September 16, 2019
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Combating Racism and Xenophobia

General Assembly: Social Humanitarian & Cultural Committee (SocHum)

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Xenophobia and racism are two related but distinct terms. Xenophobia is defined as a prejudice against all that is foreign, while racism is prejudice based on a perception of racial inferiority, drawing from a hierarchical system. Historically, xenophobia and racism have played a role in creating systematic forms of discrimination throughout the world, often resulting in violence, and even from time to time culminating in genocide. Countries as varied as South Africa and the United States have at various times put in place race-based hierarchical systems – apartheid in the former, and the Jim Crow laws in the latter. Among history’s most significant cases of xenophobic and racially-motivated violence are the Holocaust and the Rwandan Genocide.

The global community is currently experiencing an uptick in xenophobia and racism. While these are not new phenomena, they are made increasingly visible through ever-expanding use of the Internet and social media. Xenophobia and racism have become particularly prevalent with the uptick in migration following the 2015 “Refugee Crisis.” Due to conflict and political turmoil in parts of the Middle East and North Africa, Europe has experienced an influx of migrants, particularly along the Mediterranean. While Italy and Greece host many of these migrants, the European Union (EU) continues to struggle with equitable distribution. And although the Brexit process in the United Kingdom is motivated by a variety of cultural, economic, and political factors, xenophobic sentiment can likely be numbered among them. The United States is in the midst of a debate over migration policy, centering on issues such as a potential border wall along the southern border with Mexico, and the 2017 “Travel Ban” targeting Muslim-majority nations. In hand with these negative sentiments toward migrants, racially-motivated violence and discrimination have become prevalent, mirrored by the rise of far-right, populist political parties.

In an increasingly globalized world, countries are becoming more heterogeneous. With such diverse communities comes the risk of increased discrimination, and even violence. The prevalence of extremist political groups across the Western Hemisphere creates potential for xenophobia and racism to become further ingrained in political culture, and even enshrined in law. Can migrants and minorities have their human rights, as defined by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adequately protected in societies where xenophobic and racist ideologies hold sway? How can the United Nations combat the spread of xenophobia and racism both socially and structurally? What role do hate crimes and hate speech play in the perpetuation of xenophobia and racism?

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Submitted Position Papers

The topics before the Social Humanitarian And Cultural Committee(SOCHUM) of Belgium: Combating Racism and Xenophobia and Human Trafficking. Human trafficking is the action or practice of illegally transporting people from one country or area to another. Racism and Xenophobia are similar but different, they are the prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior. Belgium is against all of these things and is trying to combat them.

The different ethnicities in Belgium are as follows 75.2% Belgian, 4.1% Italian, 3.7% Moroccan, 2.4% French, 2% Turkish, 2% Dutch, and 10.6% other. To battle racism and xenophobia in Belgium, the Belgium Anti-Racism Law was passed by the Federal Parliament of Belgium in 1981. The law makes certain acts motivated by racism or xenophobia illegal. Fighting racism and just discrimination in general is one of Belgium’s top priorities and Belgium is even one of the main sponsors for the UN conferences against racism. 

  In 2018 there were 369 cases of human trafficking in Belgium and half of the victims were trafficked for labor exploitation. Belgium is mainly a transit and destination country for victims trafficked for economic and sexual reasons. To help fight against human trafficking Belgium passed an amendment in 2005 to prohibit all forms of trafficking. The government continues to protect victims by funding multiple shelters for them and providing comprehensive assistance to the victims. There are currently three major organizations fighting against trafficking and enslavement and their battle consists of two components. The first is to offer practical legal, social, and physiological support to victims. The second is to raise awareness of the problem in order to show the public what’s happening and open their eyes to it.

 

As you can see Belgium is trying to combat these problems successfully. Belgium is against both of them happening and is trying to further prevent them. Human trafficking and racism and xenophobia are big problems that get a lot of light shone on them in Belgium. The number of problems associated with racism, xenophobia and human trafficking have gone down in the past years in Belgium.

  • Belgium
  • Allison Bontrager

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 Syria and Xenophobia

 

Syria has been in a state of a turmoil and war for nearly the past decade. Unfortunately, this vastly complex war has left 5.6 million civilians with no home to turn to. However many neighboring countries have shown heavy anti-refugee xenophobia with many on social media posting “#DeportSyrians”. In fact, this issue affects close to 1 in 50 people who may be a migrant worker, asylum seeker, or a refugee. According to the OSCE Hate Crime Report, racism and xenophobia is defined as “is prejudice or hostility towards a person’s race, colour, language, nationality, or national or ethnic origin”. In history we have seen racism in many horrendous forms but even to this day it still exists. Syria especially is a big place of hate crimes with many terrorist groups conflicting with one another and with the government; there’s clearly an issue that needs to be addressed by the United Nations.

 

Syria believes there should be consequences for countries promoting and executing xenophobic actions and we all need to work together online and in person in order to establish peace across the world and bring equality to every human.

 

  • Syria
  • Aryan Singh

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In the country of Sri Lanka, we had noticed a massive problem with racism and xenophobia for a long time. Sri Lanka started by the native Indians who immigrated; there are two major ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils, major religions are Hinduism and Buddhism. For many years, the country has not formed any identity. The people of this island had taken cultural traits from India. This country has no ideal religion or ethnicity. In 1983, an internal war happened and was caused by the Tamils, to be specific, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Until 2009 the civil war has ended, and 40,000 had died.

 

With the diversity, the country dealt many problems with racism and even lead to the UN in 2014, there was an adopted resolution on “Promoting reconciliation, accountability and human rights in Sri Lanka (A/HRC/25/L.1/Rev.1)”. In these few years, we had decided to enforce the idea of human rights, drafted bills for those who victimized. In 1989 we formed the IMADR Asian Committee and joined the community to fight racism. Since after the war. People are hugely affected by internal conflict and who are internally displaced persons (IDP). So, the IMADR Asian Committee decided to help them by providing and taking care of them.

 

Even though Sri Lanka isn’t the best right now as Tamil people are being treated as second class and abused by the authorities. It is all because of the internal war that happened in Sri Lanka that we have a great belief in what the Tamil acts. There were bombings and attacks as the suicide bombing that targeted Christian Church and luxury hotels — ten years of peace, disappeared by an explosion. Then there is a bombing clash between Muslims and Sinhalese. The conflict cannot continue and become another civil war, this must  prevented, and there are committees, and even people are trying from continuing.

  • Sri Lanka
  • May Hseuh

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The world is a cruel place. Many countries including Saudi Arabia treat foreigners and people with different ethnic backgrounds quite cruelly. There are over 6.4 million foreigners currently living in Saudi Arabia. These people experience overwork, physical abuse, rape, imprisonment and wage theft and these people are not protected under the law. This discrimination has become a major threat to global peace and security. Everyone deserves to be treated equally and fairly and no human should face any sort of persecution or be treated unfairly because of their ethnic background.

 

Saudi Arabia currently experiences a lot of racism and religious discrimination. In recent years it has gotten out of hand with the torturing and deaths of many foreigners and people of different skin color. The delegation of Saudi Arabia believes that the western worlds hatred and disagreements with the many Arabic countries has caused fear and attacks in our own country. It is most definitely a problem though and world leaders must address this issue. 

 

In the past Saudi Arabia has worked to prevent racism by reinforcing in citizens minds that one of the main messages of the Quran states that racism and discrimination of any kind is not acceptable and is prohibited. Secondly, the government of Saudi Arabia has also rarified the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and many other conventions that address and prevent this discrimination. Currently, the government of Saudi Arabia is looking into plans to criminalize religious hatred and racism.

 

The delegation of Saudi Arabia proposes that we move ahead to encourage countries to promote laws that criminalize religious hatred and racism. These proposed laws would prohibit the formation of organizations that racially discriminate and they would also prohibit attacks on places of worship, insulting religions and abusing religious sanctities. Additionally, these laws would criminalize and restrict sermons that preached against other religions. Furthermore, the delegations of Saudi Arabia condemns all attacks and all discrimination against any group. The delegation of Saudi Arabia believes It is the only way to ensure public unity and safety. 

  • Saudi Arabia
  • George Perakis

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Human rights issues such as racism and xenophobia have been considered to be one of the world’s largest problems. Racism and xenophobia are particularly prevalent throughout most of Europe, including countries such as Hungary. The lack of human rights is one of the most important problems in Hungary. Violence and racism against foreign groups such as Roma, specifically, is one of the largest of these human rights-related issues. Roma in Hungary have faced discrimination in access to employment, education, and housing for many years. 

In recent years, there has been a rising number of organizations in Hungary that aim to promote human rights and prevent xenophobia and racism. One example, the European Network Against Racism Hungary (ENAR Hungary) is a network of Hungarian non-profit organizations that work together to prevent racial discrimination and xenophobia. Networks such as ENAR aim to fight racism, xenophobia, antisemitism, and Islamophobia by informing people about these issues and strengthening civil society’s will to make the necessary changes. 

 

Although the delegation of Hungary has had many issues with promoting racism and xenophobia in the past, it now aims to combat these problems by informing people about them and implementing the help of NGOs and networks of organizations like ENAR to provide support and protection to minorities, create anti-discrimination programs, and provide the public with information about these human rights issues. The delegation of Hungary also intends to collaborate with other countries in the UN to help fund anti-discrimination organizations and to help protect the rights of minorities.

 

 

  • Hungary
  • Saakshi Sovani

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Country: The United States of America

Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combating Xenophobia and Racism

Delegate: Kristian Rica, Troy High School

 

Racism and Xenophobia both have had their occurrences in the history of the United States and the entirety of the Western Hemisphere. With the imperialist governments that ruled less than 3 centuries ago up to quite recently, discrimination and prejudice have been an unfortunate stain in multiple countries’ histories, such as slavery, discrimination of immigrants both pre and pst-WW2, etc. Most countries have had at least some cases of racial segregation or hatred towards people of different nationalities, although some have changed for the better.

The United States have had a long history of racism, both discriminating towards other races earlier on, and long, hard fought civil rights movements against it relatively recently. With Jim Crow laws and citizens’ discrimination towards people of color long after Slavery being abolished in the late 19th century, areas of the USA have had unfortunate racism, both De Jure and De Facto later on. Although these occurrences hinder the US’ past history, major strides against racism have been made by the American people and government since the 1950s in order to give the people of color the same opportunities and no discrimination. With the milestone Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the US had its first major overturn regarding racism and the previous court case Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) which claimed that segregation was fair game in the constitution. After this, many laws, such as the Civil Right act of 1964 which outlawed work discrimination based on race, religion, sex or nationality were passed making racism, and as a result, xenophobia an unacceptable thing in the US.

In the last century, the United States has made very progressive changes to its government, which have made discrimination by race or nationality not a choice for anyone. Without infringing on individual rights, the US has figured out a way to give everyone who is willing to work equal opportunities through anti-discrimination laws and social programs, but the fight isn’t over yet. There are dozens of countries across the world that still have discrimination as bad as slave trades that should be unacceptable to the UN in today’s day and age, and the US has expressed its commitment to help in the international community with such cases.

WORKS CITED

“US Racism on the Rise, UN Experts Warn in Wake of Charlottesville Violence.” OHCHR, 16 Aug. 2017, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=21975. 

 

“Psychological Causes and Consequences of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerances” American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association, https://www.apa.org/pi/oema/programs/racism/un-conference-plenary

“5 Ways to Fight Racism and Xenophobia.” UNICEF USA, 16 Nov. 2018, https://www.unicefusa.org/stories/5-ways-fight-racism-and-xenophobia/34567.

  • United States
  • Kristian Rica

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Committee: Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian (SOCHUM)

Country: Australia

Delegate: Allison Wei, Troy High School

Racism and Xenophobia

At the heart of combating racism and xenophobia is acknowledging diversity and embracing it as the asset that it truly is.  Australia acknowledges that there have been historical incidents of racism, such as its “White Australia Policy” on migration. However, since Australia adopted an official policy of multiculturalism in 1979, Australia has been deeply committed to celebrating its diverse population.Through our longtime partnership with the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights, the Australian Human Rights Commission has released many annual Anti-Racism strategies to empower communities to stand up to such hateful behavior. Keeping Australia’s 2018 Anti-Racism strategy in mind, Australia prioritizes three main areas: raising awareness around racism and xenophobia, educating the public and private sector on how to effectively combat racism, and implementing legislative action to reduce the presence of racism and xenophobia both online and in the physical world.

 

One of the fundamental components of combating racism is raising awareness to motivate public action and change. In 2015, Australia launched the “RACISM. IT STOPS WITH ME” digital public awareness campaign to tremendous success. This campaign spotlighted prominent anti-racism advocates who encouraged others to not be bystanders and instead, identify and call out casual racism. Given the uptick of racism and xenophobic attitudes on social media platforms, this campaign educates youth and adults on how to stand up to cyber-racism and casual racism. Additionally, by partnering with the Australian Football League (AFL) and other local sports organizations, we were able to spark much needed dialogue on how to foster more inclusive environments within our communities, specifically in the context of sports. Public awareness campaigns such as these are especially important because they give survivors of racism and xenophobia a voice and a platform, as most of the anti-racism advocates experienced racism/xenophobia themselves. It is only right that they be given the opportunity to tell their stories. By harnessing the power of media, we can establish counter narratives to racist/xenophobia rhetoric, fostering greater awareness and conversations around such important issues.

 

But it is not enough to simply raise awareness, racism is a largely cultural issue; to stop it, we must change the culture around it. As much as racial progress in Australia has been made, minorities are still at risk of experiencing racism in their daily environments – in Australia particularly, migrant workers, international students, and Muslims are most vulnerable.  Education has proved an effective tool in facilitating such culture shifts and preventing the rise of racism/xenophobia long term. In conjunction with the launch of the “RACISM. IT STOPS WITH ME” campaign, the Australian Human Rights Commission hosted many educational workshops on the impact of institutional racism. These workshops were specifically offered to senior leaders and executives from governmental, educational, legal, and medical fields – fields where there has historically been racial discrimination. Since racism/xenophobia often occurs on the job, it is necessary to educate senior leaders so that they can set an example for their respective industries. Of the racial discrimination complaints the Australian Human Rights Commission received in 2013-2014, 37% were related to areas of employment. Bias training and diversity workshops are a vital part of changing workplace culture to be more tolerant

 

However, education and awareness initiatives will only be effective if supported by the correct legislative framework. Besides basic legislation – for example, the Australian Racial Discrimination Act – we must make sure that our laws are up to date and sufficient in combating racism/xenophobia in our modern world. Recently, Australia passed the “Sharing of Abhorrent Violent Material Bill” that seeks to limit the spread of graphic hate crime content – often xenophobic/racist in nature – online. Following the recent anti-migrant statements made by certain Australian politicians – these statements were readily denounced by our prime minister – it is especially important for Australia to take a stand against racism and xenophobia online. This bill is an important step in addressing the racism and xenophobia that has run rampant online – particularly worrying is the rise of far-right extremist groups that only fuel the anti-immigrant sentiment. Australia strongly recommends that other countries follow suit with similar legislation so that perpetrators of racism and xenophobia are held accountable.

 

Awareness, education, and legislation are important stepping stones to reaching our overall goal of combating racism and xenophobia. The delegation of Australia is excited to work together in committee to foster a more diverse and accepting global community that stands up in the face of injustice and discrimination.

  • Australia
  • Allison Wei

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Committee: SOCHUM

Country: Colombia

Topic: Combatting Racism & Xenophobia

Delegate: Krish Saxena

School: Troy Athens High School

Xenophobia, in its most raw terminology, takes a negative stance upon the presence of

foreigners or people from another country. Racism, in contrast, stems from the ideology that

one’s race is superior to all others, most commonly applied in forms of prejudice or

discrimination. Both racism and xenophobia have resulted in various modes of conflict,

sometimes volatile and/or immensely concerning. Within Colombia, both racism and xenophobia

have appeared in extreme measures, especially recently.

