September 16, 2019
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International Drug Trade

General Assembly: Special Political Committee (SPECPOL)

Topic: International Drug Trade

The international drug trade is a global issue for one simple reason – by and large, the countries where illegal drugs are grown or manufactured and those where they are most often consumed are separated by thousands of miles, often with oceans between them. The Ten Year Agreement of 1907, and the Hague Opium Conference of 1912, sparked the beginnings of what would become a robust collection of international frameworks to stem and regulate the flow of the international drug trade. Countries met to discuss import and export regulation, smuggling prevention, and restrictions on manufacturing drugs – all topics still discussed today – and the treaty that emerged from the Hague Conference would set the tone for decades to come: urging much but requiring very little of states.

From one perspective, the international control system for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances can be considered one of the twentieth century’s most important achievements in international cooperation; over 95 percent of the members of the United Nations are states parties to the three conventions: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988. Yet, since their adoption, the number of substances controlled under the convention has risen, and the demand for narcotic and psychotropic substances has dramatically increased. Already complex drug production, trafficking, and sales networks have become embedded within larger criminal networks like gangs, cartels, and terrorist organizations, operating in places as varied as Central and South America, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and the so-called “Golden Triangle” of Southeast Asia, to name a few. These networks have only grown and become more sophisticated through advances in technology and social media.

As such, even with these major international conventions, and widespread support, the international drug trade still presents a major challenge to the international community. Many points of contention arise surrounding legalization of different controlled substances in different countries, views on whether demand- or supply-side reduction is more effective, and how to frame the issue of drug abuse and addiction, with some countries treating it as a public health hazard, others as a criminal offense, and some straddling that divide. SpecPol is tasked with discussing these challenges and more to develop a solution, to supplement pre-existing regulations and better curb the international drug trade. At what point in the process of production, trafficking, sale, and use should governments intervene? Should the target be supply-side reduction, demand-side reduction, or both? How can countries coordinate efforts to quell drug production, trafficking, and sales without impeding national sovereignty?

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Submitted Position Papers

Committee: SPECPOL

Topic: International Drug Trade

Country: The Hellenic Republic

Delegate: Caroline Janei, FH Northern HS

Across the world, illegal substances are being manufactured and transported in many countries, harming all people that use them. The international drug trade has affected undeveloped countries most of all. Even if there are few to none drug manufacturers in the country, substances are still being transported into the country. When these substances, such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and more, get introduced to areas with poverty, they are easily accessible, plunging that population into further hardship.

In the Hellenic Republic, there are some known cocaine manufacturers and distributors, as there are in much of Europe. Currently, though, all drugs and alcohol are illegal in Greece. There has especially been an increase of government forces trying to repress the usage of nitrous oxide.

 

Greece suggests the decriminalization of illegal substances in developed countries. In the past, it has been proven that developed countries that have decriminalized specific illegal substances saw a decrease in the usage of those substances. Greece proposes to fund and provide rehabilitation for repeat substance abusers to help them improve their life quality as well as decrease the use of drugs. The Hellenic Republic also advises tightening border control as well as the inspection and security of transportation, such as freights, trains, etc., to stop these substances from entering other countries.

  • : The Hellenic Republic
  • : Caroline Janei

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Special Political Committee

International Drug Trade and Libya 

Canada 

Giremt Benyam, Forest Hills Northern High School 

 

The international drug trade has negatively affected our world through its disregard for government laws, it’s greed, and it’s supplementation of harmful addictions. The circulation of drugs has been going on for centuries, beginning with medicinal purposes in ancient history and becoming largely used for recreational purposes by the twentieth century. The increased use of these drugs lead to substance abuse, which drove the international drug trade to become an illegal drug trade. 

Canada has only been negatively affected by non medicinal drug use, as drug addiction is not welcomed by any nation. In Canada specifically, opioid hospitalizations have been on the rise since 2013, which is why in 2013 we assured a more strict adherence to the medicinal-use-only rule by replacing the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations with the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations. 

Canada firmly believes that drug use and the international drug trade has no place within its borders (with the exception of medicinal uses) and should be treated as such with a zero tolerance policy. This position is in the best interest of our country, proven by studies which show that the prevalence of substance use disorders is highest across Eastern Europe and the U.S. When compared to other industrialized nations such as those, Canada has a more strict exclusion of drugs from it’s society. Therefore we reduce the amount of drugs being used in the country, which subsequently reduces the amount of drug abuse in the country. We uphold the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, which is our federal drug control statute. 

 

While the International Drug Trade does not take such a heavy toll on Canada as it does to other countries, it still needs reforming regulations to further limit the cases of substance abuse and addiction in Canada. We could put the same impact on the rest of the world through drug trade regulations in the U.N. After all, if the international drug trade decreases, overall drug use in individual nations will naturally decrease as well.

 

  • : Canada
  • : Giremt Benyam

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Angela Xu

Troy High School

     The Commonwealth of Australia expresses deep concern over the frequently expanding trade of illegal drugs, of which has posed a growing threat to the well being of our nation. More than 40% of Australia’s population over the age of 14 has used illicit drugs at least once, a third of which use them more than once a year. 1The influence of drugs stretches far and wide: the 3 million individuals in Australia who use them not only pose a huge risk to their health, but also to the wellness of their families, communities, and countries. While the international community has made significant progress in combating the international drug trade, the establishment of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2 and the International Drug Control Program, along with the efforts of many nations, has not been nearly enough to combat this continuously growing problem. The lack of regulation in regards to the international trade of illicit drugs and the high demand for drugs has been responsible for 250,000 annual deaths around the globe. 3 In order to put a halt to this number, an international approach to regulating the trade and use of illicit drugs is needed. Australia hopes to base an international solution on its National Drug Strategy, a ten year plan established by the national government in 2017, which emphasizes long term solutions in combating this issue. This plan is designed to create a balanced approach in combating drug use with three initiatives: supply reduction, demand reduction, and harm reduction. 4 The delegation of Australia hopes to lead the international community in fighting drug use by implementing aspects of its National Drug Strategy on a global scale. We express our concerns about the lack of regulation on production and distribution of drugs and a need for a reduction in demand. To reduce supply, Australia urges member states to enact stricter regulations and border control, along with coordination with intelligence and enforcement agencies. In order to reduce demand, we advocate for the coordination between health and law enforcement branches in order to spread awareness, implement policies, and provide facilities. 4 On a domestic scale, Australia emphasizes the importance of availability of resources for the prevention of drug abuse, and for the treatment of individuals recovering from drug-related problems. The increase of government-funded treatment facilities and rehabilitation centers in Australia have made a huge difference in the quality of life for those recovering from the misuse and addiction of drugs. Australia’s Local Drug Action Team Program has successfully established 244 teams across the country that work with local communities to spread awareness and to minimize risks of drug use. 5 Due to the positive outcomes these programs have had in our country, our delegation hopes to implement programs similar to these globally. 

