as a strict government responsibility, the international community, Germany included, now feels as though international peace must be delegated to private service providers. Along with the changes in international security forces, Germany also urges the adoption of transparency from within said private military organizations. An existing lack of transparency can only pave the road to potential corruption, and to avoid future logistical issues, it’s important to stress the consequences of not increasing transparency with PMSCs, especially in countries where political and military corruption is left unchecked. To compete with the growing international demand for PMSCs, shown with a combined total of over 250,000 private military soldiers being deployed in countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq, it is also important to redefine government responsibility in relation to international conflict. Germany has taken an extensive approach in changing what defines “core military responsibilities,” more specifically, who may be commissioned to do what, seen in their increased oversight and advisory from Transparency International Germany.

 

Solutions: To enact a resolution that capitalizes on both the economic and military benefit of PMSCs, while also mitigating the adverse effects such as potential corruption, we must first look at what political and regulatory framework has already been executed. Governments that utilize PMSCs must introduce regulation and quality control for the adoption process of private military contractors. There is a responsibility put on said nations to uphold basic judicial and criminal justice systems to both establish and provides safeguards against PMSCs that violate both contracts with client governments and international law, as dictated by the United Nations and the Geneva Convention.

 

https://www.globalpolicy.org/pmscs/50225-pmscs-a-the-un.html

https://www.un.org/press/en/2018/gashc4246.doc.htm

https://foreignpolicy.com/2010/01/17/u-n-embraces-private-military-contractors/

https://www.perseus-strategies.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Contracting-for-Stability-The-Potential-Use-of-Private-Military-Contractors-as-a-United-Nations-Rapid-Reaction-Force.pdf

 

https://www.transparency.org/news/pressrelease/private_military_and_security_companies_a_call_for_better_regulation

 

  • Germany
  • Caleb Bartes

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In Thailand private military operators are employed essentially to help military officers in war zones and combat situations. They perform a wide variety of duties including repairing and maintaining.
but 4 years ago they faced a problem with the private military operators, Thai lawyers for human rights have accused Thailand’s ruling military council of intensifying the campaign to intimidate academics critical of military leaders’ attempts to stay in power.

Thai lawyers for human rights have accused Thailand’s ruling military council of intensifying the campaign to intimidate academics critical of military leaders’ attempts to stay in power.
Since the army seized power, at least 77 academics have been harassed in their homes by officers advising them to change their minds, or have been ordered to attend camps to change them, the rights group said. Those who usually attend camps are released within two days.
At least five academics were forced to live in exile, said member of the human rights.
The group provides legal assistance, monitors human rights violations in Thailand and has a heavy weight among international NGOs, the European Union and other governments.
I think the solution is to never intrude politics and academia, this way everyone has the freedom to express their opinion without any pressure from the government, especially educated people because they are educated and know to make decisions.

  • Thailand
  • sereen abu younis

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Country: Fiji

Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private military contractors

Delegate: Luke Jaworsky

School: Williamston High School

 

Private military contractors can be extremely dangerous to the constructs of modern warfare due to their possibly dangerous and harmful methods and crimes. These outsourced military contracts often go unchecked by the countries contracting them which allows them to go on committing these crimes without punishment.

Fiji understands that many nations use these contract bids in their own militaries, including the United States, which has a quarter of its military contracted by them which could pose a threat to nations that they are currently at war with or at war in. Other nations that are in unstable conditions use contractors as well for their own self gain which would also further allow for many war crimes to go unnoticed and unchecked easily due to the current instability.

Fiji would like a call for many P5 nations to further ratify a resolution that would ban the use of mercenaries within their own militaries. Fiji would also like to see many other nations of much lower status such as those in Africa and the middle east to at least further regulate the amount of troops that countries’ governments are allowed outsource through military contracts.

 

  • Fiji
  • Luke

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Disarmament & International Security Committee 

Private Military Contractors

Rwanda

Vincent Holden

 

Disarmament & International Security Committee has to take a stance on private military contractors and what their tactics really are when they are hired and if they’re helping the area they’re in or are they hurting it. 

The pros to PMCs are that they can be used as security in areas of conflict, such as Syria and other civil wars areas, they can provide peace when need be and stay there to keep the peace.  Unfoutantley the co to PMCs are that they can be abusive, for example toututre/ sexual harassment on prisoners, greed/ corruption, and the worse case being executions. With Africa being a hot spot for civil wars and declining governments PMCs can and are profiting off of the torment of these people.

 

Rwanda ́s stance is that PMCs could be both positive and negative seeing how they can be kept there to keep the peace but also go to far in terms of  ̈keeping the peace¨.

 

  • Rwanda
  • Vincent Holden

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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Private Military Contractors

 

Private military contractors are groups that supply combat, arms, and experience to organizations for financial gain. Some examples of this are G4S, KBR, Northbridge service group. They benefit poorly trained and organized rebel groups or strike teams and tend to work with governmental groups. This takes the pressure off the government to hold boundaries and eliminates politics from border holdings. However, these citizens take on the government’s responsibilities of protection and preservation of the peace. 

 

Algeria has a strong belief that private military contractors are overstepping civilian roles by taking the government’s role.  Since Algeria’s economy is based on France’s mixed economy my government needs to control business through regulation, and the private military contractors overstep a business role in society. This is why we believe that private military contractors must not be able to do actions that our government has the jurisdiction. Furthermore, the people of Algeria discourage civilian-owned firearms as seen by a study from the University of Sydney shows that civilian gun ownership dropped from 7.6 percent in 2007 to 2.1 percent in 2017. 

 

I desire to see a discussion on regulating private military contractors or eliminating them from boarders. One solution I see for this is to use the political power of the UN to pressure countries into implementing regulations on private companies producing military-grade weaponry. Another solution is that encouraging countries and high ranking officials to look towards the UN peace force due to the fact that they operate almost identically. This could be done through regulations or making the process of receiving un Peacekeepers more efficiently and more cost-effectively. I would like to also align myself with France and other countries that operate similarly to Algeria. 

  • Algeria
  • Cameron Cribbs

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

United Mexican States

Saginaw Arts & Sciences Academy

Malhar Amin            

 

Private military contractors or PMCs have been an increasing problem in recent times. They are private organizations that governments hire to fight for them. PMCs have a history of ignoring human rights, such as when they tortured and sexually assaulted prisoners in Abu Gharib. They are a problem because they are private, which means the government does not oversee them. This leads to many issues because they are free to do what they want, as in the case of Blackwater where 17 innocents were killed. PMC prosecutions are rarely brought up because of political constraints, and sometimes PMCs are given government immunity. This immunity lets PMCs be free from any form of jurisdiction which is why there are so many cases of PMCs ignoring basic human rights. PMCs are also able to evade legal repercussions, because they set up foreign subsidiaries.