When socialist autocrat President Nicolas Maduro took office in Venezuela in 2013, oil

output, the Venezuelan economy’s mainstay, had plunged as the state producer ran out of money.

Hyperinflation made the currency worthless, and malnutrition became endemic, causing

Venezuelans to flee their country in hopes of living a more stable life. These refugees often

ended up in neighboring countries, the most common being Colombia. Over 4 million

Venezuelans have seeked refuge in Colombia within the past 5 years, causing many Colombians

to feel pressured to pick a side: to be friendly towards these refugees, or to act aggressively upon

them in hopes of steering them in the direction which will take them back to their country.

Unfortunately, the latter has been occurring in Colombia, with anti-immigrant groups

participating in “Venephobia.” The issue at hand in Colombia, however, is not the

discrimination. The real issue is that over 100,000 Venezuelans flee their country per month,

with Colombia being the largest receiver of refugees by a significant amount. If South American

nations want a healthy relationship between its various states, countries must first begin to enact

laws that prohibit the heavy influx of non-residents into neighboring countries, which often leads

to densely populated areas, a catalyst for Colombians to utilize xenophobia.

Without a doubt racism may be one of Colombia’s most prominent issues since the 16th

century. Racism has frequently been used against the Afro-Colombian, or black Colombian,

people. Ever since Afro-Colombians arrived to Colombia in the early 1700s, they have been

labeled a minority group by the Colombian government, exposing them to various forms of both

racial discriminations and inequalities. The racism in Colombia is so extreme that it can get

Afro-Colombians stopped for just looking suspicious. For instance, Afro-Colombians are

prevented from getting into some nightclubs and restaurants simply due to their features or

differences. They are denied entrance to certain places where many elites and tourists usually go

to, which insinuates they are “less important.” They are moved aside and questioned because of

their skin color while other people are able to get in without further questioning. This form of

oppression is not handled by the Colombian government at any stance, so, as the delegate of

Colombia, we would like to see suggestions of governmental action to be taken to lessen the

 

extreme racism harming the Afro-Colombian community. Other than Afro-Colombians, there are

minute differences in race, so racism is not as prevalent.

  • Colombia
  • Krish Saxena

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Our racism epidemic spiked relatively recently, with its peak being 2007-2008. Political figures at the time directed the problem at the uncontrolled flow of Roma’s immigrants. A poll was taken in May of 2008 in which 68% of Italian citizens wished for all Romanian immigrants to be deported. We did deport over 200 Romanian immigrants, which was and is still against the Immigration policies of the European Union. Mobs in several areas around Naples attacked Roma communities, setting homes alight, and forcing hundreds of Roma to flee. Racism is currently at a high, possibly correlating to the murder of Pamela Mastropietro, an 18-year-old Italian girl who was last seen on 29 January 2018 and was murdered soon after in Macerata, Italy by Nigerian immigrants. In response to this, We more heavily pressed down on gun bans and policies. Unfortunately, the majority of the attacks and harassments immigrants face involve air rifles or pellet guns, both of which are completely legal in Italy. Though a ban of air rifles and pellet guns may help temporarily, there will most likely be ways around this found by Italians anti-Semitic citizens. We hope to gain the help of the U.N. in coming to a solution for this issue.

  • Italy
  • Ian Lucas

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Racism and xenophobia have long been prevalent in Indonesia. Since Indonesia gained independence, there has been, and still is, much sentiment and actions directed at Indonesian Papuans and Chinese Indonesians. Throughout the 1950s-90s, there was much racist sentiment targeted at Chinese Indonesians. After the failed communist coup, there was much anger against them as they were thought of as communist collaborators.  In 1959, legislation was passed to forced Chinese Indonesian business owners in rural areas to close their shops and relocate to more urban areas. More legislation in the 70s and 80s effectively limited them to careers in trade, banking, and manufacturing. Furthermore, much of the mob violence in the May Riots of 1998 was targeted at Chinese Indonesians and their shops. Descrimination against Papuans is still ongoing. After WWⅡ, Indonesian nationalists claimed western New Guinea to be a part of the newfound Republic of Indonesia. When the Dutch officially recognized Indonesia’s independence in 1949, it refused to recognize their claim to western New Guinea. After years with no resolution, the land was seized by the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, then given to Indonesia in 1963 under the condition that they would have put a resolution at vote for independence. In 1969, the UN oversaw the Act of Free Choice. Instead of a free vote, 1025 handpicked men voted unanimously for unification with Indonesia. Ever since, there have been constant protests for independence. State-sponsored violence has been responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of Papuans. Under the transmigration program, Javanese and Sumatrans were relocated to Papua. There is still violence and xenophobic sentiment.

 

To put a stop to this crisis, there first needs to be political reform. The blind eye turned by the government and occasional endorsement of racial violence is unacceptable. There needs to be a  referendum on independence for Papua and West Papua. The United Nations should have handled this situation better in the past. Now, they should step in and help to oversee a fair process and mandate a referendum if needed.

  • Republic of Indonesia
  • Oscar Peck-Dorr

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Committee Name: Social Humanitarian and Cultural Committee

Topic Area: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Country: Senegal

Delegate: Alyssa Wilkes

 

The people of Senegal strongly believe that the U.N. policy regarding the combating of racism and xenophobia has not done enough to prevent instances of racism and xenophobia in recent years. First, the people of Senegal would like to reiterate document A/73/312. This document discusses the elimination of racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia and how to approach it. However, this document could certainly be expanded upon. Another document, A/73/305, expands upon the same issue, yet it could not hurt to discuss the topic more and ways of preventing racism and xenophobia. These are very serious issues that the U.N. should consider taking more measures against, in order to protect the people of the world. External racism towards Senegal has become more prevalent in today’s world, and the people of Senegal would like to see more work put into discouraging this sort of behavior.

 

However, Senegal would like to stress the importance of a peaceful solution and execution of said solution. The people of Senegal are aware of potential strains and tensions that could be caused by enforcement of these documents, particularly in areas of southern Africa. Unfortunately, South Africa as a country can be very xenophobic towards the people of Senegal and other African regions, and it is the personal belief of the people of Senegal that there should be more of a penalty towards this xenophobia and racism. As of now, there seem to be no real consequences of a nation so deeply rooted in xenophobia. Another nation that can get away with no consequences surrounding their racism is Morocco and other parts of northern Africa. Because of the effects of these prejudices on the people of Senegal, Senegal would like to propose a document enforcing world-wide consequences on these nations.

 

Senegal has the firmly held belief that the U.N. can, and 100% should be doing more about the current issues surrounding racism and xenophobia than what it is currently doing. As previously mentioned, Senegal would like to propose a document where nations can be held accountable for their racism and the consequences that come along with it and going more into depth surrounding the effects of racist and xenophobic environments, language, and expectations on the mental wellbeing of others.

  • Senegal
  • Alyssa Wilkes

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The State of Palestine has long been persecuted by the racism prevalent in the ideology of Israeli Zionists. This body previously determined Zionism to be a form of racism(in United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379), before later repealing that determination(with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86). This determination was revoked as a concession to Israel to appease it into participating in the Madrid Peace Conference, against the founding principles of this body. It took a 14-year-long struggle for Palestinian workers to gain the same rights as Israeli workers.¹

 

Palestine has long worked to solve the issues caused by racist countries, such as speaking out in the past against apartheid in South Africa and Zionism in Israel. It participated in and worked a great deal with the other countries in the world seeking freedom from racist ideologies and pursuing self determination during the Decade for Action to Combat Racism and Racial

Discrimination, speaking out against these evils. Any victory over racism anywhere is one step closer to freedom from the racial discrimination against the Palestinian peoples. The body must work together to condemn all types of racism and xenophobia across the world, and to apply diplomatic and economic pressures in an attempt to resolve these issues.

 

1. Salwa Alenat, “Palestinian Workers in the West Bank Settlements,” Workers Hotline (Kav LaOved), accessed November 15, 2019, https://www.kavlaoved.org.il/en/palestinian-workers-in-the-west-bank-settlements/)

  • State of Palestine
  • Camden Lucas

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Social Humanitarian and Cultural Committee

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Myanmar

Joshua Muldoon

Forest Hills Eastern



According to UNESCO, the terms xenophobia and racism often overlap, but differ in how the latter encompasses prejudice based on physical characteristics while the former is generally centered on behavior based on the notion of a specified people being averse to the culture or nation (according to Wikipedia). The country of Myanmar has been accused of being xenophobic, specifically committing genocide and ethnic cleansing against the Bengalis commonly referred to as the Rohingya. On the contrary, Myanmar will do everything in their power to prevent acts of genocide and ethnic cleansing. The government of then-Burma in 1962 announced the state religion as Buddhism, which many of the Bengalis disagreed with. The Bengali people are illegal aliens from neighboring country Bangladesh, who have come to this country to push a separatist agenda. The acts of these Muslim terrorists (the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army, ARSA), such as planting IEDs, blowing up bridges, and committing arson (according to the UN Ambassador on SCMP), are what have led to Myanmar’s military to crack down on them. All military acts are against these Islamic Extremists in hopes of preventing further attacks, with national reconciliation and achieving peace the priorities of the current civilian government (according to the UN Ambassador, Fox News).

 

Myanmar has been called out in UN resolution A/HRC/40/L.19 (according to OHCHR) that accuses Myanmar of committing serious human rights violations and abuses and calls up Myanmar authorities, particularly the military, to end the alleged violence and violations of International Law. This one-sided resolution ignores the multiple reports of the ARSA committing acts of violence against innocent Burmese children, women, and men, as well as multiple reports of IEDs being planted and used against the Myanmar military (SCMP). 

 

Myanmar believes that the issue of racism and xenophobia shouldn’t be a major focus for the United Nations, while issues such as human trafficking involving forced labor and sex trafficking should be a larger concern. Each independent nation’s national sovereignty should be respected in regards to any future resolutions the Sochum committee may pass. The main issues Myanmar faces include fixing crumbling infrastructure, helping prevent the manufacture and trading of illicit drugs such as opium, and ceasing the violence caused by ethnic groups in the country (according to TIME). The main concern with the Social and Humanitarian committee should be preventing human trafficking in the world.


  • Myanmar
  • Joshua Muldoon

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Country: Qatar

Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combating Xenophobia and Racism

Delegate: David Cornier-Bridgeforth

School: The Roeper School

 

My fellow delegates and honorable chair, 

         In the discussion paper, International Migration, Racism, Discrimination and Xenophobia by Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), it is said one in every 50 human beings is a migrant worker, a refugee or asylum seeker, or an immigrant living in a foreign country. Current estimates by the United Nations and the International Organization for Migration indicate that some 150 million people live temporarily or permanently outside their countries of origin (2.5% of the world’s population). Many of these, 80-97 million, are estimated to be migrant workers and members of their families. Another 12 million are refugees outside their country of origin. These figures do not include the estimated 20 million Internally Displaced Persons forcibly displaced within their own country, nor tens of millions more of internal migrants, mainly rural to urban, in countries around the world.

 

Increasing ethnic and racial diversity of societies is the inevitable consequence of migration. Increasing migration means that a growing number of States have become or are becoming more multi-ethnic, and are confronted with the challenge of accommodating people of different cultures, races, religions and languages. Addressing the reality of increased diversity means finding political, legal, social and economic mechanisms to ensure mutual respect and to mediate relations across differences. But xenophobia and racism have become manifest in some societies which have received substantial numbers of immigrants, as workers or as asylum-seekers. In those countries the migrants have become targets in internal disputes about national identity. In the last decade, the emergence of new nation states has often been accompanied by ethnic exclusion.

 

In the past Qatar has not had the best record in combating these issues. With a considerable percentage of its workforce originating from outside of Qatar, political tension between groups has risen time and time again. These differences at times divide the Qatari people but it is the position that these differences are what will unite them. This last September, HE Permanent Representative of the State of Qatar to the United Nations Office in Geneva Ali Khalfan Al Mansouri gave a speech, telling the international community of Qatar’s commitment to ease the severity of these issues. 

 

In terms of action it is imperative that this committee takes the correct stance to stand against discrimination. Effective legislation needs to be made or reiterated to maintain equality for all people.

 

Qatar affirms its rejection of all forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, they are considered a serious violation of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

 

  • Qatar
  • David Cornier-Bridgeforth

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Committee: Social Cultural and Humanitarian

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Country: Ukraine

Delegate: Cooper Hoeksema, Forest Hills Northern High School

 

Combating Racism and Xenophobia in Ukraine

Xenophobia is defined as prejudice towards immigrants from another country and racism is defined as prejudice or hatred towards someone based on race. Racism and xenophobia were a minor problem in Ukraine for the majority of its history. Since an attack on an immigrant from Rwanda left the immigrant beaten to death near his home, these issues have become more pressing. According to Human Rights First, “Leading nongovernmental monitors documented 86 bias-motivated attacks on persons in 2007, including 5 murders, as compared with 14 attacks, including 2 murders in 2006.” The rise of xenophobia and racism can be credited to the publication of media with xenophobic and racist overtones that became popular. ( The statistics above proved that the rise of hate crimes directed towards immigrants and people of other races have risen.

Ukraine’s population is 77% native Ukrainian. The overall population is 44 Million people. This creates a large majority of people originating from Ukraine. Whenever there is a majority, there is bound to be an oppressed minority. Ukraine gained independence from the Soviet Union following the end of the Cold War. Since Ukraine gained independence, there has been a constant battle to combat racism and xenophobia in society. Despite the progress that Ukraine has made as a developing country, racism and xenophobia is still very prevalent. Ukraine is currently combating these issues.

According to Ukraine’s Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United Nations, Ukraine is proposing The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in order to combat the issues of racism and xenophobia. In 2018, there were 65 reported cases of hate crimes in Ukraine. This had risen from previous years such as 2014 when roughly 30 hate crimes were reported. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination will combat this issue head on.

Ukraine believes that racism and xenophobia can be diminished through the act stated above and laws that influence tolerance. Ukraine also believes that the influence of mass media and news stories will fulfill the goals stated above. With these methods of combating racism and xenophobia, Ukraine claims that racism and xenophobia can be decreased in the country.

 

Works Cited

“A Brief Introduction to the Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group (KhPG).” Human Rights in Ukraine, khpg.org/en/index.php?r=2.1.1.

“Racism and Xenophobia in Ukraine: New Challenges in Human Rights Protection.” Human Rights in Ukraine, khpg.org/en/index.php?id=1212543971.

“Sustainable Development Goals and the OSCE.” OSCE, www.osce.org/.

“Ukraine.” United Nations, United Nations, www.un.org/WCAR/statements/ukraineE.htm.

“Ukraine.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Nov. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine.

  • Ukraine
  • Cooper Hoeksema

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India

Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

         Similar to the majority of countries, India has had a xenophobic and racist past. Before India was given its independence from England, racial tensions were extremely high between Indians and Europeans. This was due to the lack of respect given to the Indian people from the British, as the Indians were seen as inferior because of their skin color. The current problem resides in the form of racism and xenophobia toward Africans of different nationalities and Pakistanis. In India, Africans are often generalized by being called “Nigerians” in a demeaning way. They are also typically thought of as drug dealers and burglars, and criminals in general. 

There are very few laws that protect minority groups in India. In the Indian constitution, article 14 and 15 explain that whether from India or not, the legal punishments are to be fair if the circumstances are alike, however if the circumstances are different, then the punishment and/or handling of the situation can be different. This leaves a wide range of room for interpretation and can be dangerous for minority groups, including Africans, if their fate is to be decided by someone who shares the views previously stated. 

However, in the case of Pakistan, India will not seek to comfort Pakistanis in the country. Since 1947 India and Pakistan have been going head to head in efforts to control disputed territory north of Indian and east of Pakistan known as Kashmir. As Pakistan’s acts of aggression toward India continues, India has no desire to settle this dispute until they agree that the territory of Kashmir will be unilaterally controlled by its rightful owner, India. 

India recognizes the issue of potential growth in racial discrimination against Africans and other ethnic groups, and would consider putting better defined laws in place. In addition, India will not proceed in considering action to protect Pakistanis as a whole.