  • : Australia
  • : Angela Xu

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Rachel Kozlowski

Country: Hungary

Topic: International Drug Trade

International drug trade is defined as the global black market for the distribution and production of illegal drugs such as opiates, cannabis, and heroin. The legality of these drugs are disputed among countries, which contributes to the need for illegal trade, which with it brings drug-related criminal activity. New psychoactive substances (NPS) also pose a challenge to governments due to their rising popularity and competition with established drugs. 

The Delegation of Hungary believes that supply reduction, drug prevention, drug recovery, and educating the public is the best option to combat International drug trade. The possession, consumption, and purchase of illegal drugs is a criminal offence in Hungary, with drugs such as cannabis, heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamines falling into this category. Hungary is a popular country in the “Balkan” heroin trade route, but the amount of heroin seized has remained relatively small in recent years. Cannabis is by far the most popular illegal drug in Hungary, with seizures steadily rising. To combat the rising use of illegal drugs in Hungary, the government adopted a new prevention policy program part of National Anti-Drug Strategy 2013-20, which is primarily funded by the state’s annual grant system. 

 

The delegation of Hungary proposes a solution with an emphasis on the supply and demand side reduction in international drug market. Hungary believes demand should be reduced with the criminalization of drugs and promotion of health through education. Supply should be reduced by improvement of law enforcement and a zero tolerance policy for any illegal drug activity.

  • : Hungary
  • : Rachel Kozlowski

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Committee: SPECPOL (International Drug Trade)

Country: Saudi Arabia

International Drug Trade

Although drug trafficking has remained a common facet of human culture all throughout history, it was only forty years ago when the world collectively declared a now modern reincarnation on this ongoing issue, titled “War on Drugs.” However, after decades of failing to adequately control drug consumption, many scholars and government officials have come to regard the war on drugs as a failure of epic proportions. Now, with a declared world GDP of $36 trillion USD, the illegal drug trade is estimated to be nearly 1% of total global trade, making it very difficult to suppress the popularity of the industry.

Albeit that Saudi Arabia’s conservative cultural and religious norms discourage drug abuse and has no appreciable drug production nor is a significant transit country, it fully recognizes the gravity of this issue and has placed a high priority on combating narcotics abuse and trafficking, acknowledging that illegal drug consumption and trafficking are on the rise in last few decades. Saudi Arabia punishes narcotics-related crimes harshly, and narcotics trafficking is a capital offense enforced against Saudis and foreigners alike. That being said, Saudi Arabia has also begun establishing infancy regulatory prevention initiatives: educational campaigns in the media, health institutes, and schools are now being targeted towards the Saudi youth, as we understand that quelling this issue begins by instilling healthy roots in the country. Additionally, it backed the technical cooperation activities of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, submitted by the Secretary-General in his report on “International Cooperation Against the World Drug Problem.”

 

Saudi Arabia wholly supports regulating the production and trafficking of illicit drugs and substances, having begun to combat the scourge of drugs even in neighboring countries. The focal points of that policy are directed towards prevention, discouraging initial use of drugs, decrease of drug- related crimes, elimination of tolerance towards teenage drinking and early intervention strategies. Smaller nations need training, technology and assistance to help deal with internal drug problems in order to be part of the international effort to combat drugs. New and improved mechanisms are needed for communication and coordination across borders in regard to illegal drug activities. Saudi Arabia acknowledges that the traffic and trade in illicit drugs is multinational, operating without regard to political or geographical boundaries. No one country can win the fight against illegal drugs alone. This delegate would ask that any country with similar views consider joining the efforts to form a committee dedicated to fulfilling this policy of prevention, quelling this issue of drug trafficking from its very core foundations. 

  • : Saudi Arabia
  • : Katie Zhao

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International Drug Policy

As the problem of narcotic and drug abuse increases world wide, Sri Lanka is a major factor in the increase of the transportation and distribution of these drugs. The drug trafficking and abuse problem has been a problem for multiple decades in our world even though the United Nations and other countries have discussed solution for this problem. As the use of cannibas and opium or narcotic based drugs increasing rapidly through countries the delegation of Sri Lanka would like to solve this issue and this world issue quickly and efficiently. Multiple countries have come up with treaties like the the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988. But these resolutions created during the conventions have not put a dent in this rising issue. The issue is still expanding with the use of advances in technology and social media and these issues have sophisticated ever since.

 

The delegation of Sri Lanka is in a major crisis and is issued with these problems. The country is a major hub for the transportations of cocaine and cannibis due to its association with the “Golden Triangle”. This is also leading too major spikes of drug abuse in the country which was not a very harsh factor in previous decades. The spike in the use has caused the economy to deplete due to the $3 million in drug use everyday. The annually salary of a worker is $2.50 and usage of drugs had decreased this by 75%.  Sri Lanka is one of the major suppliers of drugs to Southern Asian countries like India because of its close proximity. The Sri Lankan government has placed multiple policies like the National Policy for the Prevention and Control of Drug Abuse of 2005 and the Presidential Task Force on Drug Prevention. But none of these policies and task forces have affected the usage and importation.

 

The Sri Lankan police has been a major factor in stopping the drug importation. The law enforcements have confiscated over $108 million of cocaine and made over 80,000 arrests. We as a country would like to receive fund from financially developed countries to invest in our law enforcements. We would like to add other facilities to their forces to increase the confiscation rate and arrests rates. Another solution is to increase political policy by getting more citizens involved in the policies to promote less importation of drug use.