 

In Mexico PMC hiring has seen a massive increase in recent years. This is caused by the violence because of gangs and cartels. Mexico is against the use of PMCs because they add to the violence that ravages the country and ruins lives. PMCs have been known to use excessive force especially in Libya when combating insurgent groups. In Mexico PMCs are mostly use for private reasons, rather than for the common good. A major concern about PMCs is that they undermine the governments of underdeveloped nations. This is a major problem because this causes civil unrest affecting surrounding nations.

 

Mexico proposes that nations refrain from using PMCs, and instead use their own militia, or no militia at all. Mexico urges the UN to pass a treaty suggesting that nations no longer enlist PMCs. Mexico would also like to see that PMCs have to answer to a court, set up in the treaty, if PMCs disregard human rights. Mexico would also like to see that nations make changes to their personal constitutions to bar PMCs from profiting in their countries. This ensures that our citizens and other nations are kept safe from the threat of PMCs.

  • Mexico
  • Malhar Amin

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Committee: Disarmament and International Security

Topic: Private Military Contractors

Country: Hellenic Republic

Delegate: Josephine Koch, Forest Hills Northern High School

 

As private military contractors (PMCs) have come to play an increasingly important role in both domestic and international conflicts, there has been widespread debate about the ethics of hired soldiers. The use of PMCs has given rise to several international scandals, such as the Nisour Square Massacre and the Abu Ghraib Scandal, in which PMCs were accused of murdering and abusing civilians. On the other hand, PMCs are widely employed by the UN, who uses them to protect diplomats and provide humanitarian aid in war torn and unstable regions. In 1989, the UN established the Mercenary Convention, which prohibited the training and employment of “mercenaries.” Although the treaty entered into force in 2001, it was not ratified by any P5 members, and its scope and enforcement remain limited. 

 

While Greece laments the detrimental failings of PMCs in the Nisour Square and Abu Ghraib affairs, it maintains that PMCs are vital to the defense of smaller, less powerful nations. Greece itself has often been threatened by neighbors such as Turkey, particularly during the Cyprus and Aegean conflicts. Consequently, Greece has been compelled to invest heavily in its military, including in PMCs, knowing that failure to do so will put it at a disadvantage to the more powerful nations who seek to exploit it. Currently, Greece spends 2.3% of its GDP on military expenditures, more than almost any other country in the EU. In addition, Greece requires a conscription of nine months for all males between the ages of 19 and 45. Because of Greece’s history of concern for its own stability, it is natural that an emphasis would be placed on the military sector, whether that be through funding, conscription, or the hiring of PMCs. 

 

Furthermore, Greece, in conjunction with the EU as a whole, recognizes the instrumental role PMCs play in the security and service of the international community. The UN itself has increasingly relied on PMCs to act as peacekeepers in regions including Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq. While it is imperative to be cautious regarding the use of PMCs (both by the UN and other parties), it is also important to recognize the crucial role they play in peacekeeping and maintaining both domestic and international stability. Therefore, attempts to completely eliminate the use of PMCs should be handled warily. 

 

Greece hopes to establish an international consensus that increases the responsibility and management of PMCs and condemns the atrocities attributed to them, while still keeping in mind the important role PMCs play in maintaining domestic security and furthering the international goals of stability and peace. When dealing with the issue of PMCs, we must not forget to acknowledge the instability and violence that would be rampant without them.

 

  • Hellenic Republic
  • Josephine Koch

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DISEC

Private Military Contractors

Trinidad and Tobago

George Khamis

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The utilization of PMCs or Private Military Contractors is an essential and crucial topic that must be addressed. In the past, the use of PMCs inflicted many violations and infringements on human rights and encroached on the self-determination of people. In previous committees, the United Nations confronted the use of PMCs, and in 1989 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution. The resolution consisted of an International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing, and Training of Mercenaries. This convention was a necessary step forward in addressing the growing problem of PMCs. This convention instituted that the recruitment, financing, training, and use of mercenaries to be denounced and any actions to defile the convention would be treated as a transgression. Trinidad and Tobago supports this treaty and encourages the UN to create more implications and restrictions on the forming or use of PMCs.

 

As a nation that represents CARICOM, Trinidad and Tobago is strongly against the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self‑determination. Furthermore, throughout the Caribbean commercial and non-militarized PMCs caused and escalated crimes, and coupled with the inability of law enforcement to contain the spread of the PMCs, insecurities felt by the CARICOM citizens have worsened. The Working Group, established by goal 16 of the 1989 resolution, observed that mercenaries, private military, and security companies can destabilize a country by violent means, affect local populations and render it helpless and ineffective. The Working Group documented violations instigated by mercenaries and private military contractors and their documentation amounted to executions, forced disappearances, abductions, arbitrary detention, and sexual violence. Trinidad and Tobago strongly urges the further use of programs like goal 16 to eradicate all forms of mercenaries and the power of PMC’s. 

 

Trinidad and Tobago further urges the use of a governance system to establish regulations and guidelines to limit and ultimately eradicate mercenaries and PMCs. Being apart of an organization that promotes the free will and self-determination of all people, CARICOM, Trinidad and Tobago encourages The UN to delve deeper into the detrimental effects of PMCs and mercenaries. Lastly, Trinidad and Tobago insists that the UN enlist the help of NGOs to supplement the new resolution to abolish mercenaries and hinder PMCs, so the rights, liberties, and freedom of the people is not only protected but established in a secure community so they can thrive without the threat of crime.

  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • George Khamis

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The Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

Thomas Everett Dixon

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The use of Private Military Contractors (PMCs) throughout the world is a vital topic to discuss, as PMCs have caused many conflicts and international treaty violations in the past. The detrimental use of PMCs have been linked to many human rights violations including but not limited to, the seizure of peoples, executions without trial, unjustified detention of individuials and sexual violence. The United Nations has confronted this topic previously, in 1989 when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries. This convention proclaimed that the recruitment, financing, training and use of mercenaries are to be denounced as a transgression under the convention. Azerbaijan supported, and continues to support this convention’s adoption by the United Nations. Azerbaijan deposited its instruments of ratification in support this treaty. Azerbaijan performed this action in the hope it would bring about a global decrease in human rights violations and a strengthening in self-determination. 

 

In Azerbaijan the use of detrimental PMCs has led to the repression of the peoples self-determination as well as lengthy conflicts. Other nations in the past have mobilized PMCs against Azerbaijan, this has led to much regional unrest and disorder. Azerbaijan is strongly against the detrimental use of mercenaries and PMCs. Azerbaijan urges the United Nations to encourage the termination of detrimental PMCs. This action would provide a secure environment in which citizens can freely express their rights, and nations can practice independence from the threats of mercenary groups. To expand upon Azerbaijan’s stance, Azerbaijan supports the implementation of restrictions and regulations as necessary in order to create a safer, and more secure international community.