 

  • India
  • Jack Hollis

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New Zealand

Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian(SOCHUM): Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

Human society has long struggled with the biases, prejudices and hatred that people hold towards members of other races, ethnicities and nationalities. From the racist justification of colonization, to the genocides committed in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the continued policies that systematically brutalize people of color, the Western world has been at the forefront of creating a racist global system. In recent years, racial conflict has risen in its intensity and frequency, culminating in many white supremacist terrorist attacks around the globe like the Halle synagogue shooting, the Bærum mosque shooting, the Macerata shooting, and the infamous Christchurch mosque shootings. These, and numerous other issues, are the forefront of the problems that this committee is faced with today. 

 

New Zealand is a country with a mixed history with respect to race relations. It was founded via the colonization of Aotearoa and expropriation of indigenous land, which marks a particularly sordid origin of the country. Following the appropriation of the land throughout the 1800s by various settlers to create a number of settlements and following the signing of the contested Treaty of Waitangi, the newly formed New Zealand government established the Native Land Court to take more land. Conflict between the indigenous Māori population and settler Pākehā population continued in the New Zealand Wars and Māori protest movements over land rights in the 1960s. It wasn’t until the Waitangi Tribunal in the 1990s that Māori iki (tribes) were given settlements, payments and repayments. Despite progress towards reconciliation, race relations have seen setbacks. New Zealand is a country with the 5th highest proportion of foreign-born citizens, meaning it is a home for people of nearly every ethnicity and culture. But as a result of growing white nationalist movements, the Christchurch mosque shooting has shocked New Zealand culture and discourse about race. By uncovering a latent sentiment of anti-immigrant xenophobia, New Zealanders have been forced to face the historical and current presence of racial discrimination (Houkamau et al. 2017)

 

In committee, New Zealand hopes to be able to focus on measures that ensure the safety of migrant populations that have recently come under attack in Western populations, particularly in Western Europe. It is also vital to implement measures that prohibit the mobilization of white nationalist and neo-Nazi organizations planning terror attacks, as well as fighting against the hate speech and hate crime that enables the spread of xenophobia and racism.

 

  • New Zealand
  • Eli Logan

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Submitted to: Social Humanitarian and Cultural Committee 

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia 

Country: Mexico 

Delegate: Serena Ahmad 

School: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy 

 

Racism and xenophobia, both harmful, prejudiced ideologies promoting discrimination, constitute grave violations of human rights. These beliefs, if left unchecked, can and have contributed to severe cases of violence and genocide in the past. While it may be unrealistic to eliminate all of the world’s racism and xenophobia, it is imperative that the international community takes steps toward change and sees the potential benefits to all nations involved in the process. In accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international instruments, the delegation of Mexico urges all countries to respect and guarantee the human rights of all individuals within their territories or jurisdiction, regardless of their migratory status, as well as to work towards the decriminalization of undocumented migrants. This conference offers a unique opportunity to enhance the recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples, in accordance with the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity of various countries and under the criteria of a constitutionalism valid for all people, subject to reform, which promotes the development of a multicultural country such as Mexico. The delegation of Mexico supports and promotes the necessary constitutional, administrative, legislative, and judicial reforms in order to promote, protect, and guarantee the exercise of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, recognizing that this is a prerequisite to eliminate racial discrimination and intolerance.

 

The delegation of Mexico has been subject to numerous cases of racial discrimination–by numerous countries, even as significant as the United States–and incitement to racial hatred and racial supremacism, violating international human rights of Mexican citizens and undermining social cohesion, eroding shared values, affecting social stability and putting peace, sustainable development and the human rights regime at risk. During the 207th session of the UNESCO Executive Board, it was agreed to send a Mexican initiative on the “Elimination of racial discrimination, racial supremacism and racial hate crimes in the world” to the 40th session of the UNESCO General Conference. The resolution is part of Mexico’s strategy to curb acts of violence committed on the basis of racial discrimination and hate speech that lead to racially motivated hate crimes, such as those committed on August 3 of this year in El Paso, Texas, in an attack directed specifically against Mexicans. The resolution was also be put forward in the same spirit as the United Nations Strategy and Plan of Action on Hate Speech, presented by the UN Secretary-General on June 18, 2019. It is imperative to recognize the positive contribution of migration to economic social and cultural development of the countries of origin and destiny and the necessary link between migration and globalization. Xenophobia against migrants is one of the main manifestations of contemporary forms of racism and effective measures should be urgently implemented to eliminate these acts.

 

The delegation of Mexico deems it necessary to guarantee equality among citizens and the fulfillment of all their rights and opportunities without distinction of race, colour, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other opinion, national and social origin, birth or other status. Mexico proposes to adopt all necessary measures for the full enjoyment of the rights of citizens under an equal and non discriminatory basis, including their free and full participation in all areas of society, and to promote the knowledge and respect for indigenous culture and heritage. Education is a fundamental tool for the comprehensive cultural change that Mexico intends to achieve in order to eliminate all forms of discrimination and to promote real equal oppurtunities and mutual respect among individuals. Mexico will continue to promote multilateral initiatives that help to eradicate racism, hate speech and hate crimes, by using the most effective means at our disposal: education, science, culture, ethics, information and communication, in order to build equitable, inclusive and peaceful societies that recognize the plurality and value of diversity.

 

  • Mexico
  • Serena Ahmad

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Social Humanitarian & Cultural Committee

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Kenya

Adrian Heldt

Mattawan High School

 

Throughout the world, racism and xenophobia are present either through laws or through mannerisms expressed by citizens.  Despite the similarities, there is a distinct difference between xenophobia and racism: xenophobia is a prejudice against people from foreign countries, and racism is a prejudice against people of a certain race.  Europe and North America have a history of racism against those with African descent, but with recent terror events, racism towards those of Middle Eastern descent have risen. Xenophobia was exhibited during World War 2 when the United States sent Japanese Americans to internment camps due to the fear of a domestic Japanese threat.  Some prejudices against groups are a combination of both racism and xenophobia, where some prejudice is due to race while simultaneously being paired with prejudice due to nationality. Throughout Kenya, there is a great diversity of African ethnicities.  

 

Neither racism nor xenophobia is a raging problem throughout Kenya, but recently, a racist issue arose between Kenyans and Chinese.  Chinese influence is spreading throughout Kenya, and just last year, a Chinese employer of a Chinese motorcycle company was exposed for blatant racism.  The employer was caught on camera declaring Kenyans are primates and “like a monkey people.” Kenya is strictly against both racism and xenophobia. Kenya dealt with racism during its time as a British colony but hasn’t experienced racism since 1963.  The newer generations of Kenyans believe racism is a phenomenon learned through history lessons because of the lack of racism. At a time when Kenya is seeking a closer relationship with China, Kenya is concerned by this individual issue, but an even greater concern is the work environment experienced by many Kenyans under Chinese management.  Kenyan railway workers describe the atmosphere of “neocolonialism” under Chinese management. Kenya will not stand for racism and believes racism and xenophobia both degrade and dehumanize others. Kenya strongly believes racism must be eradicated for the betterment of the people.

 

A potential solution to the problem of racism is by providing a negative incentive to countries or individuals who exhibit blatant acts of racism in a professional environment.  A mass negative incentive enforced by governments with well-defined definitions for racism will allow for a great reduction in racism in a professional environment.

 

  • Kenya
  • Adrian Heldt

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Committee: Social Cultural Humanitarian 

Topic: Racism

Country: Dominion of Canada

Delegate: Lydia Glashouwer, Forest Hills Northern High School

Racism has been a topic that has been brought up many times throughout the history of the United Nations, as it is an issue that has been globally prominent since the beginning of recorded history. In the past 200 years racism and xenophobia has decreased throughout the world, but there are still many places (like southeast asain, african, and middle eastern countries) that experience the negative effects of racism. In 1978 and 1983 there were world conferences held in Geneva where racism was addressed. Then in 1993, at the world conference on human rights, there was a call for “the speedy and comprehensive elimination of all forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance” This led to the World confrence against racism that was held in Durban, Soth Africa, in 2001. 

 

Canada has a rocky history with racism. When the country was first being developed the natives and asian immigrants were heavily discriminated against. Then during the period of time where the United States was heavily populated by slaves, those be would slaves would try to escape to Canada, in response, in 1911 there was an order proposed to prohibit the immigration of anyone belonging to the “negro race.” During World War two, Japanese Canadians were put into internment camps, and in 1988 the government provided 300 million dollars in compensation. Although it is clear that Canada has had a rocky history with racism, it also has done much to help prevent and recompense for it. Many organizations have been formed to fight for equal rights, including The Black Coalition of Quebec, which is a group that was formed to protect human rights. Along with that there is also The Chinese Canadian National Council, which promotes equality and social participations. Then there is The Ka Ni Kanichihk, which is an aborigional human sources organization. Finally, there is The Urban Alliance on Race Relations that helps support a multi-ethnic environment in urban centers. All these organizations work to help recompense for the racism in Canada’s history. 

 

Canada believes itself to be a hub for diversity and inclusion, and hope to set an example on these matters for the rest of the world to follow. In the past few years, Canada has been doing a lot to combat all the racism taking place. From October 2018, to March 2019, input was gathered from Canadians, especially from those that experience racism and discrimiantion. This input was taken into account, and is going to be used in the up and coming project Building a Foundation for Change: Canada’s Anti-Racism Strategy. This plan is a $45 million process that will last from 2019-2022, it will try to combat racism and discrimination throught the country. There are three guiding principles to the plan, Demonstrating Federal Leadership, Empower Communities, and Building Awareness/Changing Attitudes. To help combat racism, an Anti-Racist Secretariet will be established, along with that, Indigenious people and their communities will be supported, and awareness of the histoircal roots of racism will be increased. 

 

 

 

Works Cited

“A Fascinating Map of the World’s Most and Least Racially Tolerant Countries.” The Washington Post, 15 May 2013, www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2013/05/15/a-fascinating-map-of-the-worlds-most-and-least-racially-tolerant-countries/. Accessed 15 Nov. 2019.

AN OVERVIEW A Canada for All Canada’s Action Plan Against Racism.

Canadian Heritage. “Building a Foundation for Change: Canada’s Anti-Racism Strategy 2019–2022 – Canada.Ca.” Canada.Ca, 2019, www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/campaigns/anti-racism-engagement/anti-racism-strategy.html.

“Don’t Believe The Hype: Canada Is Not a Nation of Cultural Tolerance.” Www.Cbc.Ca, www.cbc.ca, 2017, www.cbc.ca/firsthand/m_blog/dont-believe-the-hype-canada-is-not-a-nation-of-cultural-tolerance.

“History of Racism and Movements • Racial Equity Tools.” Racialequitytools.Org, 2019, www.racialequitytools.org/fundamentals/history-of-racism-and-movements/global-history-of-racism. Accessed 10 Sept. 2019.

“Human Trafficking.” Publicsafety.Gc.Ca, 31 Dec. 2015, www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/cntrng-crm/hmn-trffckng/index-en.aspx.

“Justin Trudeau’s Blackface Incidents Are Part of a Long History of Racism in Canada.” The Washington Post, 21 Sept. 2019, www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/09/21/justin-trudeaus-blackface-incidents-are-part-long-history-racism-canada/. Accessed 15 Nov. 2019.

“Opinion | Trudeau Survived. Now Stop Pretending Canada Is a Diverse Paradise.” The New York Times, 23 Oct. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/10/23/opinion/trudeau-canada-election-racism.html. Accessed 15 Nov. 2019.

Race, Power and Policy: Dismantling Structural Racism Education Criminal Justice Health Social and Economic System Employment Housing Community Racialization Distorts All Parts of the System Prepared for National People’s Action by the Grassroots Policy Project.

RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN CANADA Submissions to the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination on the Occasion of the Review of Canada’s Seventeenth and Eighteenth Reports on the United Nations under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. 2007.

Sundberg, Ulrika. “Durban : The Third World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.” Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal, vol. 73, no. 1, 2002, p. 301, 10.3917/ridp.073.0301. Accessed 7 Apr. 2019.

“The Prevalence of Human Trafficking in Canada – Province of British Columbia.” Gov.Bc.Ca, 2014, www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/justice/criminal-justice/victims-of-crime/human-trafficking/human-trafficking-training/module-2/prevalence.

“United Nations: Key Conference Outcomes on Racism.” Un.Org, 2019, www.un.org/en/development/devagenda/racism.shtml. Accessed 15 Nov. 2019.

Wilson, Kory, and Jane Henderson. First Peoples: A Guide for Newcomers Published by: Social Policy City of Vancouver Vancouver.ca Project Coordination: Social Policy.

 

 

  • Canada
  • Lydia Glashouwer

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Racism and xenophobia have been prevalent issues throughout international history.  Over time, as “right and wrongs” have formed in regard to society’s views, agreeing with racist and xenophobic views has become tabooer. While they have not necessarily consistently been at the forefront of conversations, they are both topics that heavily affect the human rights conditions in a country. Recently, the international community has seen a surge in racist and xenophobic speech and actions. Racism has been defined by the UN as, “theory of races hierarchy which argues that the superior race should be preserved and should dominate the others. Racism can also be an unfair attitude towards another ethnic group. Finally, racism can also be defined as a violent hostility against a social group.” The UN has also defined xenophobia as, “an attitudinal orientation of hostility against non-natives in a given population”. Racism and xenophobia has been so hard to eradicate because often times they are embedded in societies views. 

 

In recent years, Germany has made consistent and strong-willed efforts in order to combat xenophobia and racism. Between June of 2018 and June of 2019, Germany welcomed a review of the human rights conditions in Germany by the UN Human Rights Council. From this report, we assessed our weaknesses as well as how we can strengthen them.  Brought to the forefront in this review was combating racism; specifically, how to prevent racist police profiling. In the past, racial profiling was legal; this law was quicky withdrawn however its effects continue to linger in Germany. The committee had made 259 recommendations as to how to combat racism. Germany agreed to abide by 209 of these recommendations.  While Germany did not agree to abide by all recommendations, they have been noted and will be considered. The approved recommendations were broad, including ones regarding forced labor and employing the disabled. Recommendations that are prevalent to the conversations about xenophobia and racism include ratifying the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, continuous support for the UNHR committee, Adopt legislative and administrative measures to avoid the detention of migrants and allow the early identification of migrants in situations of vulnerability, and more. Now, the federal government and parliament are tasked with figuring out just how to implement and make successful these recommendations. Other actions Germany has taken to combat racism and xenophobia includes the signing of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action (DDPA). The DDPA is a, “comprehensive, action-oriented document that proposes concrete measures to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.” In 2002, one year after the DDPA was put into place, Germany submitted its first report on “the current and envisaged measures and activities of the Federal Government against right-wing extremism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and violence” to the UN. The UN then provided Germany with a National Action Plan that’s completion was due by the end of 2008.  

 

While Germany understands that we are making great strides towards a better more just society, it is also understood that there is still much work to be done. Following the UN’s recommendations to Germany in 2002, the “German Forum for Crime Prevention” was established. The forum analyzes situations in regard to crime, specifically racially motivated crime, and takes a preventative approach. This forum has been quite successful in Germany and it is for this reason it would be instrumental in helping other countries combat racist crimes. Germany as well as other racial-crime-preventative countries can help to form this group in other countries. If a country has a problem with budget, members of the UN 5th committee will help look over the government’s budget. In addition to the forum, Germany has supported NGOs such as the German Institute for Human Rights. During the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance, many NGOS whose goal is to combat racism were included in the dialogues that occurred. These NGOs include the Al-Kohei Foundation (aids in the fight against islamophobia), European Roma Rights Center (helps with the fundamental freedoms of Romas internationally), and 26 others.  The implementation and utilization will be crucial in helping improve racism and xenophobia events that occur within countries. Racism and Xenophobia are things that will merely haunt our citizens; our jobs as countries is to provide the best living conditions possible for our people. Racism and xenophobia hinders the possibility for a truly inclusive future. 