  • : Sri Lanka
  • : Arya Prasad

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Delegate: Rena Foo

Country: The Republic of Colombia

Committee: Special Political Committee

Topic A: International Drug Trade

     The international drug trade and drug trafficking are persistent issues that go hand in hand and leave no part of the world untouched. United Nations’ “war on drugs” approach has always had the good intention of eliminating the illegal drug market but significant changes need to be made to its drug control policies. Drug trade readily affects human rights, health, security and the development of countries, therefore Colombia believes that the international community must comply with shared principles and responsibility. Colombia is an illicit producer of drugs like coca, opium, poppy, and cannabis. The country has earned the title as the world’s top producer of cocaine and coca cultivator. Ever since 2017, coca production has reached an all-time high, as Colombia continues to supply to nearly the entire US market and various other international markets. The main goal is to bring that down. Colombia has recently begun the NCPS or National Comprehensive Programme for the Substitution of Crops Used for Illicit Purposes. It is the institution with the authority to lead the planning, implementation, environmental regeneration and evaluation for crop substitution. There have been safer, larger eradication efforts, with 17, 642 hectares removed without the use of aerial chemicals and 37,000 hectares in total. Colombia encourages the participation of communities and institutions that combat corruption and trafficking. In order to minimize the negative effects of the drug trade without harming the large economy trade can provide, the Republic of Colombia supports the general idea of these three solutions – the eradication of illicit crops, strengthening of national and international drug regulation programs and cooperation policies between countries that address exporting and importing situations. By cutting off the supply of illicit drugs from its roots, it ensures that the rest of the process will be completely halted. Eradication methods should not include the use of wide-spread harmful chemicals. Instead, involve the farmers and producers themselves, to manually remove the crops and not infringe on their overall wellbeing. Going along with eradication efforts, states should have detailed policies that regulate the production and dispersion of drugs, and involving all members that participate in these processes. It could include conditions on eradication, trade routes, exports/imports, and legalization. These programs should aim to find a middle ground that does not risk the health of others but also does not exterminate income. In order for the program to be efficient and truly successful, everyone must abide by their part, mutually reinforcing the nature of this authority. Since the drug problem is such an international, complementary issue, the cooperation of states involved in the trade process is vital. A large drug economy in an exporting country can result in a large drug market in a consumer country. Colombia encourages developed and stronger countries to provide financial strength for the regulation of drugs in countries that frequently produce and do not have the resources to combat the negative aftermath. Every state in the process must do their part, by doing so and coming to a mutual agreement, all can thrive.

  • : Colombia
  • : Rena Foo

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  1. The International drug trade has been a highly distressing and complex issue for decades, and while there has been legislation and action taken- nothing has sparked a definite decline in the world-wide illegal exchange of drugs. Illegal drug trading internationally has stemmed back all the way to the Opium Wars in China during the mid 19th century, and continues to this today in policies like the war on drugs. This specific black market has manifested into numerous branches throughout history including the Vietnam War, the Medellin Cartel, and the Panamanian drug trade. The US has recorded over 60,000 drug related deaths in the year of 2017 itself, which is a fairly large number despite only looking at one country in a year’s time. The amount of drug related deaths have well crossed over the million mark and continues to rise on the daily due to inadequate regulation and enforcement. Today, we can see the international drug trade thrive within Mexican cartels run by drug Lords such as El Chapo, and we can even see the selling of illicit drugs in groups such as Al-Qaeda.

             In the US, the majority of the information on the International Drug Trade resides in a federal campaign known as the War on Drugs. The campaign became widely popular during President Nixon’s presidential term and has continued to this today. The war on drugs has expanded into territories like Mexico and Columbia in efforts to cut off the cartels from dealing into the United States. It is estimated that the United States spends upwards to 51 billion dollars on the war on drugs. The US has established a plethora of drug related agencies that keep track of and actively hunt down external drug forces, some of them are known as ONDCP, and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control. While the US has certainly devoted a generous amount of resources and time to the war on drugs, the Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs in 2011, declaring: “The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world.” Today, the US still remains under criticism for the colossal amounts of effort put into the fight against foreign and domestic drugs.

            The delegation of the United States believes that we as a committee should seek proactive solutions that revolve around seeking and restricting drug cartels and empires. We believe that an effective solution would include a heightened security and interception of drugs to prevent exports. The United States believes that there should be increased funding provided to developing countries in efforts to improve airport screening, and border patrol screening in efforts to limit the transportation of contraband. The United States also believes that an establishment of a UN Drug database be made that complies the investigation and research needed to convict drug criminals that would be mutually shared with all countries struggling with drug crimes or actively seeking to prohibit drug trafficking. We also deem is necessary that the countries heavily involved in housing large drug empires be especially cooperative and vigilant in hopes that they would be open to foreign aid monetarily and militarily. Lastly, we hope that those countries make an active effort to minimize law enforcement and government corruption through increased screening and transparency.

  • : United States of America
  • : Amrita Umamaheswaran

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Topic 1: International Drug Trade

Country: Syria

Delegate: Raeeda Rahman

 

            Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL) addresses the political issues of international countries, but focuses on decolonization-related items. The topic currently at hand is the international drug trade. The international drug trade has been evident throughout almost every country for centuries. The drug trade refers to the illegal manufacturing and trafficking of drugs. The various degrees of drug trade inhibiting laws are placed in each country, with no efficient way to prevent the illegal trade among countries. Syria believes to decrease, and eventually eliminate, the drug trade, more suppliers should produce these drugs and let natural economics take place and legalize some drugs, which will decrease the demand for drugs.

Through the UN, many countries have attended conferences, like the Hague Opium Conference of 1912, and settled to an agreement to stop drug control, the first of which was the The Ten Year Agreement of 1907. As expected, many of the new solutions discussed were implemented and consequently produced the opposite desired results. The amount of drugs increased and the demand for these drugs increased. In response, many countries have started to legalize drugs in hopes to decrease the demand. Other countries have strengthened their policies against such trade. While this may be logical for some countries, many of them face an even more dramatic increase in the demand. Each country will need to address this problem in a tactical manner to decrease this demand.

Many of these resolutions passed in previous conferences have failed. By implementing stricter laws, many drug cartels and gangs decide not to produce anymore in fear of getting caught. This is the desired effect of the resolution. But for the drug cartels that remained in their industry, both the demand and price of the product increases because of the lack of supply. This provides greater incentive for drug industries to produce illegal substances. Thus, the resolution eventually made the drug trafficking stay the same, if not increase. Such resolutions will not help any country and will not produce the intended results.