Azerbaijan supports a solid approach to the elimination of detrimental PMCs, in which the issue is resolved in a way that appends to the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries. This type of resolution would encourage countries to implement a prevention mechanism against detrimental PMCs, in effect cutting the funding, recruitment, training, and use of PMCs. Azerbaijan supports a resolution of this nature in the hope of promoting global security, and eradicating human rights violations linked to PMCs.

  • Azerbaijan
  • Thomas Dixon

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11/12/19

Submitted to : Disarmament & International Security Committee 

From : Socalist Republic of Vietnam 

Subject : Private Military Contractors 

 

The world has been plagued by conflict since the dawn of man itself. With this, many militaries have used civilian contractors which have been disastrous to developing nations. The topic before the Disarmament & International Security Committee in the general assembly is as stated before, private military contractors. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam believes that these contractors are destructive to developing nations and they are used by corporations as well as other nations to change political regimes or policies in nations. 

 

To understand the problem we must understand the effect that PMC ( Private Military Contractors ) have in third world nations. An example is the Katanga inccient during the congo crisis . There was a company of Irish peacekeepers ( around 158 soldiers ) stationed in a remote base in katanga in the DR of the Congo. This base was attacked by 3,000 PMCs lead by an ex French Forighin legion commander. These men were hired by the heads of the mining companies because the democratically elected president wanted to nationalize the mines to benefit his citizens. The president was assassinated by the PMCs, causing political turmoil.  This delegation has also seen the effects of private military contractors. During our wars for independence foreign powers used civilian contractors to commit acts they did not wish to have done by the foreign military powers. These actions have drastic effects on the nation of Vietnam fueling an opium epidemic. 


Any good resolution done by this committee must work to regulate the use of private military contractors by large nations which are used for the aims of political or economic change in a nation. This is a vital part in protecting developing nations from violent influences from other nations and corporations. Another vital part will be to punish the crimes committed by PMCs. For far too long, the crimes of civilian contractors have gone unpunished. Punishment and regulation of these are two vital parts in a resolution that this committee passes. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is looking forward to working with all nations and hopes we can solve the problems caused by Private Military Contractors.   

  • Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Jackson Wicka

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Disarmament & International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

The Bahamas

Jared Rhein

Forest Hills Eastern 

  

The United Nations looks favorably towards private military contractors which they use frequently to protect its individuals, on the road or in foreign countries. Gregory Starr, the U.N.’s top security official and former head of U.S. State Department Security, advocates for an increase in the use of private security firms. Rightly so, considering that in Pakistan, U.N. relief workers have been the target of kidnappings and killings, according to U.N. officials. The stakes are heightened even more for the U.N. considering that the Taliban killed five U.N. employees, along with the death of two Afghan guards on October 28, 2009. These atrocities committed by terrorist groups and hostile beings are a concern of the Bahamian people because the domestic policing force is unacceptable with outdated weapons and minimal personal with only 4000 police officers to enforce. According to The Tribune, stationed in Nassau, the police and defense forces have made the Bahamians look stupid. This luxury of military contractors can be abused as evident in the massacre of 17 Iraqi Civilians, injuring 20 more by Blackwater Security Consulting. There should be a restraint to these groups so that there are checks and balances to maintain the order that maintains your own country’s well being. There are clear benefits to having private military contractors, but they should never be allowed to have free reign and harm innocent citizens; if an incident occurred these contractors should be prosecuted as such for their clear humanitarian violations.

 

The idea of private military contractors is an option for all those needing extra protection. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas currently has a military called “The Royal Bahamas Defence Force,” which consists of roughly 1000 active members. The Bahamas traditionally have had a small domestic military while under British rule before 1973 and have found no need to expand its military capabilities. If the Bahamas were attacked or provoked, the nation could be taken and abused easily due to a lack of military power. Private military contractors could stop injustices of invasion and the atrocities that follow war while maintaining the peace for a payment.

 

The succession to the Bahamas dilemma is the employment of private military contractors who have been trained by elite Special Forces. Help from private military contractors is a valuable asset to attain for its source of defense for nations and individuals along with the enforcement of the law. The Bahamas recommends the U.N. to allow the usage of private contractors for military defense and protection against foreign enemies and domestic disputes; however, the U.N. should instill limits upon these militants for civilian protection and resistance upon contractor rebellion against the government. With the improvement of military enforcement, the Bahamas will become safer attracting more tourists from around the world to our islands along with the banking and investment sector blossoming. Due to these two factors improving the GDP of the Bahamas will soar, the gangs will be reduced, the illegal trade diminished and the shipping and boating industry more regulated with the employment of private military contractors. The Bahamas are open to the use of private military contractors only if they abide by the humanitarian laws while maintaining order for those in need.

  • The Commonwealth of the Bahamas
  • Jared Rhein

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Republic of Turkey

Toby Klooster

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Private military contractors are a natural part of warfare and armament. Often, they are used for humanitarian aid or protection; however, some groups have recently been accused of unethical and grotesque practices including torture and murder of non-combatants. The Nisour Square massacre occurred in Iraq, a neighboring country to Turkey. In addition, the notorious prison Abu Gharib, which was managed by private military contractors who tortured and sexually abused inmates, also occurred in Iraq. Therefore, Turkey will not stay idle while these military atrocities are committed so near to its own borders.

 

Turkey recognizes the responsible and even beneficial use of private military contractors, while also realizing that recent events demonstrate the danger they may pose to public safety. Turkey has faithfully followed international standards on the treatment of prisoners of war and non-combatants, even providing extensive humanitarian aid to occupied regions such as northern Syria. Furthermore, Turkey has been an active contributor to UN peacekeeping operations since the Korean War; nevertheless, Turkey acknowledges the necessity of private military contractors in the peacekeeping force to ensure troops are well equipped, adequately trained, and have personnel fluent in local languages during peacekeeping operations. Turkey has also ratified the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT).

 

Due to these barbaric events, Turkey believes that private military contractors must adhere to the standards set in place by international law, such as those stated in the Geneva Convention. Additionally, they must be held responsible by the international community for any humanitarian violations they commit, which is why Turkey recommends that the UN enforces humane treatment of prisoners of war and civilians to avoid any more cruel behavior by private military contractors. The UN has already made progress through treaties such as UNCAT, which can be strengthened through extra provisions aimed toward private military contractors, such as annual evaluations of every nation’s use of private military contractors. Although changes in the scope of current treaties to specify standards for private military contractors are strongly encouraged, Turkey warns against any attempts to prohibit private military contractors completely, as previously attempted in the UN Mercenary Convention. They must act on the issue of private military contractors to ensure the protection of prisoners of war and non-combatants during times of conflict.