Works Cited

“ADDRESSING RACISM CONFERENCE, NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS CALL FOR URGENT ACTION BY MEMBER STATES TO COMBAT DISCRIMINATION.” United Nations, United Nations, www.un.org/WCAR/pressreleases/rd-d41.htm.

“Durban Review Conference, 20-24 April 2009, Geneva.” United Nations, United Nations, www.un.org/en/durbanreview2009/ddpa.shtml.

Gassa, Marisa Testing Dalla. “Re-Upload Pdf.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2018, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3243647.

“Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Office of the United Nations and to the Other International Organizations Geneva.” Un.org.

“Racism: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.” Racism | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/racism/.

“Racism: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.” Racism | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/racism/.

“Xenophobia: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.” Xenophobia | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/xenophobia/.

“Xenophobia: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.” Xenophobia | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/xenophobia/.



  • Germany
  • Hannah Wise

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Racism has been a constant problem throughout history. We have made strives to suppress xenophobic behavior: trying to end slavery, attempting to obtain equal rights, and acsept others as they are. These are all still problems through third world countries today. However in recent years, the hateful behavior as resurfaced. Strives in the United States are very clear with movements like Black Lives Matter and such. As more people begin to speak out about the remnants of xenophobia, others gain confidence to do so as well. 

 

In the United Kingdom, surrounding the issue of Brexit, the migrant population has been questioning what will happen with immigration and minorities rights. With racism as known issue, delegates have been able to address the issue head on compared to shadowing the issue as so many people do today. With so many people fleeing the middle east, Brexit is causing much debate on how to handle migration. My country has not taken a stance on migration yet; however, it is very clear that we are for racial equality and the end of xenophobia. It will always be difficult to completely defeat racism because everyone is entitled to their own opinion, but Britain is taking strives to limit these citizens influence over others. Limiting powerful people’s ability to suppress minorities it a top priority as parliament drafts brexit.

 

The United Kingdom wants to limit suppression of racial minorities and attempt to end xenophobia and racism. In order to do this, the United Kingdom can produce solutions. More laws can be passed supporting minorities and limiting the power of those that suppress them. We will want to cooperate with other countries ideas on how to resolve this issue. We want to officially end this problem.

 

  • United Kingdom
  • Lily Ross

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Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia  

Country: Nigeria 

School: Mattawan High School 

Delegate: Julian Willow 

 

Throughout the history of mankind race has played a part on how different people groups perceive and act towards each other. Almost every country’s history has had a struggle with the issue of race. Be it from segregation in the United States, or the Bosnian genocide many atrocities and injustices can be pinned to the issue of racism. Even though these events listed may have progressed, many countries have again begun a struggle with racism or are continuing to struggle with the issue of race; such as, the rise of white nationalism in the United States, and increased xenophobia in many European countries such as Germany where xenophoibc parties, like the AFD, have gained seats in their country’s parliament. To help solve this problem, we are willing to work with the international to help combat against racism and xenophobia.     

Ever since our independence from the United Kingdom race and ethnicity has always played a part in Nigeria’s politics. Nigeria has long suffered from racial tension with over 250 different ethnicities. To protect our many ethnicities throughout our country laws that protect against racial disccrimination have been created. If some atrocity is to be committed against an ethnic group the perpetrators will be properly punished. For example, when the Islamic Movement of Nigeria, a Shia organization, was accused terrorist attacks our government took the proper precautions and arrested Ibrahim Zakzaky who was the leader of the organization. Furthermore, Nigeria’s government has had many leaders from multiple ethnic groups have held office. This shows that Nigeria is able to somewhat curb racial tensions to allow those who have fairly won an election to hold office. Nigeria is willing to help other nations to solve their race related issues in order to create a more tolerant world. 

In order to solve the issues of racism and xenophobia, we are willing to work with others to help solve these issues. We would also support providing countries the necessary opportunities to combat racism and xenophobia on their own terms without overstepping their boundaries.

 

  • Nigeria
  • Julian Willow

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Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Israel

Alex Verheek – Forest Hills Northern

 

The Jewish people have been treated with racist and anti-semetic sentiments throughout their history as a people. Israel has been a homeland for the Jewish people in the face of this treatment. Israel has always and will always vehemently oppose all racist and xenophopic actions against any race, nationality, or people. In order to combat racism in all of its forms, all member states of the United Nations must be vigilant in their efforts in stopping discrimination of all peoples.

 

Throughout its history, Jewish people have been expelled from their homeland countless times. Recently there has been conflict between the Israeli and Palestinian people over the rightful occupants of Israel. A two-state agreement has been tried since the Sykes-Picot agreement doctored by the United Nations after World War I. Since then, there has been much disagreement between the Palestinian and Israeli groups. Both sides have been on the brink of armed conflict for decades more, and some brutality has been used towards and against both sides. 

 

The state of Israel believes the most important factors of this issue to Israel is the assurance of a homeland for the Jewish people in Israel and the condemnation of anti-semitism all around the world. Israel would would like to shine light upon the nations that oppose Israel as being incendiary and anti-semetic. Abolishment of Racism and Xenophobia can be accomplished through no-tolerance policies of any forms of discrimintion based on race or nationality.

  • Israel
  • Alex Verheek

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Racism and Xenophobia, while different, often stem from the same ideologies and oppressive systems. Racism and xenophobia are unavoidable, as ignorance and fear are basic human instincts. What can be done though is creating policies that limit these views, and permanently expel them from the political systems of the world. Racism is “prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior,” while xenophobia is the “dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries.” 

 

Both of these issues are prevalent in developed and developing nations alike. In fact, its ugly mark is laid most intensely on powerful nations such as the United States and South Africa, rooting from systems such as slavery, segregation and apartheid. In the past, these systems often arose from fear of the unknown, and desire to belittle and control.

 

Both these topics are widely discussed today, but with little to no explanations for how to prevent them and move forward. Influencing people’s problematic views is extremely difficult but dispelling them from political systems is a big step. Also, convicting people who perform racially or xenophobically motivated acts of violence with hate crimes will decrease the number of these. In the United States alone in the year 2012, there were and estimated 300,000 reported hate crimes. Immigration policies that deny people from a certain country that is primarily one minority, or another also need to be avoided. They contribute to the environment that people are raised in and eventually follow when they are not taught to ignore it.

 

Sometimes, people hold their views because of a lack of basic understanding and education. People grow and learn based on the environment and society that their mind is cultivated in. it was often thought that for someone to be racist, they had to be taught it. However, it is known now that someone has to be actively taught to not be racist. So, nations across the world need to educate the common people that certain ideals are problematic and don’t belong in our world.

 

The reason racism and xenophobia have become so deeply rooted in our world is because they have been part of political systems for a long time, teaching people to ignore what they see around them is one thing but changing what they see is another. Nations that are more closed off from the rest of the world can develop ideas about immigrants when they themselves have no personal experience with them. South Sudan urges all nations to exclude policies about race and country of origin. South Sudan believes that nations that have the power to exclude potentially racist or xenophobic policies have an obligation to. Nations such as South Africa have continued to allow xenophobic and racist attacks. Many of these nations have icons such as Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, and allowing these ideas to flourish in their countries disrespects their legacy.

 

The United Nations has extensive research into the issue of racism and xenophobia and how to combat it. To eliminate racially oppressive systems such as the apartheid, the United Nations now classifies them as a crime against humanity. It has stated that all humans are the same species, regardless of race, gender, nation of origin, sexual orientation or anything else. All nations need to adhere to this rule for the world to make progress. 

 

Racism and xenophobia are two complex issues and trying to decrease its prominence or destroy it entirely is often seen as in vain. The ways to do this is to 1) change the environment in which people are being taught these by taking racist and xenophobic ideals out of political systems. And 2) by teaching people that might be affected by the problematic views of society that those ideals are wrong. 

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

1.      Ingraham, Christopher. “The Ugly Truth about Hate Crimes – in 5 Charts and Maps.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 26 Apr. 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/06/18/5-charts-show-the-stubborn-persistence-of-american-hate-crime/.

 

2.      Adukata, John. “South Sudan Calls for End to Xenophobic Attacks.” The East African, The East African, 7 Sept. 2019, https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/ea/Juba-calls-for-end-to-xenophobic-attacks/4552908-5264042-qej9iy/index.html.

 

3.      William Wan, Sarah Kaplan. “Why Are People Still Racist? What Science Says about America’s Race Problem.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 29 Apr. 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/08/14/why-are-people-still-racist-what-science-says-about-americas-race-problem/.

 

  • South Sudan
  • Claire Martin

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Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

People’s Republic of China

Grant Charles Centner

Forest Hills Eastern

China and the Chinese people have been victims of Racism and Xenophobia for far too long. Western nations have continued their anti-chinese prejudice despite their claimed acceptance of all cultures and races. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Western nations passed laws prohibiting people of Chinese descent from gaining jobs, citizenship, or entry into their country. Anti-Chinese sentiment (Sinophobia) has existed in history and still exists today, from the 1881 Chinese Immigration acts of New Zealand to the Exclusion Act of 1923 in Canada and the United State’s Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, de jure Sinophobia has been seen around the world. Today, while some laws have been repealed, many others still exist and general Sinophobia is stronger than ever. For example, in the United States, by law, chinese citizens cannot hold jobs in many companies such as SpaceX and others. Much worse than discrimination by law is violent, race-based attacks on people of Chinese descent. The Torreon Massacre in Mexico, the Chinese-Massacre of 1871 in Los Angeles, and the murder of Vincent Chin in 1982 are just high profile cases.

The People’s Republic of China is working on combating the sinophobic sentiments and laws seen around the world. Chinese commerce minister recently said in relation to the false accusations against Huaweii made by the US government: “If the United States wants to continue trade talks, they should show sincerity and correct their wrong actions. Negotiations can only continue on the basis of equality and mutual respect.” The U.S. banned Huaweii from selling products in the U.S. and working with U.S. businesses based on false claims about Huawei relations with the Chinese government. Despite all our efforts, there is little that can be done about the rising envy toward the Chinese people. According to a Pew Research poll, Japan, Sweden, Canada, and the United States held an 85, 70, 67, and 60 percent negative view towards China respectively. Thousands of Chinese students who study at American universities have to wade through these negative attitudes towards their culture and race while they receive their education. Similar levels of bigotry have been directed at nations in Africa and elsewhere in the past. But those levels of racism were called out for what they really are: racism. 

 

The United Nations needs to address the mounting racism and Sinophobia seen around the world. China wishes for cooperation with all nations, and in order for this to be accomplished Sinophobia must be eradicated across the world. Chinese citizens and students outside of China should feel safe. They should not have to worry about whether their visa will be taken away or whether they will be denied job opportunities because of their race. China looks forward to ending Sinophobia around the world.

  • People's Republic of China
  • Grant Charles Centner

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Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Country: Bulgaria

School: Fishers High School

Delegate: Luke Ledford

 

            Racial Tensions are nothing new to the Balkan region and certainly not new to Bulgaria. Sitting between Europe and Asia, and located in a region shared between Slavs, Roma, Greeks, and Turks, the Bulgarian people have had a long history of tensions with their neighbors. In the past this has been expressed through warfare, most notably the Balkan wars and the first world war, during which the then Kingdom of Bulgaria attempted to expend its borders for the Bulgarian people at the expense of its neighbors. While the nation today supports and promotes peace within the region, former tensions between races have left its mark on society. To this day Bulgaria remains one of the most monoethnic nations in Southeastern Europe, with most of its population being ethnic Bulgarians or Turks, most of whom settled in the nation during centuries of Ottoman rule. Besides tensions with its neighbors, the people of Bulgaria also have a long history of unacceptance and racism towards the unlanded Roma peoples.

            Despite a history of racial tensions within the nation, Bulgaria does not endorse racism or discrimination within its borders and seeks to end this age-old issue. To at least start to bring about change in Europe, Bulgaria and thirty-eight of the forty-seven other nations in the council of Europe ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM). This was an agreement between states to protect the rights of any ethnic group that faced discrimination, lack of representation, racism, etc, within the continent. Similar actions have been taken by the United Nations.

The delegation from Bulgaria believes that the United Nations had made great progress in bringing the world’s attention to problems of racism, racial tensions, xenophobia, and discrimination. Bulgaria itself has made some steps itself to support change. The state of Bulgaria believes, however, that great change will not be brought about by assemblies and committees. Many nations and peoples, like the Bulgarians, have long complex histories which contribute to many of the race related issues that we have today. To really bring about change, individual nations must work with their own people to promote peace and equality. Nations may agree on how this could be worked out or not. Bulgaria would like to see general resolutions to this issue, but also see nations have flexibility with how they go about addressing this issue.

  • bulgaria
  • luke ledford

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Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combatting Racism and Xenophobia

Country: Thailand

Delegate: Quinn Lowry

 

            Much like with the rest of the world, Thailand has had it’s fair share of difficulties in regard to racism in xenophobia. More specifically, Thailand’s hill tribes have faced a long history of stereotyping and prejudice. The hill tribes are those, mostly subsistence farmers, who reside in the mountainous regions of Thailand. These groups are largely treated as outsiders in Thai society and are frequently stereotyped as illiterate and addicted to drugs. This stereotype was only made worse when former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra launched his war on drugs in 2003. Under this venture Thai police were found to be intimidating and torturing hill tribe members. But prejudice is not limited to members of hill tribes. There’s also a preference for fairer skinned individuals with multiple ad campaigns using the racist practice of blackface. Specifically, an ad run by Dunkin Donuts faced harsh backlash.

            Despite this widespread issue, the nation of Thailand does not have any policy, like hate crime or hate speech, in place to attempt to combat this prejudiced sentiment. This is due to a few reasons. The first being the corruption within the Thai government. This corruption has led to a less representative government overall. Despite multiple government agencies and two “crackdowns” it continues to be an issue for the government. The second reason for lack of action against corruption is more social. While it may be a very prevalent issue in the nation, it is one largely discussed in hushed whispers and behind closed doors. Nobody really wants to talk about it, so it is entirely possible that even if the government was more representative of what the people wanted, they still would not address corruption as it does not seem to be a major concern of the people. Exceptions to this do apply however, like with the Dunkin Donuts ad mentioned previously. Those ads were only pulled because of widespread backlash, and while much of it was from Thai citizens, there was a decent amount that wasn’t even from the country. Ultimately, Thailand wants to protect the freedoms of it’s citizens, and feels that measures against racism and xenophobia could impede upon those freedoms.

            Thailand recognizes the growing threat of racism and xenophobia, but we want to protect freedoms before anything. We would be comfortable condemning acts of racism or even potential education programs but hate speech laws or similar ideas would be infringing on the rights of our citizens. Therefore, Thailand has no interest in pursuing either of these options.

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

Bagenal, Flora. “Blackface Dunkin’ Donuts Ad in Thailand Brings Racism Accusation.” The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor, 5 Sept. 2013, www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2013/0905/Blackface-Dunkin-Donuts-ad-in-Thailand-brings-racism-accusation.

“Grand Plan to Eradicate Corruption Is Ludicrous.” Https://Www.nationthailand.com, 24 Dec. 2015, www.nationthailand.com/opinion/30275615.

Kummetha, Thaweeporn. “Crime of the State: Enforced Disappearance, Killings and Impunity.” Crime of the State: Enforced Disappearance, Killings and Impunity, 25 Mar. 2014, 8:32 PM, prachatai.com/english/node/3904.

“’Racist’ Thailand Skin-Whitening Advert Is Withdrawn.” BBC News, BBC, 8 Jan. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35261748.

  • Thailand
  • Quinn Lowry

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Eli Duguid

Committee: Social Humanitarian and Cultural 

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Country: Poland

 

Throughout human history, people have been reluctant to accept those whom are considered different or foreign to them. This reluctance has resulted in  hierarchies that traditionally favor a certain type of people over another; furthering the growth of social inequity among people living in nations with diverse cultures, races, and religions. In more recent history, this xenophobia and racism has resulted in the rise of white nationalist groups in Europe and North America, religious clashes in Sudan, and genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia. Poland has not been immune to the rise of white nationalism, and has recently been infested with a youth subculture that promotes extreme nationalistic, anti-semitic, and anti-Islamic views. These views do not reflect the Polish people, and we are willing to work with this committee in order to find a solution that works to best protect those  targeted by this rising phenomena.