Similar to all the countries in this committee, Syria hopes to eliminate the drug trafficking occurring in its country. Syria has many terrorist groups trafficking drugs within its country for profit. Syria is very limited with its laws against illegal drugs because of these groups and the revenue it gains for the country. Syria currently faces more pressing issues than the narcotic problem, but still address this as a dilemma for the international community. Syria is a significant transmitter and packager of heroin, and it distributes these drugs to both the US and European countries. The Anti-Narcotics Directorate, created in 2002, within the government of Syria was created to help combat the narcotic drug usage and trafficking. Syria is hesitant to work with the US in direct programs containing US military, but Syria hopes to resolve its narcotic trade domestically. By increasing the supply, the narcotic drug trade does not inflict on national sovereignty and instead takes a natural course of action to decrease the demand. The demand will not only decrease but also firms will be reluctant to produce narcotics if the price it is sold at is much lower, a direct result of the increase in supply.

The international drug trade impacts every nation in this committee and must be stopped for health reasons. These drugs create both physical and mental dangers to the citizens of each nation. As a narcotic trafficker, Syria is attempting to stop this trade before it hits the markets in Europe and the US. The solution suggested will decrease demand and price, which is the final destination before eliminating the illegal drug trade. Syria has guaranteed that the solution will not infringe on national sovereignty, as it deals with industries and markets rather than government laws and regulations. To do this, the government will have to legalize and revoke anti-drug laws that inhibit the natural course of a free market.

  • : Syria
  • : Raeeda Rahman

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International drug trade has been an issue for centuries. In 1729, 1896, and 1800 Chinese authorities issued edicts against smoking opium being brought to China by the United Kingdom. By the early 19th century an illegal drug trade in China formed and because of this by 1838 the amount of Chinese opium addicts had grown between four a twelve million. The First Opium War (1839-1842) was later fought between the United Kingdom, and Qing-dynasty China. This war ended with a British victory and China was forced to allow British merchants to sell Indian grow opium. Later, In the United States between 1920 and 1933, the 18th amendment which banned alcohol was impossible to enforce which caused organized crime to increase creating the modern American Mafia which profited greatly from producing, smuggling, and selling liquor. At the beginning of the 21st century drug use greatly increased in North America and Europe, specifically Marijuana and cocaine. As a result international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel which smuggles many illicit drugs from South America North to Mexico so that it can be sold in the United states. After a rise of recreational drug use United States President Richard Nixon made a declaration of war against drugs in 1971 starting what became known as the war on drugs.

Peru is one of the top three coca bush producers in the world and has over 60,000 hectares of its land being under cultivation in 2011. The coca bush produced in Peru is often sent to Columbia to be turned into the drug cocaine which can then be transported to the United States; however Cocaine produced in Peru can be transported almost globally thanks to Peru’s Pacific coastline and ports. UNDOC’s alternative development program works closely with the Peruvian government and farmers to find viable alternatives to coca bush cultivation. This project aims to help farmers find licit, profitable alternatives to growing coca bushes such as palm oil, cacao, and eucalyptus. By giving farmers these alternatives peru is able to facilitate lucrative markets as well as help farmers increase their income in the short term and allow themselves to become established in a sustainable way. In the 1990s to peruvian President Alberto Fujimori started a campaign in an attempt to stop cocaine from being transported over Peru’s borders. The military campaign proved successful when production of coca bush moved from Peru into columbia. Over time however cocaine production slowly returned to Peru.

 

Peru suggests that as a solution to end the international drug trade is that countries where illicit drugs or the base ingredients for these drugs target production to cut off the supply so no more may be produced or distributed again. This method proved to be successful in Columbia when with aid from the US destroyed 1,300 square kilometers of mature coca which was estimated to have been able to produce 500 metric tons of cocaine which would have generated about $100 million in illegal income for drug sellers and other crime organizations. One other solution to help stop drug trade is to tighten security in airports and seaports. Lima, the capital of Peru, is a popular spot for drug mules. The Lima International Airport is where most of the smuggling occurs. On average drug mules carry 2 kilograms of cocaine for around $3,000. If airports and seaports could be equipped with  better or extra security we could potentially stop more drugs from leaving the country.

  • : Peru
  • : Nicholas Lagazo

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The Special Political and Decolonization Committee

International Drug Trade

The Commonwealth of The Bahamas

Joshua Hay

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The illegal international drug trade is a pressing issue due to the global harm it causes every year. The countries and criminals illegally manufacturing and selling drugs are spread all throughout the world. This causes major upsets and problems in controlling the trade, and leads to up to an average of 1,600 drug related deaths in the Bahamas per year. The United Nations have already had three conventions addressing drug control that 95 percent of members belong to: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988. However, since the conventions’ adoptions, the number of narcotic and illicit drugs has continued to rise. The UNODC (United Nations office on drug control) has met in the past to discuss import and export regulations, smuggling prevention, and restrictions on manufacturing drugs. Unfortunately, the illegal trade still continues today- even expanding due to social media and technology becoming a cornerstone for criminality. As such, it is  now necessary for the United Nations to reach a decision on how to control universal drug trade for the safety of the world’s people and economy.

 

Due to the Bahamas’ massively open borders, we are a major site for drug trafficking. Traders use the Bahamas’ optimal location to transport drugs to large supply and demand countries and locations including North, South, and Central America. To combat these illegal operations, the Bahamian law enforcement teamed up with the United States in 1982 for operation Bahamas Turk Caicos. Annual seizures of cocaine and marijuana measured in the tons. Seizures of more deadly drugs including heroin and psychotropic substances, were rare. The drug trade is now regarded as one of the biggest roots of crime in the Bahamas. Drug traffickers are estimated to run a 300 billion dollar industry globally, meaning the crimes show no signs of stopping. Relating to this, Bahamian drug overdose rates have gone up 73 percent since 2015, showing that action must be taken quickly. The National Anti Drug Secretariat  (NADS), a unit of the ministry of national security, has already been established as an NGO in the Bahamas to bring focus onto the Bahamian and world drug abuse problem. They have teamed up with other NGOs in the past to help combat drug trading through meetings and anti drug days.

 

The Bahamian government has already had major success in cutting down on drug trafficking and use. This being due to partnering with wealthier, neighboring countries to help seize illegal substances. The Bahamas propose teaming up with nearby countries including, but not limited to, Haiti, The United States, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, and Cuba. CARICOM, the carribean community, already supports working in unity to stop illegal trade through our territories. There will be supporting law enforcement in our country, and patrolling our seas, starting a new operation. They also propose that the UN take a similar approach throughout the largest trafficking areas, and increase border and naval control on drugs. It is clear that national unity is the strongest way to combat this problem.