  • Turkey
  • Toby Klooster

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Cambodia                                                                   

Rushil Talla

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Around the world, mercenaries hired by private military contractors have been accused of abuse, torture, and murder and have accentuated the need for regulations. The deaths of numerous civilians in various conflict zones and the use of torture in the form of electric shocks and assault on prisoners are alarming and a solution must be found. The United Nations Mercenary Convention is currently the most prominent international treaty addressing military contractors; however, it lacks the support of some of the largest militaries in the world. This is because many militaries receive support from the private sector and these funds and personal are crucial for operation.

Currently, work is being conducted to restrict the private sector’s military involvement and the use of mercenaries. Cambodia’s military, however, is funded by the private sector. Cambodia sees the United Nations Mercenary Convention as a threat since it bans the use of mercenaries and since our military is funded by the private sector, our army technically solely consists of mercenaries. By accepting this treaty, we would have to disband our current army and without the necessary funds, we would not be able to rise our own army, which is why we actively disagree with this treaty. We believe that ensuring mercenaries do not act outside of their bounds is acceptable but that the private sector, the private military contractors, are allowed to continue operation and are not shut down completely. Private military contractors can be beneficial by providing an additional source of resources for armies and therefore have a good reason to remain in operation.

Murder and torture are abhorrent and must be regulated, but it is not the private military contractors who should be punished. Restrictions should be placed on where mercenaries are allowed to operate. For example, mercenaries who have proven to pose a threat to civilians should be deployed in zones away from concentrated civilian territory. This will allow the companies to continue providing services while preventing harm to the civilians. Background checks could be used to see if these mercenaries are likely to cause harm to others besides those that they are supposed to fight. A resolution that seeks to regulate the actions of mercenaries however does not prevent the complete use of them would be looked favorably upon by Cambodia.


  • Cambodia
  • Rushil Talla

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Portugal

Sreevas Ramakrishnan

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Private military contractors (PMCs) provide security services to the government and private organizations. Giving businesses the opportunity to outsource military and security functions has been a major trend in years today. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the collapse of the U.S.S.R. sparked the movement on the reliance of PMCs. This important change with regard to the monopoly on the legitimate use of force has been primarily implemented in western countries in the context of the anarchical globalization of the world economy. The private military and security industry has taken advantage of the reduction of national armies and the globalization of the economy to find a profitable niche and grow it into a powerful global phenomenon estimated at over $100 billion yearly (del Prado). The international community must work together to establish regulations regarding the use of PMCs by the United Nations and individual nations.

Portugal rejects the term PMC. According to the Eurpoean Parliament, our delegation believes that “the connotations of the state monopoly on violence and of national armed forces inherent in the word ‘military’ lead to confusion if applied to private businesses.” In the documents of many European armed forces, PMCs are referred to as ‘civilian contractors’ in order to distinguish them from soldiers. In Portugal, private companies are not permitted to “engage in research, planning, testing, manufacturing or overhaul of equipment exclusively intended for military purpose.” The construction of combat aircraft, helicopters, and warships was also limited to nationally owned companies, although component manufacture could be subcontracted to private firms. 

In order to decrease abuses and wrongdoings by these contractors, the international community must collaborate to implement legislation concerning the limits of the acceptable use of contractors. Although the United Nations implemented an international law called the United Nations Mercenary Convention, it was concluded in 2001. This initial step addressed the concern with PMCs, but failed to create a sustainable law for all countries to follow. The country of Portugal dislikes the use of PMCs because it confuses and mixes private businesses and the military. Portugal urges the UN to enforce more legislation similar to the UN Mercenary Convention concerning PMCs and their actions because they can play a vital role in the world and provide security for humanitarian aid. 

 

  • Portugal
  • Sreevas Ramakrishnan

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Disarmament and International Security Committee

Private Military Contractors

Federal Republic of Somalia
Forest Hills Eastern

Api Sen

 

The use of private military contractors around the world has been on the rise ever since 1980 when the first PMC was created. The United Nations, but more specifically the Disarmament and International Security Committee, must recognize the actions private military contractors are profiting off of from conflict. As the United Nations along with many other nations taking advantage of privatized military contractors, the uses for each are just. The Federal Republic of Somalia recognizes the United Nations’ concern and agrees with the above statement. However, like every other nation, Somalis have the right to protection, especially due to the rising conflict zones. As the Somalian Government mutually benefits from private sectors, in return our citizens are grateful for the protection they receive. As a growing nation still in a civil war, Somalia and its citizens benefit greatly from the flexibility of PMC’s. Without the political and bureaucratic hassles, PMC’s and the Somalian government can act on issues that would result in much larger catastrophes if not dealt with. 

 

The Federal Republic of Somalia has great respect for the Disarmament and International Security Committee and the United Nations as a whole; therefore as a nation, Somalia gives its support towards growing the usage of private military contractors. As a source that is accessible and quick to respond within our borders, PMC’s have positively impacted Somalia. Supporting President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, PMC’s have kept our citizens safe and in return, we give these contractors the power to do what they must. However, in regards to UN Resolution 2005/2, Somalia recognizes to misuse of PMC’s and can assure member countries that such violations towards human rights are controlled within Somalia’s borders and PMC’s are kept in check.

 

Being said, the Federal Republic of Somalia recommends DISEC remain neutral in handling PMC’s in countries other than their own. As nations are limited in recognizing the scope of other countries’ governments and their goals, Somalia re-emphasizes that controlling the masses of PMC’s is near impossible and the power to keep each contractor in check must ultimately remain in the hands of the host nation. As the United Nations debates this conflict of how to keep each PMC from violating human rights, Somalia and partnering countries would like to proclaim that each nation within the UN uses PMC’s for separate uses and limiting the powers of each would ultimately result in gridlock.

  • Federal Republic of Somalia
  • Api Sen

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New Zealand

Disarmament & International Security Committee (DISEC): Private Military Contractors

 

Private Military Contractors are a group of armed military people who paid to help companies gain financial gain. Private military contractors have been used by many companies and governments around the world/ Our country has banned all uses of private military contractors via Mercenary Activities (Prohibition) Bill 2003 because of our history with the use of the military plus it puts unequal justice into our society. In 2004 we have also made another mercenary activity bill which adds on to our previous bill making it even harder to set up or higher a Private military contractor. As a representative of New Zealand, we believe private military contractors should not be allowed in any countries and any country that does not recommend this proposition should least tax it heavily.