 

Domestic legislation regarding xenophobia and racism, has unfortunately not been the center of policy proposed at the national level, thus in part to the homogeneity of the white-Christian Polish populous. As a nation however, Poland has been apart and signed the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights, as well as a multitude of United Nations resolutions regarding the equality of education and freedom of religion. Every signed International agreement with the major purpose of instituting a political agreement of each member nation to uphold the political, religious, and educational rights of those who have been historically disenfranchised. The major issue that has traditionally plagued Polish policy on this issue, has been political apathy, and the failure (sometimes even) rejection of policies  that would help institute positive change. This is the main reason why the delegation of Poland is seeking an adequate international adoption of policy that enforces the commitment and oversight of all nations to create domestic bodies, which oversee the correct implementation of anti-racism policies. If the international community supports this plan, it would give leeway to the SOCHUM delegate of Poland to request (with international backing) domestic policy that works to take on the rise of white nationalism–domestically.

 

Along with the creation of domestic bodies to oversee racial-relations, the delegation of Poland would like to see foreign leaders as well as each member of the United Nations acknowledge the existence of racism and Xenophobia, and publicly denounce any group that partakes in these activities. Poland also views education as a platform in which this systemic issue can be addressed. By educating the future generation on the acceptance of cultural differences, the ill-effects of this issue will be drastically reduced.

 

The delegation of Poland looks  forward to working with fellow members of the United Nations, specifically the European Union, fellow Baltic states, and NATO to come up with a solution that best addresses the rise of Xenophobia and Racism internationally.






 

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  • Eli Duguid

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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee(SOCHUM): Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

When people have differences, there are bound to be prejudices. Racism and xenophobia are forms of it, the former in regards to race and the latter in regards to anything perceived as foreign at all. As these ideas have pervaded societies, the prejudice has, as times, become systemic. Tensions escalate from there to lead into violence and genocide. So long as xenophobia and racism persist, the gate is open for further atrocities to be committed. While ideological changes cannot easily be suggested or enforced, delegates in SOCHUM must explore the different options. 

 

Differences among people exist and have existed for centuries in every nation, and Algeria is no exception. Once part of the Ottoman Empire and then colonized by the French, Algeria has seen its fair share of prejudice. This, combined with a need for cheap labor, led Algeria, just a territory of Arab conquest at the time, to host black slaves in the 8th century. When Algeria became a part of the French empire, slavery was outlawed and continues to be to this day. Algeria’s past isn’t perfect, but many other nations share similar experiences. Racial biases left over from past times may still exist in some pockets, but it is not systematically supported. 

 

As for xenophobia, one may think immediately of Islam when thinking of Algeria. Algeria does not abide by Sharia law, despite a vast majority of Algerian citizens practice Islam. Our government does not sponsor or encourage attacks or discrimination of minority groups in any aspect. 

 

The delegation of Algeria hopes that fellow delegates will come together to solve these issues while also recognizing that some matters are up to individual nations. We recognize that the identification of cases of racism and xenophobia is subjective and varies from nation to nation. The delegation of Algeria will support resolutions that simply suggest ways to combat any specific problems identified in committee but will not support resolutions that suggest changes that fundamentally undermine nations’ culture and beliefs. The delegation of Algeria looks forward to working with fellow delegates to address the topic of combating racism and xenophobia. 

  • Algeria
  • Tananya Prankprakma

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Submitted to: Social Humanitarian & Cultural Committee

Addressing the Topic of: Combating Racism And Xenophobia

Country: Republic of Estonia

Delegate: Rebecca Dooley

School: Forest Hills Central High School

 

Estonia, a small nation in Northern Europe, enjoys a great level of democracy and personal freedom, and as a result, progressive ideals have been allowed to flourish. Due to the fact that the majority of the population is not particularly religious, many Estonians share cultural or historical backgrounds, and all citizens benefit from a revitalized economy, there are few causes of tensions between different groups in Estonia. However, mirroring the global trend, Estonia has seen a rise in right-wing social groups. Unlike many other countries, however, this trend is likely not caused by the global refugee crisis—Estonia takes in a few refugees due to our own initiative and even fewer due to European Union’s initiatives. The small number of refugee applicants means that there has been no major emergence of anti-immigrant policy, in fact, Estonia has made it easier for employers to hire foreign workers and for those workers to obtain temporary visas. These workers are more relevant to Estonian society than refugees; because of the easily obtainable work visas, thousands of people migrate to Estonia specifically to work. Because of this, policy has needed updating to protect the rights of these immigrant workers, as concerns for their well-being have been raised.

 

Estonia has additionally made efforts to minimize the risk of racist and xenophobic attitudes by investing in campaigns like No Hate Speech. Just three years ago, Estonia allocated over 110,000 euros to the Ministry of Education and Research to set up mobile counseling and educational groups for immigrants, create guides on the prevention of xenophobia for teachers, and aid for students arriving under the EU migrant plan. This money also goes to different schools and organizations that teach Estonian to children and illiterate adults wishing to find work.

 

  • Estonia
  • Rebecca Dooley

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Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Commonwealth of The Bahamas

Jaisal Chopra

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

Racism can be defined as “prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior” according to the Oxford Dictionary. Racism has been around since people have been distinguishing different races and skin colors. Xenophobia is the “dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries”. Xenophobia has been occurring ever since discrimination has been prevalent. Countries did not like when foreigners or strangers came to their country to take their land or wealth, so they chose xenophobia as a response. Racism and xenophobia are two related terms, but at the same time are very different. They both have created discrimination around the world. Varied countries have put in hierarchical systems based on race, such as South Africa and the United States. Xenophobia and racism can lead to violence, and in the past, even genocide. This problem should be addressed as xenophobia and racism are extremely prominent because of social media. Racism is a problem in The Bahamas as the country is divided by race. According to the The College of The Bahamas Research Journal “The Tribune points out that our Bahamaland is ‘…very much a race-driven colour conscious society’“. 

 

The Bahamas has been battling racism and xenophobia since the country was formed, and it is an issue in the country. The Bahamians were enslaved by the white people (Americans) hundreds of years ago. Most of the Bahamians were Africans. After the abolition of slavery, on August 1, 1834, the emancipated Africans were forced into servitude for a fixed period. The Bahamian government had a chance to sue the United Kingdom in 2013, but on October 23 of the same year, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Immigration Fred Mitchell stated “the government has made no decision to sue the United Kingdom over reparations for slavery”. The Bahamas has not made any effort against this national problem, and do not have a policy on it because the violence has not been recent. A Bahamian delegate speaking on behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), stated that “racism, discrimination and xenophobia were being perpetuated under the guise of nationalism and patriotism” Sheila Carey, who also spoke on behalf of CARICOM, “expressed concern about the intellectual legitimization of racism and xenophobia by scholars, the media and, in some cases, leaders expected to act as societal examples”. These statements were made at the UN General Assembly meeting on October 31, 2017. The Bahamas have been divided between the Black Bahamians and the White Bahamians. They resorted to violence between the two because the hate came in between, and so did their racist and xenophobic ways. But The Bahamas has not done anything in particular to try to end racism and xenophobia. Since there are both black and white people in The Bahamas, the government has created a constitution in which everybody is more equal, and have the same opportunities. 

 

The Bahamas believes that any action taken for xenophobia and racism would be helpful. It could be on a national level or even international. Since NGOs only have limited influence on most actions taken, working group should be created. These groups would influence people, businesses, and organizations so NGOs are not working alone. Groups such as the Civil Solidarity. This group is coordinated by Konstantin Baranov, International Youth Human Rights Movement, Balint Josa, UNITED for Intercultural Action according to their website Civil Solidarity. Since discrimination is such a global problem action should be taken even though our country has not done much since the issue is not very current for us. We as as a United Nation should solve this issue. Because of racism and xenophobia the world has had slavery. So all countries suffering from racism and xenophobia should take action.

  • Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • Jaisal Chopra

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Social Humanitarian and Cultural Committee

Combating Racism and Xenophobia 

The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Isabel Gil

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

Xenophobia is defined as the fear or hatred of anything that is strange or foreign, while racism is defined as a prejudice or discrimination based on the race of an individual or group. Both racism and xenophobia are prevalent issues, and countries worldwide struggle with the issue of how to combat these problems. Due to the stable economy of Trinidad and Tobago, it has received an influx of Venezuelan immigrants seeking asylum and fleeing their own hyper inflated, crime infiltrated country. It is estimated that 60,000 Venezuelans have settled in the Republic as of 2018 – one of the highest amounts proportionate to Trinidad and Tobago’s population of less than 1.3 million.

 

While Trinidad and Tobago has taken steps to welcome Venezuelan and other refugees, the wave of immigrants has caused the country to be vulnerable to racist and anti-immigrant sentiments, cultivated within social media and radio shows, all under the false pretense of “patriotism”. In a statement by president Paula-Mae Weekes in July of 2019 concerning immigration and the xenophobia crisis, she stated that it was up to the “lawmakers, representing the views and interests and aspirations of those on whose behalf they speak to set the tone. Our people will follow where we lead”. 

 

Trinidad and Tobago urges the UN to take steps to ensure the safety of refugees, and combat racism by educating citizens and government officials of the Caribbean, while promoting unity and shutting down social media pages that contain racist and xenophobic sentiments. We ask that our neighboring countries in assist us in taking in and educating their citizens about Venezuelan refugees; however, we implore that the United Nations does not turn our limited space into an island primarily for refugees, and instead helps ensure the safety of foreign countries citizens in order to lessen their need to flee to Trinidad and Tobago. 

  • The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • Isabel Gil

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Social Humanitarian and Cultural Committee 

Racism and Xenophobia 

Republic of Azerbaijan 

Eden A. Hodgson

Forest Hills Eastern 

 

Racism and xenophobia are alarmingly common and equally as difficult to counteract. Racism is defined by Merriam Webster as a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race, and xenophobia is defined as fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign. Both concepts (which go hand in hand) are particularly abstract, making this issue difficult to identify and address unless unsavory actions end up being taken. This can include anyone whom the aggressor feels is subordinate, and may (even subconsciously) treat them as such. Targeted groups are often racial minorities. 

 

Although it is prohibited by the Consitution and legislation, Azerbaijan is not free from racism, its most horrific account occurring in Sumgait, just 26 kilometers from the capital, in 1988. Sumgait was home to some eighteen thousand Armenians at the time and on February 26th and 27th, demonstrations were organized along with the slogan, “Death to Armenians!” This massacre has since been referred to as Sumgait, and clearly illustrates Azerbaijani authorities’ unswerving policy of racism towards Armenians of the past and ethnic cleansing of the Armenian population, with unpunished killings and deportations. More recently, Azerbaijani lawyers have signed a petition along with Turkish lawyers rejecting Resolution No. 296, titled: “No to imaginary ‘genocides’ and violation of international law,” because we as a country are about moving forward and not stretching the truth.

 

Azerbaijan would be pleased if other countries would follow suit and work to repeal laws enacted that enforce this kind of falsehood.  There is a collection of 68 resolutions, laws, and declarations that recognize the “Armenian genocide” (Armenian). It is incredibly common for authorities to depict lesser countries of claims such as these. Rules stemming from such inaccuracies will be fought to be brought down. Azerbaijan suggests the UN address the 68 perjurious laws and makes efforts to erase them. 

 

Bibliography

https://karabakhfacts.com/the-sumgait-syndrome-anatomy-of-racism-in-azerbaijan/

 

https://www.un.org/WCAR/statements/azerbaijanE.htm

 

https://menafn.com/1099232886/Azerbaijani-Turkish-lawyers-sign-petition-against-resolution-of-US-House-of-Representatives-on-so-called-Armenian-genocide

 

https://www.armenian-genocide.org/current_category.7/affirmation_list.html

  • Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Eden A Hodgson

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Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Finland

Anish Kokkula

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Xenophobia and racism have a long-lasting reputation for eliciting mass violence. Historically, from Apartheid in South Africa, Jim Crow laws in the United States, the Holocaust, the Refugee Crisis, to present-day actions, such as President Trumps attempted travel ban on Muslims and the US-Mexico border wall, racism stems from the underlying belief of superiority of one’s own race. Crucial for debate by the Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian Committee is a method by which to combat discrimination throughout the world, eliminate violence between races, and prevent mass genocides that result from the culmination of oppression. The root of the issue of racism and xenophobia in our present-day society stems from the rise in the Internet, which allows, spreads, and oftentimes encourages far-right populist political beliefs. Resulting from increased racism developing in Finland, the delegation of Finland deeply concerns itself with this issue.

 

According to “Racism in Finland,” a recent poll conducted that 66% of Finnish respondents considered Finland a racist country but only 14% admitted to being racist themselves. Furthermore, the augmentation of Russian discrimination in Finland has generated concern within the Finnish government. A multitude of police and researcher reports exhibit the prevalence of increased racial physical abuse, racial threats, and racist violence targeting children and teenagers. The delegation of Finland is a member and strong supporter of UNESCO and its ideologies. In 1949, UNESCO launched a major global program to combat racism focused on implementing a number of policies in order to combat racism and inequality. Over the years, UNESCO has drawn on the full force of its mandate to combat all forms of racism. As early as 1966, UNESCO recognized Apartheid as a “crime against humanity.”

Although existent at various levels and severities, Finland recognizes the everlasting presence of racism and xenophobia within easily exploitable people — women, children, minorities — in every country. To combat this issue, the delegation of Finland encourages the UN to focus its efforts on a four-component plan. First, it is imperative that the United Nations conduct similar surveys/polls as in Finland primarily to apprise countries of the racism present in their country, and inform governments of the unrest within the minds of the oppressed. Second, the United Nations must encourage all nations and their governments to place regulations and requirements on what examples of racism and xenophobia can be taught in schools. Teaching kids about our past mistakes as humankind, without bias, can lead to future prevention. Third, the UN must confront nations such as the United States, an influential country whose leaders continue to advocate racist ideals against minorities who are existent even in their own country. Fourth, and perhaps most importantly, the UN must propose, promote, and urge nations to sign treaties and become part of organizations motivated to combat racism: UNESCO, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

  • Finland
  • Anish Kokkula

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14 November 2019

SUBMITTED TO: Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee

FROM: Russian Federation

SUBJECT: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

The international community has seen, through past global action and inaction, how increasing tolerance of xenophobic attitudes can lead to dire, resounding consequences. However, the Russian Federation sees the rate at which racist and xenophobic intolerance is turning into a means of political struggle as especially alarming, as it poses a threat to the most basic principles of governance and human rights. The rapid resurfacing of Neo-Nazi ideologies and attempts to rehabilitate theories of racial purity are among the most outrageous manifestations of these trends. In the world today, there are increasing numbers of xenophobic non-state organizations which are indraught of new members and causing a rise in racially, nationally, and ethnically motivated crime. The Russian Federation believes that the states sharing the bulk of responsibility for combating racism and xenophobia must give objective and unbiased assessment of the current situation in order to move towards a solution.

The Russian Federation was faced with a pivotal test of national pride and identity within recent history, as the Soviet Union was restructured and the global economic and political system faced the resounding effects of this process. However, we have always maintained a welcoming immigration policy towards all migrants from republics which have emerged from the former Soviet states. While other states have closed their borders in xenophobic outrage, we have been able to combat the emergence of xenophobic ideals before they have been able to gain traction within popular forms of government. The most prominent sources of xenophobic behavior which match the definitions of active hatred and fear come from the same extremists who look to promote ideas contrary to that of the sovereignty of the Russian state. Gatherings by nationalist extremist parties aimed at delegitimizing the protections of all races and nationalities under the Russian government have become breeding grounds for racist and xenophobic sentiments. It should be a key job of this committee to determine how to combat the prevalence of xenophobia perpetrated by non-state actors.