  • : The Commonwealth of the Bahamas
  • : Joshua Hay

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The International Drug Trade is a continuously growing issue within our world. Though member states have met to address such an issue, no suitable solution has been found to substantially affect this problem. Solutions to stop the cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and sale of illicit drugs on a global scale have taken the form of the three treaties: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988. Even with these three treaties, the rate of drug use has been increasing by a rate of 3.7% per year and has shown no signs of stopping.

 

In the State of Palestine, a recent study conducted by the National Institute of Public Health in Ramallah has revealed that drug use has been spreading heavily through Palestine, mainly through women and youth, where 80% of high-risk drug users started using drugs at the age of 17. Palestine has a clear problem arising through the global trade of illicit drugs and this problem is targeting the youth of our nation. Palestine will do whatever it takes to protect this youth as long as it abides by the principles of Shari’a or Islamic law.

  • : Palestine
  • : Navid Hasan

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The delegation of the Federal Republic of Germany acknowledges the massive impact that drug use and the international drug trade have on all nations. The international drug trade is an extremely serious and rapidly growing problem. The leading drug used is cannabis, with 188 million users. Internationally, opium, which is another drug, seizures reached a new record in 2003.[1] Over 13.3% of young Germans have used cannabis, usually grown in Morocco, a growing problem in Germany. Recognizing this, the German government has implemented several programs to decrease drug supply and demand. Foremost among these is the National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy, implemented in 2012. Its primary methods are prevention, counseling, harm reduction, and supply reduction.[2] Additionally, Crystal methamphetamine produced in Czechia is consistently smuggled in through Germany’s southern border. Seizures of this drug have occurred as far west as Saarland, a small state by the French border.[3]

            Taking this into account, the delegation of Germany believes that the reduction of the drug trade should begin with reducing demand via programs aimed at young adults. This should be coupled with forcing large drug producers like Morocco to crack down on the drug trade, at risk of sanctions. With unstable drug-producing countries, such as Afghanistan, existing troops and forces should attempt to cause greater disability and slowed production to drug production facilities. Recognizing that counseling is highly effective at reducing addiction and drug use, greater counseling programs should be implemented to reduce demand. As an incentive for counseling, drug offenders or traders could have a choice between serving their full sentences in prison or serving a reduced sentence with a period of mandatory counseling. The cost of spending the full time in prison could be used to pay for this education, which would drastically reduce demand for illegal drugs. What should be another core tenet is a focus on more liberal drug use laws, as strict laws have been shown to change the demographic involved in the drug trade to criminals, leading to criminal gangs and violence. The present seriousness of the solution is partially because of the stricter drug laws in response to the criminal problems caused by these laws, showing their negative effect. Strict, prohibitive laws also result in massive expenditures of money for an effort that is mostly futile anyway, because the stricter the law is, the harder it is to enforce. [5] In combination with the above programs, increased awareness programs among border guards and citizens in the most prone regions to drug trade could increase apprehension of distributors and buyers.         

 


[1] WORLD DRUG REPORT 2019 (SET OF 5 BOOKLETS). UNITED NATIONS, 2019. 

[2] Luyken, Jörg. “10 Things You Should Know about Illegal Drug Use in Germany.” The Local, The Local, 25 July 2017, https://www.thelocal.de/20170725/10-things-you-should-know-about-illegal-drugs-in-germany.

[3] “Germany Country Drug Report 2017.” European Monitering Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction, European Monitering Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2017, http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/system/files/publications/4528/TD0416906ENN.pdf. 

[4] Luyken, Jörg. “10 Things You Should Know about Illegal Drug Use in Germany.” The Local, The Local, 25 July 2017, https://www.thelocal.de/20170725/10-things-you-should-know-about-illegal-drugs-in-germany.

[5] Hudak, John. “UNGASS and the Consequences of International Drug Policy.” Brookings, Brookings Instituition, 29 July 2016, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2016/04/07/ungass-and-the-consequences-of-international-drug-policy/.

  • : Germany
  • : Jameson Gerrits

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Special Political Committee

The International Drug Trade

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Jesse Yang

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The problem of the international drug trade is growing larger and larger every day. There are markets for illegal drugs all over the world, but one of the worst is located in Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, Myanmar happens to be in the dreaded “Golden Triangle”, where the countries of Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand produce much of the world’s opium, heroin, and more recently, methamphetamines. Opioids have really taken control of Myanmar, with around 37,000 hectares (around 90,000 acres) of land dedicated to the cultivation of poppies. Myanmar is the second largest opium producer in the world, as well as one of the largest producers of amphetamine-like stimulants. It is our goal to lower that in order to benefit the world.

 

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is one of the three countries of Southeast Asia’s “Golden Triangle”, along with Laos and Thailand. This means that it is one of the world’s largest producers of drugs such as opium and heroin. Myanmar believes in eradicating this title from the country, as opium fields are sweeping the east and north parts of our nation. Myanmar has taken large steps towards eradicating the poppy fields, with only 37,300 hectares (92,000 acres) in 2018. This number pales in comparison to the 55,500 hectares (137,000 acres) recorded in 2015, a more than 25% decrease. Unfortunately, Myanmar has been unable to take larger steps towards eradication due to the problem of increased conflict throughout the country, with the Myanmar government focusing efforts on trying to protect its citizens and country from a group of ethnic rebels. This allows the opium fields to continue growing and developing under a blind eye, giving them a safe haven in the areas of Myanmar known as Shan and Kachin.

 

The international drug crisis is in clear need of a solution. The Republic of the Union of Myanmar proposes to tackle the problem by using mostly supply-side prevention tactics. By placing tighter restrictions around international, national, and local trade, the less likely countries such as Afghanistan, Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand are able to export the mass amount of product they produce. Targeting specific offenders would also be very beneficial. By preventing one of the largest exporters of amphetamines, opium, heroin, or any other hard drug from selling their goods, it drastically injures the market of international drug trade. If Afghanistan had tightened restrictions and was unable to participate in the trade, then many countries in Europe would lose their main exporter of opium. However, Myanmar does realize the benefits of demand-side prevention. Better education of these topics in developed and developing countries would benefit the world by teaching children about the horrors of drug use, therefore handicapping the market in the future. A combination of supply-side prevention and demand-side prevention would present itself with immediate benefits and lowered trade, as well as a concrete base to build off of in order to stop the drug trade for future generations to come.