 

Private Military contractors have made many of our beloved citizens move to develop countries like Iraq, Isreal, and Palestine, the price for use a private military contract could be as little as 1000$ making it very irresistible to out citizens. Baghdad is one of place where most of our citizens go about 500- 1000 people. According to the contracting commission, mega contractor KBR (a.k.a. the contractor was formerly known as Halliburton) was paid at least $36.3 billion to provide base support in Iraq for the past eight years.  But Despite collecting $204 million for electrical work on Iraq bases, KBR’s shoddy wiring has been blamed in as many as 12 or more soldiers death by electrocution, including a Special Forces commando who died after he was shocked while taking a shower. The company has also billed Uncle Sam a half-billion dollars to hire Blackwater to provide personal security in Iraq. This is one out of many private militaries contracts gone wrong wasting money and kills many people. 

 

Private military contracts should be illegal because of its dangerous activities and their use of taxpayer money. I suggest we make an international bill which bans the use of private military contractors, or if that doesn’t work we should put a 35% tax on the use of military contractors to decrease the use of them. The UN accepts the right to use private military contractors and has been using military contractors for years. We should post a petition at the next UN conference and should see how many other countries agree with us.

  • New Zealand
  • Ethan Tilley

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Forest Hills Central

The Dominican Republic

Disarmament and International Security Committee(DISEC): Military Contractors

 

 Private armies and military contractors are militaries for hirer.  They are companies that either sell the services of their military or sell weaponry to anyone the is willing to pay.  This could be a good thing and a bad. It could be good because countries could boost their arms and our organization could hire these troops as peacekeepers rather than ask for donations from countries.  It could be bad because terrorist groups could purchase weapons or even buy troops for the cause. The companies don’t really care who hires them, all they care about is who pays them the most money.

 

This affects us because we were fighting the war on terrorism.  All the hard work and resources we put into the cause would be a huge waste because they could buy back what they lost.  Also, we are getting increased threats from our involvement in Syria and Iraq. We do not need terrorist cells in our country with the ability to purchase military weapons and troops.  Also, crime syndicates could be purchasing weapons to better protect the drugs that are constantly going through our country. Our police force will have a harder time executing drug raids because the cartel will have military-grade weapons and trained troops.

 

We should make a set of rules for who a company can sell to.  We need to make a committee to oversee what private military companies are selling.  This group of individuals will oversee any sale done by the companies. The companies will have to send in every sale they are wanting to do.  If a company does not comply with the rules, we will find them and put sanctions on them. If they continue not to comply, we will force the country to shut down and not make any more sales.  We suggest going as far as a military force to shut down these countries.

 

  • The Dominican Republic
  • Bobby Lynch

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Country: Kuwait
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Private Military Contractors
Delegate: Ethan Briggs
School: Williamston High School

 

As we enter a world in which it becomes harder to fight our own wars, many nations have turned to using PMCs as a solution for more tame situations. Of course, there are two sides to this coin. On the one hand, using PMCs  is useful to both large and small nations. For the large, they can carry out missions that aren’t public information, or deal with areas of conflict difficult for a large scale battle. In small, it becomes a way to keep a pseudo-army, as well as protection for officials that almost always have a target on their hand. Of course, the other side of the coin is how the PMCs act. Many have abused their power, taking a peaceful confrontation to a bloody end. Some companies have even begun to extort the nations they work for, and the lobbization of the governments by these companies has gone on for too long. We must lay down firmer laws for these PMCs, and stop their abuse of power and money.

Kuwait has had a history of the use of PMCs, and only in recent times has really been able to get out of this hole. This ended with the friendship with the U.S., in which Kuwait was able to trade for a standing army and protection by the government. Before then, the usage was out of control, and consequences were suffered. Now, Kuwait has been able to grow its army, thus needing less PMCs. Now, the nation has taken a strict attitude towards PMCs, and has begun to crack down on them. Not only that, the Kuwaiti government has started to deal directly with these PMCs in an attempt to control them.

 

Kuwait would like to see a more strict approach to dealing with PMCs. Instead of seeing them removed entirely, Kuwait wants to have the usage of them reduced. Not only that, tighter control of them is needed, and personnel to watch them is in order. Punishment for abuse of power is also necessary, as many get away with everything. Kuwait believes the focus should be more on the individual rather than the company. Things like lobbying should be left to nations to deal with themselves if they view it as a problem. Kuwait hopes that other nations will take this view and support them in their goal to reduce the abuse of PMCs.

 

  • Kuwait
  • Ethan Briggs

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Private Military Contractors are used in many different ways from a personal level or a national level. Countries with high crime rates or countries that have smaller populations will hire Private Military Contractors (PMC) for their country to serve like a military. If you travel to a threatening country you might hire a PMC to serve as a personal security guard. There are many negative effects of the use of PMC ‘s.The use of 20,000 PMCs caused racism in the fight against terror. Lastly, PMC’s can destabilize wartorn countries like Iraq. countries, causing unnecessary violence. 

 

There has been quite a bit of third party research surrounding PMCs and their effectiveness. Most of this research calls for regulations on PMCs. Unfortunately, this is not being implemented because…. Although many countries that have not used them have called for action.

 

 The delegation of Qatar is against the national use of PMC’s. The UAE attempted to invade Qatar with a PMCs. In 2017, and American linked PMC group planned to invade Qatar. Lucky it never happened. Thusly, because of the use of PMC’s, the “soldiers” that invaded Qatar had no international penalties against them. Additionally, the use of PMCs make it easier for countries to mobilize, which happened in the case when the UAE attacked Qatar. Therefore, Qatar is strongly against the use of PMCs

 

The delegation of Qatar would look favorably upon a resolution banning PMCs to be affiliated with one nation. As stated before, these PMCs caused racism and violence including killing 17 unarmed iraqi citizens. Also, the delegation of Qatar would look favorably upon a resolution imposing stricter economic penalties if a nation attacks another with PMCs. If countries do not do anything about this, the world could be altered by these PMCs. 

 https://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/news/uae-planned-invade-qatar-blackwater-linked-mercenaries-report-1742295879

 https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/private-military-contractors-come-strings-attached

 

https://www.middleeasteye.net/fr/news/uae-planned-invade-qatar-blackwater-linked-mercenaries-report-1742295879

  • Qatar
  • Andrew Klein

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Country:Denmark

Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private Military Contractors

Delegate: Henry VanderZyden

Private Military Contractors are a very effective, and essential part of any nation’s defense and protection. Thes PMC’s often have more skilled and specialized men that are more skilled in security than the regular troops, in the Army or Navy. France has a small problem with private military contractors. They usually like to use their own small private military contractors, to take out their anger on others. In the meantime, they have a major problem with the Russian’s own private military contractors. They have recently been abusing their powers in Africa, and have continuously tried to take advantage of many African nations.  The difference between our private military contractors and Russia is that we use them mainly for security and protection of our people. Behind the oversight by our amazing leader, we have effectively used private military contractors to better protect our people. However, we believe, that no matter what this committee, Disarmament and Security Council, tries to do or whatever resolutions they attempt to pass, they will all be ineffective and inefficient. I believe that we are so polarized that nothing will get down, but in the future, hopefully, we will be better able to potentially pass a resolution on this topic.