Furthermore, we must eliminate the broad stereotyping perpetrated by the west that looks down upon all nations that uphold their sovereign affairs against the threat of exploitation. If this committee is to achieve anything from its work, all states must fulfill their obligation to assess the behaviors of their own populations and determine ways in which these are spurred by the rapid growth of migration and globalization in the world today. With that said, the Russian Federation asks this committee a few questions on how we will determine censorship of xenophobic ideals in the face of western thought on pluralistic discourse. How does this committee define what qualifies as “freedom of speech” versus ideologies of hatred? How can we bridge the divide of xenophobic, racist sentiments dismissed as being hidden under a veil of freedom and pluralism of opinion?

A large part of Russian policy in combating the emergence of hateful ideologies and racist sentiments has been the support of legislation aimed at preventing the resurfacing of Nazism and other ideologies that are used to commit heinous crimes. The Russian Federation looks to implement these ideals within the international community, but recognizes that each individual state has its own best policies for how to combat this diverse issue. However, Russia firmly believes that it is necessary for all states within this committee to develop united positions of condemning and rejecting racism in order to send a clear signal. One of the most fundamental issues within this debate, that has led a simple solutions to have increasingly complex nuances, is the appearance of racist tendencies in everyday life on the domestic level in a variety of nations. Ideas that started at the individual home level have spread into greater patterns within societies. It is not enough for this committee to simply denounce racism, but rather each state must take steps as its own entity to adopt anti-discriminatory legislation. The Russian Federation cannot accept a resolution that does not confront the implementation of anti-xenophobic policy on a state-by-state level.

In 2011, the global community marked the 10th anniversary of the World Conference against Racism (WCAR) which took place in 2001 in Durban, South Africa. We attach great significance to the Durban Conference and the 2009 Geneva Review Conference and their respective final documents. Russia will continue to take an active role in UN activities aimed at combating racism and its contemporary manifestations. Undoubtedly, the most important task of this body is to develop a clear strategy for joint efforts to implement the outcome document of the Durban conference. The Russian Federation looks forward to helping to enforce the ideals of tolerance while not letting hypocritical assumptions of “free speech” protect the spread of dangerous racist and xenophobic thought.

  • Russian Federation
  • Hannah Ziegler

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Social Humanitarian and Cultural Committee 

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Kingdom of Cambodia

Rohan Reddy

Forest Hills Eastern 

 

Racism is the prejudice of people of different races, and Xenophobia is the prejudice of people from different countries. According to the Chair of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, “We still live in a world where we witness politicians and leaders using hateful and divisive rhetoric to divide instead of unite societies. Race-based police brutality and retaliatory killings, waves of hate crimes against minorities, and discrimination and violence towards migrants and refugees were all signs of pervasive racism.” She urges for a greater determination to terminate racism and xenophobia and even exposed countries that have not implemented laws regarding racism yet. Despite many countries having laws against racism, it is still prominent throughout the world.

 

In 1975 through 1979, the Pol Period took place in The Kingdom of Cambodia. The leader at the time, Pol Pot, was considered as one of the most radical political leaders in the entire history of Cambodia. Cambodia’s cities were emptied, the economy was militarized, the Buddhist religion and folk culture were destroyed, and more than 1 million of its 8 million people were starved and massacred. On top of that, foreign and minority languages were banned. Pol’s regime denied Cambodia’s, as well as other countries’, minorities. He claimed they were 1% of 100, and that they should be forgotten. Due to this thinking, he got rid of the Vietnamese, the Chinese, and more that were considered minorities in Cambodia. Even after 1979, the Khmer Rouge continued. An estimated 1.3 – 1.7 million people were killed. The Cambodian genocide is often seen as an auto-genocide because of the killing of its own people. Since then, the Kingdom of Cambodia has learned from the past and to maintain social stability. 

 

The Kingdom of Cambodia acknowledges its past and learned that social stability must be maintained to avoid war. Although Cambodia is eager to find a solution, Cambodia does not want any solution to infringe on a country’s national sovereignty. Cambodia does not believe any solution should be enforced onto a country and that countries should be left to decide what is best for their own countries.

  • The Kingdom of Cambodia
  • Rohan Reddy

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Social Humanitarian & Cultural Committee

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Federal Republic of Somalia

Olivia Benedict

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

Racism and xenophobia are topics that shake the foundations of humanity’s tolerance for one another. The thought of one person prejudiced against another because of their skin color or social caste is an idea that has become almost normalized in the 21st century. Because of race, wars have been fought and people have been killed. Despite “progressing” culture, 62 million human beings in the last hundred years have been murdered because of race. Xenophobia, like racism, is also prejudicial. “Whilst xenophobia has been described as something of a global phenomenon, closely associated with the process of globalization, it has been noted that it is particularly prevalent in countries undergoing transition,” states an article from the South African Peace and Security study. Xenophobia is an ongoing normality that affects many Somali migrants in South Africa. They are met with hostility and violence, which is not something they should need to endure. Somalia believes that there is no room for racism and xenophobia in the world.

 

Somalia has taken measures to warn against racism in our own country but currently cannot afford to do much more. Article 11, Section 2 of Somalia’s provisional constitution states that “The State must not discriminate against any person on the basis of age, race, color, tribe, ethnicity, culture, dialect, gender, birth, disability, religion, political opinion, occupation, or wealth.” This law is enforced to our best, although limited, ability. Unfortunately, racial and caste prejudice does exist in Somalia, though caste prejudice is more predominant. At the moment, our government cannot do anything to stop it other than what we have already stated. We are deeply concerned with the xenophobic outbreaks that are occurring against Somalian migrants in South Africa, though. In recent months, increasing xenophobic feelings by South African citizens are causing Somalians to protest against racism and foreign prejudice, which is raising awareness of the importance of these issues. Despite these cries for change, there is not much we can do at the current moment except stand by our laws and ask for the help of the UN to develop a sound plan for combating racism.

 

Somalia believes that the best way to solve xenophobia and racism is to implement strong laws against discrimination. These laws should set a standard for our citizens and oppose racism in our country. We stand by the UN in raising awareness, but cannot currently take any major role in helping due to our unstable government foundations. We also support the UN’s effort to find those responsible for hate crime attacks in South Africa, as well as provide victims with adequate help. These gestures of kindness from the UN are greatly appreciated since they provide awareness of the crimes of xenophobic violence that is currently occurring. Somalia requests that the UN provide assistance in dismantling race and caste prejudice in our country by providing support and funds. With this aid, Somalia can begin to eradicate xenophobia and racism from our country and world.

  • Federal Republic of Somalia
  • Olivia Benedict

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Social Humanitarian Cultural 

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

The Republic of Turkey

Emma Erlenbeck 

Forest Hills Eastern l

 

Xenophobia is the fear or hatred of anything that is strange or foreign. Racism is defined as a prejudice or discrimination based on the race of an individual or group. Countries all over the world have struggled and continue to struggle with the issue of how to combat these problems. 

Following 9/11, the United States has experienced a rise in Islamophobia. According to a 2016 study conducted by the Pew Research Center, 41% of Americans believe that Muslims are more likely to encourage violence than other religions. Turkey believes that any act of discrimination is legally and morally unacceptable. Turkey has witnessed racism and xenophobia both within its own country and it has seen its own people face discrimination in other nations. According to Turkey’s Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu Turks visiting other countries, particularly European nations, have faced Islamophobia. Turkish parliament speaker Ismail Kahraman has said that “Turkey is ready to help” in the fight against Islamophobia. Turkey has also dealt with racism within its own borders. With more than three million refugees, Turkey has the most refugees out of any country in the world. Because Turks are very nationalistic, people of different backgrounds have struggled to be accepted into Turkish society.

 

 Turkey has taken several steps to combat racism and xenophobia, including creating laws and ratifying international resolutions. Turkey currently has four million citizens living in foreign countries. The Turkish migrants working in other countries, particularly the European nations of Germany and France, have been subject to discrimination because of their Islamic faith. The migrants have had limited access or in some cases complete denial to public education, health care, and employment. Their social and economic rights are being violated and some migrants have even lost their lives from acts of violence. At an event in April 2017, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu urged European Union governments to recognize Islamophobia as “a hate crime and a form of racism” and to criminalize it in their constitutions. Turkey is actively working to combat racism and xenophobia in its own country.  Hate crimes and discrimination have been added to the Turkish Criminal Code and penalties have been increased.  Provisions regarding the prevention of discrimination have been added to many laws, including the Turkish Labour Law, Civil Servants Law, Civil Law, Law on Political Parties, Law on Social Services, and the Law on National Education. Turkey has also passed the Law on the Human Rights and Equality Institution of Turkey to promote human rights on the basis of human dignity, ensure the right to equal treatment, and prevent discrimination. 

 

Turkey recognizes that discrimination is not morally acceptable and should not be legally acceptable. It urges other nations to criminalize the growing problem of Islamophobia and hopes that all other nations create laws to protect the basic rights of all people. Turkey understands that everyone deserves equal treatment and hopes that other countries will follow their example of working to achieve such equal treatment.

  • The Republic of Turkey
  • Emma Erlenbeck

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Social Humanitarian and Cultural Committee
Combating Racism & Xenophobia

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Carli Maltbie

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

The issue of racism and xenophobia takes form all across the globe. Cases ranging from smaller acts of vicious discrimination to mass genocide occur frequently. Racism is defined as prejudice stemming from a perception of racial inferiority, whereas xenophobia is a prejudice against everything foreign, both can create catastrophic consequences. The increase in the use of social media and the internet provides a platform for more of this offensive racism to spread. According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, in the United States, 4131 hate crimes occurred by acts of racism in 2017, making them the largest influence on said hate crimes. In some governments historically, race-based hierarchical systems have been implemented (South Africa with the apartheid and the United States with Jim Crow Laws). It is important to combat such systems so as to prevent massacres such as the Holocaust and the Armenian Genocide. 

 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo faces a long, strenuous history of European colonization, slavery, and oppression due to the color of the skin of its citizens. In the 1870s, Belgian King Leopold II set up a private venture to colonize the territory that is now the Congo. In his control, Leopold accumulated a personal fortune from forced labour and exploitation of the region’s indigenous peoples. Leopold’s Force Publique or “Public Force”, commanded by white officers, killed, took hostage, looted, and maimed Congolese citizens who did not meet certain standards of work. Under Belgian rule, millions of Congolese were said to be killed or worked to death as slaves. Though independence came about for the Congo in 1960 with the election of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, Leopold’s bloody legacy remained, creating problems in human rights abuses today. The negative effects of racism on the Democratic Republic of the Congo creates human rights issues in today’s society; and measures need to be taken to eliminate racism and xenophobia.

 

As a nation greatly impacted by these issues, the Democratic Republic of the Congo strongly calls upon this committee to make an effort to eliminate this problem globally. The UN has the power to improve racial tolerance by implementing international laws regarding discrimination based on race, and taking action to reform governments in countries which practice xenophobia or have prominent occurrences of racism.The Democratic Republic of the Congo hopes to save other countries from a fate haunted by the bloody ghost of racism and massacre, as they suffer.

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Carli Maltbie

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Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Issues (SOCHUM)

Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Portuguese Republic

Claire Parish

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

Racism and xenophobia have been issues from long before this organization was established and have been repeatedly addressed by the United Nations and this committee. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination was entered into force by the General Assembly in 1969. The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination still monitors participating states. The Human Rights Council has appointed a Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, xenophobia, and related intolerance for over twenty years now. But there is still much work to be done. As recorded on the UN website, just last year experts spoke to this committee to draw our attention to an uptick in racism, xenophobia, and other forms of bigotry. Thanks to new forms of media and unprecedented global communication, we are facing new forms of racism and xenophobia, and increasing perpetuation of discrimination and hatred both on and offline. 

 

Portugal long ago signed its agreement to the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, but, like every other nation, still faces its own struggles with these issues. According to The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, we have particularly worked to end prejudice against the gypsy community, as well as people of African or Brazilian backgrounds. However, thanks to anti-racism legislation, we reported to the Commission that an increasing number of Portuguese racism complaints have been brought to light and addressed. Equality regardless of race, language, place of origin, ancestry, religion, beliefs, and more is laid down in our constitution and we have earned international recognition for our work to integrate all groups included in the Portuguese intercultural society with a top rank in the Migrant Integration Policy Index. Our membership in the EU, which is committed to fighting these problems, also helps reinforce our values. The EU’s Framework Decision on Combating Certain Forms and Expressions of Racism and Xenophobia by Means of Criminal Law has helped set forth principles to address these problems with legislation and law, while Groups such the EU High Level Group on Non-Discrimination, Equality and Diversity and the High Level Group on combating Racism, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance have helped us learn from and contribute to best practices for working against these forms of discrimination.

 

The UN has long worked against racism and xenophobia, but we must adapt our work to a new era while empathizing that xenophobic and racist ideologies should not hold sway over societies and governments. In our increasingly connected world, it is essential that governments work together to prevent online perpetuation of discrimination and hate crimes. For example, we can bring online technology into the forefront of our efforts against discrimination by making a world where the internet helps us instead of hurts us with online educational programs or reporting systems. Forming a group of experts for further discussion on the matter may be a good place to start, but together we can innovate modern solutions to ancient problems. Portugal is ready to work alongside SOCHUM and reinvigorate this organization’s long history of combating racism and xenophobia.

  • Portuguese Republic
  • Claire Parish

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Country: Fiji

Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Delegate: Eva Talberg

School: Williamston High School

 

    The topic of racism and xenophobia is a widespread problem that has been infiltrating societies since the beginning of society itself. The feeling of superiority of ones’ own race, in combination with feelings of disdain and inferiority towards other ethnicities can escalate and turn violent, as seen so many times in the past. The Armenian Genocide, the Rwandan Genocide, the Holocaust, the apartheid, and both world wars have stemmed from racism and xenophobia.  These massively lethal historical events would all be avoided with the absence of racial prejudice. As well as these significant events, racism and xenophobia have also caused constant displacement of ethnic groups all around the world. Most recently, people in northern Africa and the Middle East migrating to Europe to escape political turmoil, as well as South Americans and Muslims migrating to The United States of America. SOCHUM must work to create a solution to reduce migration levels based on ethnicity, and carefully learn to analyze the point where nationalism escalates to a dangerous, and potentially genocidal levels. 

    Fiji, like many other countries, has had a hierarchy based upon race in the past. Under British rule in the mid 1900s, Fiji had a higher population of Indians who were brought in to work manual labor jobs. This was known as the girmit system and is at the root of internal Fijian ethnic tensions. A current serious internal issue in Fiji is the distribution of land to indigenous Fijians, versus land to Indians whose’ families were brought in by the British. As agricultural leases began to expire in the 1980s, Indo-Fijian families were widely evicted and forced to move into cities, while native Fijian families were permitted to stay on farms. This resulted in mass urbanization and the rapid expansion of cities. These cities were highly rushed in their developmental stages and had poor sewage systems, mass transit systems, and became dirty. This pattern is seen around the world with mass urbanization. Fiji has taken great lengths to reduce internal racism, and it has seen a significant decline as Indo-Fijian families have become the most common ethnic group, rather than the two groups being kept separate

Fiji would like to work on a resolution that does not infringe on the national sovereignty of countries in conflict, but still promotes the nonproliferation of racism. By focusing on the development of democracy throughout the world, people will not be exiled as they are in some racial conflict areas because they will have a say in what actions their government takes. Fiji also believes that corruption in world leadership can cause racially motivated violence. By working towards effective democracy, the delegation of Fiji hopes to eventually limit the impact of this corruption. By increasing world education, xenophobia could also be minimized. Xenophobia stems from the misunderstanding of other races, and with education, people will begin to recognize these other people as equals. There are a few problems with requesting wordly education to many countries with religious based education systems. This would be infringing on national sovereignty and could be potentially violating religious views of these nations. Fiji would like to work with countries in agreement to come up with a resolution that incorporates these three ideas into a comprehensive resolution. 