  • : The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
  • : Jesse Yang

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One of the largest problems faced by the international community today is the problem of the drug trade, affecting nearly every corner of the world. Many previous conventions have been adopted by the United Nations in an attempt to curtail the drug trade, but demand has kept growing. Drug trafficking and other related business has become embedded into many major criminal organizations, operating all around the world. Legalization, reduction of demand and supply, drug abuse, and addiction are all problems that must be handled by the international community.

 

Most countries do not have a drug problem as large and as widespread is that of Indonesia. Not only is it located near the Southeast Asian Golden Triangle, which produces much of the world’s opium supply, Indonesia is located between the major trafficking routes that link the Golden Triangle to Australia as well. Drug abuse in Indonesia kills an average of 40 people in a day. In 2011, there were an estimated 3.7-4.7 million drug addicts in the whole country, which increased to 5.6 million in 2015. Drug use is dominated by cannabis, heroin, and methamphetamine. Domestic production of amphetamine type stimulants in particular has skyrocketed over the past years. Indonesia has taken a harsh stance on the drug trade by enacting strict laws. Currently, Indonesia has in place a death penalty for drug traffickers. 18 drug traffickers were executed from 2015-2016. However, multiple services have been made available for drug users, including counseling, psychological treatment, and HIV testing.

 

Despite current efforts, drug demand and supply remains high. Indonesia wishes to work together with its brothers in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to tackle the problem of the Golden Triangle, as well as to deal with cross-border trafficking and coordinating drug busts and arrests with other nations. Indonesia believes that international drug prevention should be through the prevention of the transportation of drugs across borders. With better patrol of the land and seas would come a diminished supply of drugs into all nations. For this to happen, Indonesia supports greater law enforcement support and funding.

  • : Indonesia
  • : Sebastian Padilla

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Republic of Estonia

Special Political Committee(SPECOL): International Drug Trade

 

International Drug Trade has been an ongoing problem for a number of countries. From the article ‘Global drugs trade ‘as strong as ever’ as fight fails’ on the CNBC website “According to data from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and European crime-fighting agency Europol, the annual global drugs trade is worth around $435 billion a year, with the annual cocaine trade worth $84 billion.”  Which makes the illegal act of drug trading higher in recent years than ever before. Later in the article is also states “drugs account for 50 percent of international organized crime income.” With theses illegal actions happening within every country it is hard to track where it’s coming from and going to.

Estonia has been seizing cannabis more than any other drug within our country.  As well, our police force has been tracking more around the borders.  The INTERPOL website states “The INTERPOL NCB  for Estonia is a part of the Intelligence Management Bureau, a unit of the Estonian Police and Border Guard Board. It is staffed by 60 police and civilian crime specialists and plays a central role in preventing the country and surrounding region from serving international organized crime.” Which is just one way that Estonia has been taken into action for regulating the Drug Trade. 

With our country bordering Russia and Latvia and sharing the Baltic Sea with Finland and Sweden, the ways of smuggling are endless.  In recent years, in the Europen Drug report shows that Sweden has higher rates of Number of cannabis resin seizures than any other Eastern countries in Europe. Which leads us to believe that most of the imports are coming across the sea. 

We have two plans of actions going through Estonia for the International Drug Trade(also known as the Illicit Drug Policy).  The first course is The National Health Plan 2009-20; It’s purpose is to seek reduction and prevention of the consumption of both narcotic substances and social as well the health damage inflicted by drug use. This plan is overseen by our Minister of Social Affairs and holds overall responsibility. AS the other one is  The White Paper on Drug Prevention Police. This was adopted on January 2014. The White Paper on Drug Prevention Police elaborates on our Illicit Drug Trade policy. Which both are followed by the European Union. 

  • : Estonia
  • : Ava Wilberding

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Committee: Special Political Committee

Topic: International Drug Trade & Libya

Country: Costa Rica

 

For the last couple of decades, the International Drug Trade has become a huge problem in many countries. Drug trafficking is a global illicit trade involving the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. Crime groups involved in drug trafficking are typically involved in a range of criminal activity, so action against drug trafficking can simultaneously impact illegal firearms, human trafficking, modern slavery, production of false documentation etc. The U.S. government has spent over $1 trillion on counter-narcotics efforts, both domestically and in Latin America and the Caribbean, since declaring a “war on drugs” in the 1970s. I will be talking about Costa Rica’s position on this topic and incorporate their feelings of Libya. 

To start of this paper, I would like to talk about Costa Rica and Libya. Honestly, there is not much relation between these two countries. Back in 2011, the Costa Rican government issued an official statement supporting military actions against Moammar Gadhafi forces in Libya. According to the document, Costa Rica backs any effort required to protect Libyan citizens, including the latest resolution issued by the Security Council of the United Nations to create a no-fly zone in the country. “Costa Rica believes that governments have the responsibility of protecting civilians in case of conflicts. In the Libyan case, [Costa Rica] strongly condemns the severe violations against human rights and international laws perpetrated by the Gadhafi regime against unarmed citizens” (Document). Not only does Costa Rica have this problem with Libya, but many other Latin American Governments do as well.

 

Furthermore, Costa Rica also has many opinions about drugs and the drug trade. Drug trafficking is a global illicit trade involving the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. Drugs and drug trafficking have been blamed for the increased violence, and it’s not clear the government can mount an effective response. Michael Soto, the deputy director of Costa Rica’s judicial investigation body, said 48% of the deaths stemmed from gang violence, while 25% were related to drug trafficking. It has become a huge problem in the country. Costa Rican security officials have said they are not able to stop drug traffickers from making use of their territory. Hopefully we can create some kind of resolution to this huge dilemma for Costa Rica.

 

  • : Costa Rica
  • : Dahai Yonas

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Bella Centilli, Mattawan High School

Kenya

SPECPOL: International Drug Trade

 

The international drug trade is an issue that has not gone away, and one that has only grown.   Though countries have met to discuss import and export regulation, smuggling prevention, and restrictions on manufacturing drugs, and a treaty was developed from the Hague Conference that set a precedent for the following years, it was not very effective.  The number of drugs controlled has risen, but so has the demand for these drugs. It really comes down to questions such as at what point should the government intervene in the drug process? Should the focus be on supply or demand reduction or both? How can countries work together to stop the production, trafficking, and sale without violating one’s national sovereignty?