  • France
  • Henry VanderZyden

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Country: Denmark
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Private Military Contractors
Delegate:
School: Williamston High School

 

Private military contractors have been around for many years. Many of these contractors are hired by well-known people and even big business companies who want guards or protection for the people inside the building and the people who work for the company who is high up the chain of command. In the United States, there are many well-known private military contractors already known such as Academi, G4S, KBR, and Vinnell Corporation. Some new reports found the use of contractors such as companies like Blackwater which is now named Academi was found illegal under international law. Private military contractors and even private security contractors account for more than half of the boots who are in Afghanistan and Iraq are part of a business that is much bigger. Those contractors are a part of a huge industry, this industry has become a major role in contemporary international politics. Many of the private military contractors act illegally or even put the lives of many in danger. As a committee and we as delegates need to work together to solve this issue.

Denmark has signed a policy about private military contractors. The policy Denmark signed allows the use of private military contractors aboard ships to defend against pirates, but Denmark really has no legislation specifically aimed at regulating private military contractors and mercenaries. Though, there are many laws that indirectly relate to private military contractors. In Penal Code in paragraph 128 that makes it a criminal offense that is punishable by up to two years in prison or a fine. This Penal Code states that you cannot recruit in Denmark for foreign war service. Along there is another law in Denmark that dates back to 1914 that was introduced with a connection with the Danish being neutral in WWI. This law makes it an offense to encourage enrollment in the armed forces to aid in support during the war when the Danish state is neutral. With this law, the government is specifically given the power to forbid military service in a given country, this is understood in the sense where any military service includes armed rebel groups and state armies.

 

Denmark feels that one of the first steps that are needed to be taken is talking with private military contractors leaders or who is in charge. Having a good relationship with the country they are stationed in is a way to make sure there is no conflict governmentally and politically. This way if someway a conflict arises involving the government they are not surprised when they find the private military contractors in that area because the government knows they are there and there will not be any conflict. Another aspect of private military contractors Denmark would like to see is limiting the power they have in a certain place. By regulating what powers private military contractors have in a country there will be less illegal action being taken. This would ensure hopefully more people being saved from violence. Private military contractors can be helpful in some way but very threatening in others, the committee and its delegates need to take the time to figure out a way to solve this issue.

  • Denmark
  • Mikayla Lomas

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     The first PMC was formed by ex-SAS agents in 1965  At the end of the cold war the number of PMCs increased greatly.   PMCs can be dangerous because there is little to no regulation and if they are used in an aggressive manner, they are unlawful combatants.  PMCs are borderline mercenaries.

 

Brazil’s people thrive with private security companies, a local version of PMCs.  They have a good record of keeping people and things safe. Though these companies may be unregulated, they don’t abuse their power to a large degree and work well for Brazil.

 

Brazil plans to work with other countries to find a solution to this problem.  Brazil proposes an international council to investigate unethical PMCs. Brazil also proposes a set of rules to be put in place to regulate these countries including regulation of size, arms, and coverage.  Large scale PMCs may work better as local individual companies than large international armies. Though we need to set guidelines and create a council, we must maintain national sovereignty. PMCs can be regulated the best if the national government controls them with help from the U.N.

 

  • Brazil
  • Matthew Jones

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Alexander Garcia, Royal Oak High School

Madagascar

Disarmament and International Security Committee, Private Military Contractors

 

The use of private military contractors throughout the world by various states is indeed problematic, as the contractors have been found responsible for numerous atrocities. However, any resolution passed by the Disarmament and International Security Committee which attempts to change the current behaviours of states on this issue would likely be ineffectual. The commitment among employers of private military contractors to reform their practices is less than exceptional, and given the limited powers and influence of this committee, no action the committee can take will change the current state of affairs in a meaningful way.

In light of this, this delegation’s view is that the committee’s focus should be on those areas in which it could affect change, namely, those concerning the UN’s own relationships with private military contractors. In the past, the UN has failed to properly vet and control the private military contractors it employs, leading to fiascoes such as the Bosnian sex trafficking scandal involving employees of the private military contracting firm DynCorp, a firm which was, at the time, employed by the UN in peacekeeping operations. Scandals such as these tarnish the reputation of the UN and its peacekeeping forces, which could complicate further peacekeeping missions. This is an issue in which a resolution passed by the committee could have a notable effect. Therefore, it is where the committee should concentrate its limited time.

In addressing this issue, this delegation favors recommending that the Department of Peacekeeping Operations work in conjunction with the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries to develop new practices and guidelines for the use of private military contractors. These recommendations should be crafted in a manner which ensures that any private military contractors employed by the UN act in accordance with its principles. This delegation also favors the creation of a subcommittee of DISEC, tasked with publishing an annual report on the conduct and efficacy of private military contractors employed by the UN.

Sources:

Pingeot, Lou. “A Dangerous Partnership .” Global Policy Institute, Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, June 2012.

“Hopes Betrayed: Trafficking of Women and Girls to Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina for Forced Prostitution .” Human Rights Watch, 2002, doi:10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-2156-0295.

 

  • Madagascar
  • Alexander Garcia

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Topic: Private Military Contractors

Country: Japan

Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)

 

Private Military Contractors are valuable tools of any nation’s defense for a multitude of reasons. Most notably, PMCs are often much more skilled and capable of completing missions than average soldiers. At the same time, contractors gain significant efficiency because many of the bureaucratic restraints and mandates placed on conventional military operations can be avoided by private entities. However, PMCs have a poor reputation for their behavior; Japan recalls the Nisour Square Massacre in 2007, in which 17 Iraqi civilians were killed without provocation by the US based PMC, Blackwater. Many PMC officers have been accused of making unseemly decisions, and even worse, it is increasingly difficult to hold them accountable. Without very much oversight, a government that employs a PMC may not even know much about the operation beyond its objectives. Furthermore, PMCs may not even be legal in many circumstances; a 2007 UN report stated that many PMCs are contracted as “security guards”, yet they conduct military like operations that are illegal under international law. The growing concern over the use of these private contractors deserves the full attention of the Disarmament and International Security Committee. The delegation of Japan hopes that we all can work both respectfully and cooperatively to resolve this issue.