  • Fiji
  • Eva Talberg

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Submitted to: SOCHUM

From: Romania

Subject: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Tara Porterfield

    Racism and xenophobia are major issues facing not only the nations that house immigrants but all nations. Currently there are several resolutions made by OCHR to help ensure the safety of migrants, and their families. However, there is a minute amount of resolutions focusing on fixing the issues of racism and xenophobia. In the country of Romania deals with racism within minorities such as people within the jewish faith, and even Romanin people themselves.

Dealing with racism and xenophobia is difficult due to the fact that there is no one way to stop it. However, we need to solve this issue, in all countries people have to deal with racism/xenophobia, which is horrible on it’s own but the effects of being the victim of xenophobia/racism are numerous, many studies found a link between oppressed people to depression, anxiety, addiction, numbness, and paranoia.These are human beings, and they deserve to be treated as such. Romania is currently in the European Commision against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), which is an international council that is Europe’s leading council on human rights, the ECRI includes 47 member states, 28 of which are in the EU. This commision has done several projects that involve the combating of racism and xenophobia, one of which being writing a guide for future laws, which is named “ECRI General Policy Recomendation No. 7 On National Legislation To Combat Racism And Racial Discrimination”. 

The document mentioned above can be used as a resource to help write fair and just resolutions on this issue, it states several possible solutions and offers definitions of racism and race related crime which is very useful due to the fact that racism can be described in so many different ways, so having a concrete definition of the word helps to have a solid understanding of the issue. This document also discusses the legal area of this issue, it discusses what would constitute a racism/xenophobia related crime.

In conclusion, any resolution that we consider passing should follow this guide. Using this guide will lead us to a fully successful debate without hindering the flow of progress. There are several ways to bring about change however, following this guide would insure a successful resolution that would benefit everyone.

  • Romania
  • Tara Porterfield

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Forest Hills Central

Dominican Republic

Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian(SOCHUM): Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

Racism and xenophobia are problems that have been long-ingrained in the world’s history. Xenophobia is defined as a dislike of or prejudices against people from other countries. Racism is along the same lines but focuses on racial inferiority. Travelers and immigrants are being attacked verbally and physically. These types of conditions for foreigners are causing a hostile environment, and are creating divides between the countries. This inherent evil must be dealt with in order to create a peaceful world and not drive arguments and hatred around the globe.

 

The Dominican Republic has a long history of racism and xenophobia. The problem first arose a long time ago with the natural citizens of the Dominican Republic being oppressed by the Spanish explorers in the early history of the country. In the present, the Haitian immigrants are being discriminated against by our people. Roughly 70,000 Haitian immigrants are in the Dominican Republic. They are leaving Haiti because of poverty or natural disaster and are being met with racism in the Dominican Republic. We, however, recognize these people as refugees and welcome them for asylum as long as they follow the application process and are here legally. The racism in the Dominican Republic is not severe and can be controlled.

 

Discrimination toward refugees is apparent around the world. Incidents of racism and xenophobia can be found in Eastern Europe, where millions of Syrian Refugees are being discriminated against and even attacked by the citizens of the countries they are pouring into. In Greece, there were 50 attacks in 2017 against migrant workers. The refugees are simply trying to escape a war-torn country that is unlivable for their families. Where they should be met with protection, they are met with animosity and anger. This hatred can evolve into terrible hate crimes that can end in death. This is a serious problem and a grave danger that we need to mend.

 

The Dominican Republic would like to create a safe environment in all countries for the citizens of the world. We all need to work together, as to not cut ties with each other over petty thoughts of superiority. We believe that most countries should take our opinion on this because it is best for the people, and will reduce violence in the countries affected.

 

 

A resolution idea could be creating campaigns advertising tolerance of other races and cultures and also setting up days in public schools where the students acknowledge other beliefs around the world, in order to raise a more tolerant generation. For the refugee issues, we could introduce a cultural program that blends the two cultures together so there isn’t as much disparity between the races.

  • Dominican Republic
  • Tommy Laidlaw

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Country: Peru

Committee: Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

Although xenophobia and racism are incredibly intertwined they are very separate. Racism is defined as ‘prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior,’ while xenophobia is defined as ‘the fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign.’ The two are relevant throughout the world and have been around for as long as older generations can remember, it has become more prevalent in recent years. At first, the discriminations were confined to just the country they were occurring are in is now seen on a larger scale due to the emergence of social media and the increased use of online news websites, as well as original paper news. 

The Republic of Peru is home to many racist and xenophobic events; in the media alone there are Peruvian characters dressed in blackface, mocking their fellow, mixed, Peruvians, videos of Venezuelans being harrassed have surfaced, and in a two week period 500 attacks occurred against immigrant Venezuelans. The Republic of Peru has as a saying, ¨el que no tiene de Inga tiene de Mandinga,¨ conveying that people of Peru have either indigenous or African blood in them and that the country is one big mixing-pot. What this phrase doesn’t portray is the extreme racism and xenophobia throughout the country. Afro-Peruvians make up 10% of Peru’s 29 million people and yet they make up to 40% less than their fellow Peruvians, up to 70% of Afro-Peruvians do not seek medical attention, despite 29% of them suffering from chronic illness, and 26% of their children are not enrolled in school. Of all 29 million people, 81% agree that discrimination does occur and that nothing is being done about it and 17% of all Quecha and Aimira groups believe that the government protects and promotes their customs and traditions. 

 

The Republic of Peru took measures in November 2009 to apologize to its African-descended citizens for the centuries of racism, discrimination, abuse, and exclusion; making them the first country in the region to apologize, despite being considered one of the most backward countries in the Americas when it comes to legislation over racism and promoting opportunities. Data from the United Nations shows that there has been a rise in xenophobia against Venezuelan migrants in Peru, but nothing has been done to deter the actions. Federico Agusti, U.N representative, claims that it is due to fear of stigmas and urges for changes. Many are still expecting political upheaval and economic slowdowns. Peru would like to continue to combat the problems they are facing through working with the United Nations. They would also like to mimic the actions of countries such as France and Germany.

 

  • Peru
  • Margaret Murphy

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In recent years we have seen hundreds of millions of civilians flee their country as a result of war and poverty, but now in 2019 we have seen this at an extreme extent.  Now the world is facing a growing of a problem to be solved: racism and segregation based on race are growing in countries as more immigrants travel to other countries to seek refuge and create new lives.  And with countries such as Bosnia & Herzegovina having a 45.6% emigration population in 2015, we can see the extent to which some people are leaving their home countries. Because of the rise of xenophobia and racism in the countries with the highest immigration rates, change must occur to preserve the rights of these victims of war and poverty.  We’ve seen countries implement laws to protect and regulate these immigrants but change must occur on an international scale.

While France has cracked down on immigration in the past, it’s time for change.  France believes we must help guarantee protections to all races and immigrants under the United Nations to ensure the safety of millions.  In recent years France has advocated for a stop to racism by backing up and being apart of the follow-up process of the World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, and furthermore implementing a national plan of stopping racism under the Committee of Elimination of Racial Discrimination.  And furthermore establishing a delegate to coordinate groups of government to work together to try and eliminate racism.

France proposed a national campaign to target areas in the world that have the highest levels of xenophobia and racism with a positive ad campaign.  We believe that raising awareness of racism and showing our support of stopping racism is necessary to change social prejudices on the matter. Furthermore with this global effort we can create a network of support for people experiencing racism and facing discrimination so they can get the help they need.  With this plan France truly believes the UN can help lower xenophobia and racism in the world drastically.

  • France
  • Max West

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11-14-19

SUBMITTED TO: Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee 

FROM: Republic of Rwanda

SUBJECT: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

Rwanda is a nation that was bred out of racism. As a former colony, and subject to the manipulation of colonizers on our government, Rwanda has a rich history of discrimination and genocide. Former imperialist powers influenced our government, and caused the Hutus and Tutsis to become divided, setting up our country for failiure, and ultimately setting a chain reaction for the Rwandan Genocide. Western imperialist powers have left a scar upon our world in terms of influencing legislation and social hierarchies that has kept racism and xenophobia a consistent issue, with Rwanda being a peak example.

How do we begin to undo the damage that has been done by imperialism in terms of its influence? Is there a way for former-imperialist nations to take responsibility without running into the issue of the entire problem being put in their hands, ultimately leading to the dependence on these Western nations once again? It has been asked whether or not migrants and minorities have their human rights, as defined by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adequately protected in societies where xenophobic and racist ideologies hold sway: Rwanda believes that it cannot. If a group of people are seen as an “Other” in its nation’s society, it is the job of the United Nations to lift them back into their humanity in the eyes of oppressors, not ignore and turn a blind eye. While national sovereignty is a value of all countries in the UN, nothing will change if there are systems in place that hinder progress. Are there measures that can be taken that make sure a nation’s sovereignty is a priority, while still making sure that laws in place are not discriminatory and completely and genuinely follow the The Universal Declaration of Human Rights? A good resolution will address this problem in a respectful way so to not disturb the sovereignty of other nations. 

Nevertheless, there is no simple solution to racism and xenophobia. While the UN can do all it wants in terms of pushing new, accommodating legislature to promote equality, there is still the social aspect of discrimination that is difficult to control. What can we do to defeat not only de jure racism, but de facto racism as well? A good resolution will explore the possible solutions to this.

Rwanda has been able to gradually recover from the genocide using tactics such as de-ethnicization, “On the federal level, Rwanda adopted a policy of de-ethnicization wherein they ‘erased’ ethnicity, stating that there were no longer Hutu and Tutsis, only unified Rwandans” (Addressing Post-Genocide Reconstruction In Rwanda – The Borgen Project). This allowed the people of Rwanda to allowed the end of using Hutu and Tutsi identifications, and promoted equality no matter the ethnicity. While this would be extreme to apply on a global level, perhaps there are some aspects of de-ethnicization that could provide a basis in our resolution. 

 

The atrocities that took place during the Rwandan Genocide will not be forgotten, but used as a reminder for what the world can become and the potential it has in terms of racism and xenophobia. If Rwanda has been able to rise from the depths it was once in, then there is hope that racism and xenophobia can be combated until there is a world of equality and tolerance. 

 

  • Rwanda
  • Zoe Rosario

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11-14-19

SUBMITTED TO: Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian Committee

FROM: The Socialist Republic of Vietnam

TOPIC: Combatting Racism and Xenophobia

 

Although Vietnam may not experience the traditional racism and xenophobia that a majority of other nations must endure, there are still ethnic and religious boundaries that we as a nation face. For example, as a primarily communist nation, we believe that religion and communism are incompatible with each other, and therefore, in order to maintain our principles, we must at least attempt to shut down any organized religion in our country. However, we do recognize that we will not, and cannot, shut down any organization outright. Nevertheless, that does not stop local governments from confiscating religious property, and unfortunately, does not prevent Vietnamese citizens from being harassed by their fellow citizens for their beliefs. 

That being said, if we are to look back onto the history of Vietnam, there have been many accounts of death and destruction in the name of war, racism, and xenophobia, with the majority of these instances coming from the United States. Women from our nation have been raped, and the villages and homes of innocent families have been brought to the ground for convoluted reasons. Thankfully, the US did put a considerable amount of funds towards helping those affected by the tragedies the war brought, and has since improved their relations with our nation. However, the Vietnamese people still suffer from anti-Vietnamese sentiments, and violent xenophobia from other countries, and many other nations suffer from similar plights that we hope to end in the near future.

 

How do we work towards solving a problem like this, especially when referring to nations like Vietnam who experience smaller amounts of non-traditional racism and xenophobia (i.e. negative sentiment, racial discriminiation in tourism, racist and xenophobic propoganda, etc.) and have only had major accounts of violence, racism, and xenophobia from other countries? A good resolution will address this, and Vietnam would look favorably towards the condemnation of countries who have committed acts of racism and xenophobia in other countries and have gone unpunished, as well as working towards solving the problem of internal racism within countries. We look forward to solving these worldwide issues and hopefully we can reduce and even eradicate these issues in the near and distant future.

 

  • Vietnam
  • Jack Rossbach

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November 9, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: SOCHUM

FROM: Republic of Korea

SUBJECT: Combatting Racism and Xenophobia

Xenophobia and racism, while both very similar, have distinct differences. Xenophobia is a dislike or hatred of one who is not from your country or nation or region, while racism is a dislike or hatred of someone else who looks different from you specifically, such as a different skin color. Globally, there have been distinct instances of xenophobia and racism, yet they hold the same impact. One instance, for example, is the Holocaust in which all nations recognize as a genocide, or form of extreme racism. Another form of racism is skin whitening.

 

In South Korea, there is a significant amount of xenophobia targeted towards incoming refugees. Part of the reason there is so much xenophobia and racism is because of the South Korean education system. South Koreans are taught to believe South Korea is a single-blooded nation, or danil minjok. The arrival of the Yemini refugees in the Republic of Korea has also inspired xenophobia, sparking incidents of verbal harassment. 

 

Racism has also taken the form of beauty standards in South Korea, and other parts of Asia. WHO (World Health Organization) found that around 40% of women in China, Malaysia, the Philippines, and South Korea regularly use whitening products. The Republic of Korea has been heavily influenced by Western nations to the point that the notion of beauty has become one of light skin. Skin whitening, a process of using products to whiten one’s skin to look lighter, is very common in South Korea. This is dangerous due to the health hazards that come with bleaching one’s skin, so to have this as a social norm is a significant issue, that at its root, is heavily linked to racism and white supremacy. As well as being linked to white supremacy, there is a deeply rooted aspect of culture that depicts having white skin with not being in poverty and living a comfortable life. 

 

Even with all this bigotry, racism, and xenophobia, there is hope for the Republic of Korea. The curriculum was changed in 2007 after the United Nations urged the Republic of Korea to do so. Along with this, interracial marriages have been becoming more prevelant within the country following this new education. The government has started promoting damunhwa, or multiculturalism. The Republic of Korea also often takes in foreign exchange students from all around, letting students interact with Korean citizens and become acquainted with each other and their respective cultures. A solution to skin whitening is educating those buying skin whitening products of the health hazards, including the “highly active and potentially dangerous agents” such as steroids not good for the skin, bleaching chemicals, and chemicals such as mercury and hydroquinone. There are risks of skin cancer when using these products excessively. These are only a few of the many ways to combat xenophobia and racism.

  • Republic of Korea
  • Annie Cardinale

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Jack Swanson, Royal Oak High School
Madagascar

Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee, Combating Racism and Xenophobia

 

Section 1: History, Legislation, and Actions

Madagascar, a former colony of the massive French empire, has always viewed racism and xenophobia as some of the greatest, yet most subtle, evils present in the international community. With the rise of the internet, anonymity has allowed has given those with radical minds the perfect platforms to spread their viewpoints like a cancer, hoping those who are down in the dumps will embrace those views and blame racial minorities for their problems. Domestically, this is not a major problem for Madagascar. Our nation is one of the most multi-ethnic in the region, with groups ranging from Austronesians to Africans. It is a problem for our citizens abroad, however, as the spread of racism and xenophobia will lead to their oppression.

At the World Conference Against Racism in 2001, the Malagasy delegate, Maxime Zefera, said the following. “The persistence of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance is a source of serious concern for the international community. It is most important to note that in places where racism is thought not to be prevalent, more forms of racism are practised, particularly in job or housing application processes or access to public places. We must also not forget the serious danger of the Internet when used to spread racist propaganda. The international community must not let those manifestations of racism prosper. We must take action at this Conference to eliminate those scourges, considered among the most ignoble mankind has ever known.” (1) With the massive strides in technology since 2001, the racists have gained more and more of an advantage, coalescing on image boards such as 4Chan and the (recently shut down) 8Chan. If we are to put down this problem, we must strike the beast at its heart.

Section 2: Possible solutions

The real problem at our hands is not racism itself, but rather the anonymous cesspools it is spread around on. Without anonymity, Racists will once again hide in the dark like they did before the internet gave them their golden gathering place. Now, We are not saying that any website that allows anonymity should be banned. No, that is a violation of human rights just like racism. There should be restrictions, however. For one, we should regulate sites that allow discussion without the need for an account. Any site that is to allow discourse should require that individuals should make accounts. They still would have privacy, but the racists would not have a total masks. Their accounts could be shown to their employers and peers, causing their life to go down to where they wanted to drag others. An eye for an eye, you might say, but one which we believe to be the perfect shield to block the sword of racism.