 

Kenya has become one of the biggest drug trafficking hubs in the world.  Its poorly monitored coast makes it easy for drugs to be smuggled into the country.  Once in Kenya, they then choose where to send them, greatly adding to the spreading of heroin, cocaine, and other narcotics.  Because this is growing more and more common in the country, drugs such as heroin are now cheap, making it easier for everyone to buy them.  Since so many people are trying hard drugs, the health of Kenyans is suffering severely. As well as the normal effects of the drugs, they also contract AIDS or hepatitis C because they don’t take precautions.  In order for this to stop, better laws need to be put in place that have a real impact.

 

Since the Kenyan coast is poorly monitored, if we get more people guarding it, it will decrease the number of drugs smuggled into the country.  This would then help to lower the number of drugs in circulation, leading to healthier Kenyans.

 

  • : Kenya
  • : Bella Centilli

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SUBMITTED TO: SPECPOL

FROM: South Korea

SUBJECT: International Drug Trade

 

The issue of increased drug trade has become a hot topic of both domestic and international politics. With a spike in opioid abuse as well as the development of synthetic drugs the use of hard drugs has increased tenfold in the past years. With limited international monitoring, trade has increased between nations. South Korea has seen a spike in drugs coming into our borders and exiting back into Asia. It is of South Korea’s utmost priority to halt these illegal trade practices taking place within our borders. Not only are our people put at risk but our allies and neighbors within Asia are feeling the overwhelming effects of drug influxes.

 

In order to halt these illegal trade the delegation of South Korea would like to see several points addresses. How can international waters be monitored? A majority of the drugs coming into South Korea come from oversea shipments. A new way of monitoring these shipments may be necessary in order to keep them from being used to move illegal substances. Second, many drugs hold different statuses in different nations, the delegation of South Korea would like to see clearer definitions and identifications of illegal and harmful substances. Without international definitions of illegal substances, there is an issue of illegal trade by incompetency. Where a user brings legal substances from their home nation to a nation that may qualify that substance as illegal. Third, how will international smugglers be punished? Each nation holds unique punishments for smugglers. An international process should be established by a review of precedent to create a mutually agreeable and beneficial method of punishment for international smugglers.

 

The nation of South Korea has been greatly affected by international drug trade for years. As a hot spot for trade into Asia South Korea is seeking help from fellow UN nations to revise and assist in the halt of the international drug trade.

  • : South Korea
  • : Katherine Mooney

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            The International drug trade has affected poorer countries, especially in Africa, due to dealers using countries like ours as a hub due to less security and the presence of authority. In 2014,  authorities found nearly 300kg of cocaine which led to our government taking action. A 2011 study found Dakar had more than 1,300 drug users, with an HIV infection rate of more than 9 percent.  Like many other countries in West Africa, Senegal has harsh punishments for any conviction of the possession of drugs. Our position on the legalization is clear: we will not be open to any drug legalization to corrupt our society already plagued with corruption, poverty and ethnic conflict. We will only be open to a resolution that supports our right to keep all drugs that have no medical use banned. Our sentiments are shared with other nations in West Africa and the rest of our continent. Having a society of addicts would only let us become more in debt and use more of our resources to build rehab programs and buildings. As for countering the international drug ring, the nation of Senegal will be open for a resolution that cracks down harsher on any organized drug trades, in addition to online websites in the dark web that offer such services. We recognize that the world is becoming more digital by the day and that dealers will utilize the anonymity of the internet to trade drugs, so it should be on us and other like-minded nations to adapt and overcome. We have already increased our punishment form 10-20 years of hard labor for drug trafficking, and urge our neighboring African nations and others to implement harsher punishments to counter the international trade of drugs. We have already seen in Mexico and Latin America when these cartels become powerful, and essentially take over the nation. Senegal does not and cannot handle another major dilemma.

 

  • : Senegal
  • : Tahaa Munir

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The United Nations estimates that the global drug market makes up 0.9% of the global GDP or roughly 360 billion USD. It’s a truly gigantic industry, and the backbone of organized crime and terrorist organizations the world over. The UN has in the past attempted to combat international drug trading, primarily in the 1970’s. They eventually found the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Bulgaria is at the crossroads of this global market, within Europe, roughly two-thirds of the Heroin smuggled in comes through Bulgaria.

 

  In the past Bulgaria has abstained from UN votes on Drug Trafficking in the 1970s. This was due to its being under soviet influence, who made its entire eastern bloc abstain from these votes. Though in the past we have had corruption issues with the drug trade, with many officials profiting from drug smuggling, we are, as of 2015,working to curb drug trafficking across our borders. We have also been working to stop drug production and distribution within our own borders. 

 

  Bulgaria entends to vote in favor of anti smuggling and papers that intend to cut off drugs at the source. I personally propose a solution that supports an international task force, such as UNODC, working with national governments to stomp out drug smuggling and cartels. They would work with the nation’s pre existing drug enforcement agencies to achieve this task. This program would be enacted in a nation only with the consent of the subject nation, as to not impose on them. This new program would be funded with a new fund pitched into by participating nations.

  • : Bulgaria
  • : Benjamin Grantonic

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

International Drug Trade

People’s Republic of China

Kyle Korte

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The People’s Republic of China has a long, contemptuous history with the International Drug Trade, beginning with the First Opium War from 1839-1842. A British victory in the Second Opium War (1856-1860) led the way to legalizing the Indian-Chinese Opium Trade, thereby forgoing any reasonable control on the substance. By the 1890s, nearly 15 million Chinese citizens were addicted. At the turn of the century, the British-sponsored trade sparked international outrage and anti-drug campaigns gained traction across the globe. After the First World War, the League of Nations brought the international community together to condemn the use of opium and other drugs; nations across the world began recognizing the unregulated or ill-regulated trade of drugs as an act of violence. China’s fight against drugs led to the international community’s embrace of drugs as a cause for national emergency. As such, China, and many other states in Asia, believe that drugs are a threat from the outside and the Chinese government takes the issues of illegal drugs and drug trafficking incredibly seriously. Past experiences prove that drugs undermine national security and the government’s ability to govern. The Chinese government, under Xi Jinping, will take any means necessary to protect our society from the harms of drugs.