Although there is some international regulation on the use of PMCs, it is outdated and very much in need of reform. Work on this issue largely began at the end of the second world war, when the International Convention on the Use of Mercenaries was ratified as a part of the Geneva Conventions. However, the convention fails to tackle the issue of PMCs because its definition of a “mercenary” is futile, especially considering the many developments in the field since that time. A UN convention on the topic in 1989 ran into the same problem- the lack of an adequate definition. In fact, under Article I, Subsection C of the 1989 convention, a mercenary is defined as “neither a national of a party to the conflict nor a resident of territory controlled by a party to the conflict,” which opens up countless numbers of loopholes for nations that desire to use PMCs. In 2008 though, the Montreux Document was created and has been signed by 56 countries since. The document highlights over seventy recommendations to states that hire PMCs and can serve as a framework for our work in DISEC. While the Montreux Document does provide some optimism, it is still non-binding and provides very little incentive for nations to follow its guidelines. 

The single largest issue with private military contractors is that there is a lack of definition for their role in conflicts. As an international community, the first thing we must do is return to square one and clearly define the circumstances under which PMCs can operate and the means by which they are allowed to do so. Due to the nature of how contractors operate, many of the solutions will involve the actual content of the contracts. Thus, we must also set guidelines for how contracts are delegated out by governments. Japan believes that companies who win military contracts should have to disclose previous missions, clients they have worked for, and background checks on their personnel and management. We encourage nations to seek references from previous clients that have contracted that specific PMC. Any PMC that has even one record of involvement in aca serious crime or has been rejected from a prior contract for poor behavior should not be permitted any further contracts. With this comes that countries should consider more than just price when choosing contractors. A sense of transparency is also indispensable in this process; there ought to be public disclosure of which companies are receiving these contracts and applicable reasons why. On the actual content of the contracts, PMCs should be contractually obliged to adhere to national and international law concerning their work. In addition, contracts should include standards of training, licensing, and use of equipment. They should also include a clause that requires contractors to cooperate with investigations in the case that an operation errs or violates the terms of contract. To monitor compliance with contractual agreements, DISEC should assemble a committee that can oversee certain aspects of PMCs’ operations. Although this committee could not punishment contractors in bad standing, it would have the power to make appropriate suggestions to contracting states as to how to deal with companies that do not adhere to their contract. These suggestions would likely include financial or criminal penalties, termination of contract, or a ban from receiving future contracts.

Bearing in mind the tragedies of Blackwater and other similar incidents, Japan is favorable to solutions that will prevent further unnecessary bloodshed. While we do not seek to end the use of PMCs, Japan hopes that we can create effective reform moving forward. In correcting the faults of our predecessors, it seems that are first task must be to create a comprehensive definition, and then see that are policy is implemented in a meaningful way.

https://www.brookings.edu/research/cant-win-with-em-cant-go-to-war-without-em-private-military-contractors-and-counterinsurgency/

https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0996.pdf

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/23/us/blackwater-verdict.html

https://www.globalpolicy.org/pmscs/50211-regulation-and-oversight-of-pmscs.html

https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0996.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Mercenary_Convention

https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/INTRO/530

 

  • Japan
  • Francis Allen

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Country: Afghanistan

Committee: DISEC

Topic: Private military contractors

Delegate: Thad Konieczny

School: Williamston High School

 

Private military contractors are one of the most dangerous threats to modern warfare. Companies that get paid by nations to do their bidding have been more and more frequent in foreign wars, especially the Middle East, in the past 20 years. Most of these groups are left unchecked by the government, allowing them to get away with ghastly crimes. There are numerous examples of abuses of power from these mercenaries, from illegal torture methods to killing of innocent civilians. None of this is even mentioning the dangers of letting the slaughter of people become a profitable business, which could lead to serious negative consequences in the very near future. While not all contractors are used with bad intentions, almost all have negative consequences. 

Afghanistan has been severely affected by the use of mercenaries by foreign nations invading our country. In fact, one in four US military personnel in our country are from private contractors. Obviously, we are concerned about these soldiers, as the troops deployed by the US are dangerous enough to our people. As stated earlier, countries employing these people rarely place restrictions on them, as their only use is for bloodshed. We have seen what these companies do in other countries, and we are extremely worried, needless to say. These mercenaries are extremely dangerous to people like us, and we believe something must be done about them. We have occasionally employed such groups to help us with security matters, but we have not used them in the invasion of foreign soil like certain other nations have.

First off, Afghanistan proposes that we expand the terms of the United Nations Mercenary Convention to crack down more on the use of private contractors. We acknowledge that we have not signed this treaty, but it is still an important thing to focus on. As a whole, we must ensure that not only the individual countries, but the UN, oversees the activities of these mercenary groups. Furthermore, we propose that we establish a committee in the UN, perhaps a subgroup of DISEC,  to watch over these companies to ensure that they do not commit crimes in the countries they are in. We also need to hold mercenary companies accountable by taking groups known for their brutality and sending them to the international court. Not only will this provide justice for their crimes, it will set a good example to other groups to show them that their actions do have consequences. We do not think it necessary to outlaw all of these groups, seeing as not all nations or entities use them for negative purposes. We just believe that it is important to put some checks on their power. We expect support from countries such as Iran or Syria who have been the target of private military contractors as well.

  • Afghanistan
  • Thaddeus Konieczny

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Country: Sweden
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Private Military Contractors
Delegate: Claire Daniels
School: Williamston High School

 

Over the course of the past several years, there has been an increase in the growth of private military contractors (PMCs). PMCs operate on behalf of national governments. Private military contractors have been implemented in many war prone zones such as Syria and Iraq; roughly 4,000 in Syria and 10,000 in Iraq. These personnel are primarily used for directing armed conflicts, as well as protection and aid for foreign diplomats. As a result of their increasing authority in the government and military, some tend to abuse that power in acts of torture towards prisoners: sexual assault and abuse, even killing and injuring individuals, all of which violate international law. In 2003, at a prison called Abu Ghraib in Iraq, PMC CACI International Inc. officials used these forms of torture against the prisoners. This event as well as many others brought light to the situation that there must be more regulation; thus resulting in the United Nations Mercenary Convention. This convention forbids the use of mercenaries. The treaty was finalized in 2001. Even though the treaty has been implemented, it has been greatly unsuccessful, with little regulation, and illegal activity going behind the back of the treaty.

As of recent, Sweden has been a relatively new member in implementing private security companies and private military contractors in international peace operations and missions. In 2008 Sweden placed a PSC group in Kabul to provide security and protection to the embassy. With this new expansion of authority, Swedish officials are siding with the idea of appointing PSC’s to ensure security amongst its staff abroad as well as its infrastructure. There have been disputes over how much jurisdiction a PMC should be able to hold over military and governmental organizations. There are also disagreements on what tactics to use and which are morally acceptable, which can shift the effectiveness of Swedish operations in conflict prone area. By far one of the most prominent debates is if it is considered an armed force/ military organization. 