Citations:
(1)“ACTION AGAINST WIDE RANGE OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES URGED AT RACISM CONFERENCE.” United Nations, United Nations, 4 Sept. 2001, https://www.un.org/WCAR/pressreleases/rd-d35.htm.

  • Madagascar
  • Jack Swanson

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Country: Sweden

Committee: SOCHUM

Topic: Combating Racism and Xenophobia

Delegate: Griffin Ransom

School: Williamston High School

 

Xenophobia and racism are very related but have different meanings. Xenophobia is a dislike of or prejudice against people from outside the state. Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, it may also mean prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against other people because they are of a different race or ethnicity. Although racism and xenophobia are relevant all over the world, they both have been around for a long time creating discrimination, which can sometimes result in violence, and even from time to time culminating in genocide. Currently the globe has seen an increase in xenophobia and racism. Stated earlier, these are not new, they have become more visible and accessible with the use of the internet and social media.

The percentage of ethnic groups of Sweden are 80.9% Swedish, 1.8% Syrian, 1.4% Finnish, 1.4% Iraqi, and 14.5% other. Sweden has launched a National Plan to combat racism, similar forms of hostility and hate crime. The Swedish Media Council has received resources to tackle online xenophobia and intolerance among children and youth and the Defense Research Agency has been tasked to monitor extremist Internet propaganda. Another issue that goes along with racism and xenophobia is hate speech. Recently, the number of incidents of racist and xenophobic hate speech has been rising over recent years, in particular in the context of large-scale arrivals of migrants and refugees and in spite of serious efforts by the Swedish authorities to prevent such hate speech. The main target groups are migrants, Muslims, Blacks and Roma. A plan was created to help the fight against racism and xenophobia, the plan set out a structure for coordination and follow-up which laid the groundwork for long-term strategic work in the areas of improved coordination and monitoring, more knowledge, education and research, greater support and dialogue with civil society, strengthening of preventive measures online, and a more active legal system towards hate crimes. The groups that are targeted most and focus on anti-Semitism, Afrophobia, anti-Gypsyism, Islamophobia and racism against the Saami people.

 

For the future of racism and xenophobia Sweden will continue to use the National Plan and other programs that are set to combat racism and xenophobia, but for the UN Sweden would like to work towards implementing the plans within other countries fight towards xenophobia and racism.

 

  • Sweden
  • Griffin Ransom

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Racism and Xenophobia are two disturbing issues that can be seen in different facets of society all over the world. Xenophobia, being the prejudice against foreign people and ideas, often goes hand in hand with racism. All throughout history these forms of discrimination can be seen in heirarchical systems, where people are put into different classes or ranks. These issues are not new, but now they are possibly more prevalent than they have ever been. The “Refugee Crisis” of 2015, the debate that considers a wall being built in the U.S., and the “Travel Ban” that has been focused on countries that are mainly muslim, are all examples of racially motivated discrimination that exist today. These ideas are purely reflective of a hierarchical social system, which often leads to violence and has led to mass genocide in the past..

 

Kuwait bases its constitution and many moral standings on Sharia law, which presents the ideals of the Islamic teachings of the Quran. In the Kuwaiti constitution, it is stated that, “All people are equal in human dignity and in public rights and duties before the law, without distinction as to race, origin, language or religion” (Article 29). Kuwait does not stand for racism or xenophobia, and has recently been working to eliminate these extremely harmful and discriminatory acts from the country. More specifically, Kuwait was a very early supporter of Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Kuwait is a country of peace, who’s ultimate goal is reaching global peace and equality. Since Kuwait is oil-rich, it has a lot of potential for government funding, to help work towards these ultimate goals. Considering Kuwait’s demand for equality, and it’s potential for large funds, a big solution is plausible for the future.

 

There are many solutions to be proposed for the topic of combating racism and xenophobia. First, the systematic issues that undoubtedly represent a hierarchical system, must be addressed. At the root of these problems is an ancient system with quickly aging ideas. People will not treat others with more respect, or equality, unless the system they stand on is altered. Government also plays a very large role in these issues, so creating laws that require all people being treated equally, despite being a different race, or coming from a different country. If more countries are open to accepting refugees, with no intent of changing the ways of those people, there wouldn’t be as many refugees looking for homes as they are now, all over the world. It may take time but with recognizing the problem, and addressing the issue, solutions can be set in place to conquer racism and xenophobia.

  • Kuwait
  • Layah Fedrizzi

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What only a few years ago was considered as the politically incorrect language of hate, has now transmogrified into widely used rhetoric that now permeates the highest levels of discourse. Against this background, there is a gradual drift to the right of the country’s political elite, primarily related to the center-right. The political establishment is becoming more nationalistically oriented, playing and most successful in the political field of right-wing radicals. At the same time, radical right-wing parties, which only recently terrorized liberal circles with their xenophobia and radical rhetoric, have been moving towards the political center. These parties are abandoning their most scandalous slogans and gradually entering the political establishment. This process is exemplified by France’s National Rally, the Austrian Freedom Party, the Hungarian Jobbik, the Italian League, the Dutch Freedom Party, as well as others. By moving towards the center, the right-wing radicals left free spaces, which was immediately filled by new players. These ultraright newcomers include the Austrian New Right; the identitarian movement (includes countries like France and Austria); the English Defense League (EDL); such organizations as Britain First; the Pegida movement, which has abruptly disappeared from the German political landscape but which now operates in other European countries; such transnational neo-Nazi 6 groups as Combat 18 or C18; Blood and Honour. Due to this shift in the political climate, extremist groups have been expanding across borders to spread their racist and xenophobic doctrine. 

Equality in rights and non-discrimination are part and parcel of the basic objectives of the United Nations, since 1945, and numerous universal binding texts related to human rights. We may be pleased to notice that national law tends to be increasingly in harmony with international law as far as the respect of the legitimate state, democracy, and fundamental human rights are concerned. These necessary and useful advances as regards legislation, must not hide the terrible realities in this field which remain present here or there as a general matter of fact or in specific and particularly serious cases, like the case of our country, Afghanistan; we know that millions and millions of men, women, and children suffered and still do, from several forms of discrimination, racism, intolerance, xenophobia, and violations of their fundamental rights. It is because of them that we are here today: we do not have the right to disappoint them and Afghanistan has been working in close accordance with the United Nations to use law enforcement to crack down on racism and xenophobia. 

 

Afghanistan would like to continue to work in close accordance with the United Nations, and we would like to mimic the actions of countries that have lower rates of racism and xenophobia like France, Germany, and other nations. We acknowledge that our country isn’t as diverse as European nations, and religion is the most dominant factor in our country. However we wish to remain a predominantly Islamic based nation, but still remaining tolerant of different religions. We will spread this propaganda throughout our country in hopes of improving tolerance among all Afghans.

  • Afghanistan
  • Gabriel Goudreau

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Country: Morocco
Committee: SOCHUM
Topic: Combating Xenophobia and Racism
Delegate: Noah Palmatier
School: Williamston High School

 

Xenophobia and racism are two problems that are being faced by a large number of nations in this committee. These issues have some relation but have rather different meanings. Xenophobia is defined as a prejudice against all that is foreign, while racism is prejudice based on a perception of racial inferiority, drawing from a hierarchical system. Historically, xenophobia and racism have played a role in creating systematic forms of discrimination throughout the world, often resulting in violence, and even from time to time culminating in genocide.

The Kingdom of Morocco has recently ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD). In doing so, The Kingdom of Morocco has committed itself to respect and ensure racial equality, and the right of all persons to be free from racial discrimination. Commendably, Morocco has also ratified several other international human rights treaties that prohibit racial and other forms of discrimination. These instruments create legally binding obligations for Morocco with regard to the principles of equality and non-discrimination. They also advance a substantive vision of equality—one that requires Morocco to eliminate intentional or purposeful racial discrimination, as well as to combat de facto or unintentional racial discrimination. Prohibited racial discrimination can occur even where there is no racial animus or prejudice in operation. A large amount of this xenophobia and racism is cast upon those who have migrated as refugees from sub-Saharan Africa. It is of utmost importance that the The Kingdom of Morocco along with other nations in this committee find an effective solution for this problem.

The delegation for The Kingdom of Morocco would like to make a suggestion as to how this could potentially be solved. A first step we could take would be the ratification of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), Which is a global initiative to end racism across the board. This is currently ratified by 179 countries, and signed but not ratified by another four. This along with potential sanctions to countries who do not follow set guidelines and increased funding to educate the ignorant in order to reduce racism is places where people are suffering because they “look different.”

 

  • Morocco
  • Noah Palmatier

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Country: Brazil
Committee: SOCHUM
Topic: Xenophobia and Racism
Delegate: Alexa Banning
School: Williamston High School

 

    Today xenophobia and racism don’t seem to be a very pressing issue compared to other, but these cruel acts are worsening overtime. With the expansion of social media and the internet xenophobia and racism have  continued to become very problematic. The 2015 “Refugee Crisis.” sparked a very drastic increase in these horrors. The crisis caused the issue to be much more prevalent, following this issue only has progressively gotten worse. Overtime, man areas have become much more diverse. The vast amount of diversity has led to a great deal of discrinination, and in some cases, violence. Quesdtiions each delegate of the SOCHUM commitee mutconsider are, ¨Can migrants and minorities have their human rights, as defined by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adequately protected in societies where xenophobic and racist ideologies hold sway? How can the United Nations combat the spread of xenophobia and racism both socially and structurally? What role do hate crimes and hate speech play in the perpetuation of xenophobia and racism?¨

    Brazil, similar to other have faced the consequences of xenophobia and racism.  While reading the UN Commission on Human Rights, a quote stated, “Racism does not exist in Brazil. Brazil is the country with the second largest number of Blacks in the world, after Nigeria. Brazil is a multiracial country and a multiracial democracy; it is not like the United States, or like South Africa under apartheid; it has no tradition of racial hatred” Though Brazilians have these strong implemattions, xenophobia and racsim are still issues. One would have to be naive to say that the laws have completely eliminated it. 

With an issue like this Brazil’s law on racism was is very severe. A person that has been charged with this crime can spend up to five years in prison. The Brazilian Criminal Code also foresees penalty to people who insult others under racial grounds.  In the constitution, racism is prohibited. These strict laws have kept order and structure within Brazil. Brazil’s law on racism was is very severe. A person that has been charged with this crime can spend up to five years in prison. The Brazilian Criminal Code also foresees penalty to people who insult others under racial grounds.  In the constitution, racism is prohibited. These strict laws have kept order and structure within Brazil.

Brazil has taken steps towards ending racism and xenophobia, but these steps haven’t been the push needed. With strong implementation of similar laws, other societies will also benefit. Brazil believes that in order to solve this drastic issue, somewhat drastic consequences must be put in place as a punishment. Individuals will only learn from their wrong doings if they have to deal with the repercussions. Brazil is interested in working with those in their G4 alliance with Germany, India, and Japan. The Portguese speaking nations are also those who we will look for. Brazil has faced this issue numerous years, but this will no longer continue. The delegates of SOCHUM must unite to create a resolution that if very beneficial. 

  • Brazil
  • Alexa Banning

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Country: Denmark
Committee: Social, Humanitarian & Cultural Committee (SOCHUM)
Topic: Racism and Xenophobia
Delegate: Courtney Parkhouse
School: Williamston High School

 

The global issues of racism and xenophobia are two related issues with distinct differences. According to the United Nations, racism is “the belief that there are human groups with particular characteristics that make them superior or inferior to others”, while xenophobia is defined as “a prejudice against all that is foreign”. The issues of racism and xenophobia have always been present throughout history and various societies, and have resulted in systematic forms of discrimination, violence, and, in some instances, genocide. In Denmark, racism and xenophobia have manifested themselves in the form of hate speech and racial violence, particularly toward the Islamic and Semitic communities. In particular, many ethnic minorities have been the victims of hate crimes such as domestic terrorist attacks, especially toward the Jewish community. The issue of racism and xenophobia has contributed to the development of many other issues such as an increase in internal conflicts between Denmark’s majority and minority communities and poor integration for Denmark’s immigrant population.

In the past several years, the Danish government has been a signatory to the UN Human Rights Convention of 1948 and the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination to help prevent the discrimination of people based on racial and ethnic means. The government of Denmark has also passed anti-discrimination legislation such as Act No. 411 which established the Danish Centre for International Studies and Human Rights, the Act on Equal Treatment and Ethnic Origin which forbids discrimination and harassment on the basis of race and ethnic origin, the Danish Act on Non-Discrimination which prohibits discrimination on any ground such as race, nationality, and ethnic background, and Section 266 B Subsection One of the Criminal Code which allows for sentences of a maximum of two years for discrimination based on race, nationality, and ethnic origin, with the possibility of a greater sentence if the discrimination originated in hate crime. The Danish government has also established the Danish Complaint Committee for Ethnic Equal Treatment to allow the protection of citizens and immigrants from unequal treatment.

 

Recently, the Danish government has not passed any legislation concerning racial discrimination but still continues to prohibit all forms of prejudice based on race and ethnicity as expressed in Denmark’s past legislation. Even though Denmark prohibits racial and ethnic discrimination, the Danish government encourages the integration of all immigrants and ethnic minorities into Danish society to create a homogenous welfare state and to protect Denmark’s egalitarian and secular values. For this reason, Denmark has tightened its immigration policy to protect those seeking to immigrate to Denmark as it is difficult for the Danish government to provide welfare protection to the increasing amount of individuals seeking to immigrate to Denmark, as well as protect their own citizens. It has also been difficult for the Danish government to successfully integrate the immigrant community already present in Denmark into Danish society. The Danish government does not wish to compromise on immigration policy, but would rather like to protect Denmark’s welfare system and to integrate migrants and refugees that are already in the country.

  • Denmark
  • Courtney Parkhouse

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Committee: General Assembly, SOCHUM 

Topic: Combatting Racism and Xenophobia

Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

 

Over the last several centuries, regardless of specific circumstances, racism and xenophobia have allegedly marginalized groups of people. They accuse governments and people of discriminating against them on the grounds of race.  They cry when the citizens of a nation resist their cultural imperialism after an invasion. Why does it surprise them that the people of the DPRK love to share one beautiful culture? We have no need to change. Our people do not demand change. The United Nations intensely focuses on this idea of “racism.” The 2001 and 2009 meetings in Durban showcase their obsession with the concept. However, the DPRK alone correctly identifies this focus as a time and resource waste as the supposed xenophobia and racism is, in fact, only truly prevalent in the western imperialist nations; the DPRK has no need for such discussions.  

In our glorious, sovereign country, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, racism and xenophobia are not issues. The international community, especially the western imperialists have falsely accused our great nation of such oppression.These accusations are nothing short of slanderous and false. The one, true Korea  properly protects our culture and people from the misleading, corruptive influence of treasonous foreigners. Our country has passed countless pieces of legislation in order to protect our people. We have set in place certain quotas for tourism and visiting in our country so that the foreigners can see what our great culture has to offer, but not in an amount that can harm the supreme and pure culture they came to visit. 

The word “xenophobia” implies that there is a fear. The very word itself when broken down means the fear of foreigners. But this does not apply to the DPRK. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is not afraid of any person, country, idea, or race. Rather, the DPRK wishes to only protect the pure race and pure ideals that it has harbored for so long. The DPRK believes that without the influence of the western imperialists it will continue to thrive for millenia to come, but there is danger when the purity of Korea has been dirtied with the influence of other, less perfect systems from around the world. For that reason the DPRK sees racism or xenophobia as not being problems that the UN should be addressing. The UN should be putting its time and resources into protecting the member states from each other, and protecting the cultures of the states involved, instead of using its resources for aiding in the ideological invasion of civilized cultures under the guise of “fighting racism and xenophobia”.

  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Jonathan Andrews

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