With this new application of national security, comes many disputes on whether these programs are considered a part of military or not, which can create conflicts of jurisdiction. There have been multiple surveys on how these companies and contractors should go about certain situations; all of which have been inconclusive on their opinions. One way Sweden has thought of resolving these quarrels is by regulating and reorganizing the way the PMCs are set up and have more prior education and experience to lead them. The reason for the inconclusive views is due to Sweden’s PMC and PSCs have just begun to evolve, so they don’t have a solid opinion on them. Another solution Sweden has over what a PSC/PMC can and can’t due is to have more supervision and regulation/organization over their international operations in conflicted areas.

 

  • Sweden
  • Claire Daniels

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Country: Morocco
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Private Military Contractors
Delegate: Joey Bennett
School: Williamston High School

 

Private military contractors or PMCs provide a wide range of services ranging  from repairing infrastructures like roads or pipelines to providing protection to convoys and military installations. Military contractors also provide protection to oil fields consulates, convoys, and residences.Private military contractors are a vital part of peacekeeping, protection, and repair of infrastructure. PMCs are a vital part of how wars are fought and won, but that does not mean that they should have unregulated operations.

 

On September 14th, 2011, A panel called the Working Group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination, called for greater regulation of mercenaries and private military and security companies by both host and contributor countries to ensure respect for human rights and accountability for any abuses committed. The Moroccan government would like to echo these calls for the greater regulation of PMCs.The delegation of Morocco stresses the need for reform for PMCs and calls upon this committee to agree on a solution to stop massacres like Nisour Square and the Humanitarian debacle of Abu Ghraib.

 

The Delegation of Morocco would like to offer a three-step plan on reforming PMCs. First, the Moroccan government would like to create a panel like that of the panel a Working Group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination, to evaluate the state of PMCs in Africa, the Middle East, and all around the globe. The second step is having UN inspectors inspect these corporations to root out the humanitarian woes waiting to happen. The third step is requesting the governments of this council to reform the PMCs within their borders with consideration to the findings of the inspectors and the Working Group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination. The delegation of  Morocco is ecstatic to have the opportunity to reform the PMCs of the world, we are looking forward to meeting with all in committee and we hope to find a solution that works for all of the nations

 

  • Morocco
  • Joey Bennett

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The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea finds the move of hiring a PMC weak. But seeing as some nations must make weak moves to gain power, then we as a committee must address this topic so said weak military moves can be made in a humane way. The DPRK has watched major western powers hire PMCs for war and security and is ashamed by what it sees year after year. PMCs are nothing more than capitalistically fueled death machines, and we must put our foot down as soon as possible, it has been far too long that PMCs have been allowed to aimlessly murder with no consquence. 

Amounting to around 650,000 “soldiers” worldwide, major PMC organizations all have their own infamous story. Each story is one too many. Whether it be Blackwater and ADS mowing down civilians in Iraq with LMGs, Defion International imposing the culture of their contractors upon innocent civilians, or Unity Resources, Triple Canopy, and DynCorp usurping jobs and resources at embassies and combat zones. We are mandated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as the UN Charter to put an end to this. The DPRK will be pushing heavily for nations who currently have contracts with PMCs to dissolve them. The delegation will also be pushing for trust busting, arrests, and detentions, on all appropriate levels in order to address the corrupt, vile, and inhuman, culture of PMCs. As an alternative to PMCs, if nations should argue that they are necessary, the DPRK will not hesitate to suggest a worldwide military build up. A strong and healthy military maintains the core of every great nation on this planet. The military provides jobs, training, and builds a culture of discipline and honor. The DPRK would suggest said build up now more than ever, especially due to the shrinking ratio of military personnel to PMC personnel.

In addition to the suggested response, the DPRK would also recommend that all member nations who utilize PMCs take a step back and reevaluate their policies and contracts. It has been too many times that the DPRK has watched PMCs under the watch of large western powers carry out completely non militaristic and improper protocol. This begs the question of whether this can be a tool used for imperialism, letting independent organizations carry out actions that would be frowned upon were the nation contracting them to do it themselves. That directly threatens the national sovereignty of all nations in the committee, especially those not in the good graces of the western powers. 

The DPRK has always been a nation proud of its military. The actions of PMCs as well as the intentions of choice nations who have contracted them are not only frowned upon the Korean government, they’re frowned upon by the Korean culture. The delegation feels that it is mandated by that fact to ensure that the committee sees the previously suggested reforms and punishments take place at the upcoming conference. The raging injustice of PMCs must be put to an end, they are a cancerous loop-hole that have been abused far too long. 

 

 

  • The Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Benjamin M. Venus

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Palestine has always been in a battle. From our conception as a state, to this very minute we have been fighting. Our biggest fight now is with Israel, a nation that thinks it’s okay to violate international law, invade our state, and oppress our people. From killing innocent civilians without cause, to gunning down those legally crossing Israeli checkpoints, they chip away at our state day after day. What enables them to keep their forces strong? Private Military Contractors, who are thrust into a situation they don’t understand, and make mistakes that cost lives.

On April 27, 2019, Abu Ismail and Ibrahim Taha attempted to enter Israel via the West Bank. That had received a legal permit to do so, because Abu Ismail needed medical treatment he could only receive in Jerusalem. Having never been to Jerusalem, they wandered into the wrong traffic lane. A trained soldier tried to redirect them, but an inexperienced PMC mercenary fired seven shots, killing them both. What punishment befell this murderer? None whatsoever. Why? Because unlike soldiers who are reviewed by military investigators, PMC mercenaries have no review protocols. They can commit acts of murder wirh impugnity, and are allowed to do so by Israel. Our state has been stained with the blood of our fallen people, and that stain grows ever crimson as Israel’s budget for PMC’s grows, currently at $180 Million. Israel refuses to do anything about their aggressive and untrained PMC mercenaries, but as an institution that values the sanctity of human life, the UN must act now.

 

Palestine is in full support of regulating PMCs to stop the murder of our citizens, and the abuses against those in other nations. We would be in full support of measure that would call for UN sponsored investigations into the actions of PMCs. We would also like to see that PMC mercenaries are properly trained in the policies and procedures of the territories in which they are working. Training could also be overseen by UN appointed authorities. We as a nation firmly believe that these are necessary actions that would help to ensure the safety of our citizens, and citizens of other nations that are forced to deal with abuses brought about by PMC mercenaries.

  • Palestine
  • Kumar Varma

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