 

China, and the international community, takes a strong stance against the use and trade of illicit substances. China has worked with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to combat illicit drug trade worldwide. In recent years, China has implemented a programme with the of of the UNODC to strengthen China-Pakistan border and fight cross-border trafficking at one of the highest crossing points in the world. China alone has imprisoned hundreds of thousands of offenders and will continue to take this strong approach to punish those found to be using or trading drugs. The drug problem is mainly one of western origin. From the British opium trade in the 1800s to the ongoing epidemic in the United States, Asian states must protect ourselves from these western evils. China has the best interest of its citizens in mind as the international community again assesses the international drug trade and ways to counter it.

 

The international drug trade cannot be undermined without a multilateral approach. Every state must recognize the dangers of drug use and punish the trading and use of them. Nonetheless, the importance of drugs is increasingly apparent. Drawing a line between helpful and harmful is tantamount to our campaign against drug trafficking. In the end, we must have a comprehensive plan, through education and strong action, to put an end to the illicit international drug trade once and for all. It will be necessary to defeat the demand for illicit drugs because no matter what measures we take to try and limit production, if there is a demand, there will be a market to meet it.

  • : People's Republic of China
  • : Kyle Korte

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Committee: Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL)

Topic: International Drug Trade

Country: Cuba 

Delegate Name: Grace Griemsman 

Last year alone Cuba seized over 2.4 tons of drugs, yet this was the least amount taken by the government over the past three years. Although there have been conferences and agreements set to help stop this dire issue, the regulation of drug trade around the world has done anything but help prevent this illegal, international transportation and consumption of drugs. Not only is this international drug trade becoming a problem for individual countries but it is also threatening the safety of the international community. 

Given the deep history of drugs in Cuba and the rapidly increasing consumption and production of drugs around the world, it is time to step up to this large-scale war on drugs. Looking at Cuba, over the past few years, many new efforts for the prevention and implementation have greatly increased as a way to reduce the effect of drugs on the citizens of Cuba, but Cuba is not just trying to help its own communities. With these new regulations, Cuba is using its geographical location as a stopping point for drug trade coming from other countries.

 

One main source of the illegal drug trade that many countries are oblivious to is the use of waterways and oceans as a means of transporting illegal drugs. Of the 2.4 tons of drugs seized by Cuban authorities, many came from the maritime routes. For Cuba, more than 90% of drug trafficking operations are carried out by oceans, but that doesn’t mean Cuba should be one of the only countries to seize drug trade at the sea. If more countries are able to seize drugs through maritime means this will help to prevent the wide-spread selling of drugs and get us one step closer to stopping the international drug trade. Therefore, Cuba believes that the UN must focus on minimizing the supply-side of the international drug trade and do this through higher regulation on the waters. 

  • : Cuba
  • : Grace Griemsman

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Country: Sweden 

Committee: SPECPOL

School: Williamston High School 

Topic: International Drug Trade 

Delegate: Molly Bowling

 

Drug production, trafficking and consumption affects every country in the world. Despite forty years of US-led international drug control efforts that prioritize eradication of production, interdiction of traffic, and criminalization of consumption, overall drug production, trafficking and consumption have remained consistently steady. Even in cases where eradication programs have lowered levels of production in one country, production is simply pushed into another country – this phenomenon is known as the “balloon effect”. This was the case in the 1980s and 1990s with coca production in Peru, Colombia and Bolivia and with opium production in Burma and Afghanistan. The resilience of the global drug market has led to drug trafficking becoming the world’s primary revenue source for organized crime and the illicit drug industry now accounts for an estimated $320 billion dollars annually. The United States and the United Nations, both of which have a great deal of influence on international drug laws, maintain a criminal justice rather than health-oriented approach. They also continue to promote ineffective eradication and interdiction policies in countries where drugs are produced. This sets the overall tone for global drug policy, so that the international community is locked into a model that promotes lucrative illicit markets dominated by organized crime.

The supply and abuse of drugs effects every country all over the world in one way or another. Drug use in Europe has been expanding over the past three decades, but Sweden is a notable exception. Drug use levels among students are lower than in the early 1970s. The key to the Swedish success is that the Government has taken the drug problem seriously and has pursued policies adequate to address it. Both demand reduction and supply reduction policies play an important role in Sweden. In addition, the Government monitors the drug situation, examines the policy from time to time and makes adjustments where they are needed.  Sweden is not located along major drug trafficking routes, and unemployment, including youth unemployment, is below the European average which reduces the risks of substance abuse. It is belived that the generally positive situation of Sweden is a result of the policy that has been applied to address the problem.  

 

Sweden has a zero tolerance policy for drugs and they encourage other countries to implement the same ideals. This has worked very well for Sweden in the past and it is still continuing to work today. We rely heavily on law enforcement, prevention, and abstinence-based treatment. This policy model emerged in the 1960s, following the rise in drug use that was observed across much of the developed world at that time. This has proven to drop the drug rate in our country and we believe it will work in others. We also want to implement help centers for those in need. This will allow those addicted to know that they have options to get clean and find help.

 

  • : sweden
  • : molly

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The International Drug trade is something that has always been prevalent and affects many lives around the world.  There are problems in finding out where these drugs are coming from and how to separate the legal and illegal ones.  But this is our job as a committee to find an effective solution that can bring an end to all of this madness. This is not a topic to be taken lightly and there is no opposing side to this.  This illegal drug trade must stop

 

Here in Nigeria the problem has been on the rise a lot as of late.  Most of these drugs are found to have originated in places such as Afghanistan and Latin America.  The decline and subsequent break down of the oil industry as well as new tariffs and restrictions on exported natural resources in the 1980s incentivized many Nigerians to turn to the less restricted drug trade. Over time, this has led to a global presence of Nigerian criminal networks centered around the drug trade and the creation of Nigerian DTOs, or Drug Trade Organizations.  Nigerian drug trafficking organizations are administered top down by drug barons who manage a mix of operators, or “strikers”, who work as intermediaries in building foreign relationships, administering drug sales, and faking legal documentation.

 

A good solution to this problem is to attack these drug barons directly and to find their ties and burn them too.  Along with doing this we should also give international aid to countries that are in need of help with drug addiction problems.  A country like Nigeria is just not rightfully equipped to deal with such problems and any aid at all would be very helpful and looked upon kindly by the Nigerian Government.

  • : Nigeria
  • : Connor Williams

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Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: International Drug Trade

Country: Israel

Delegate: Owen Hart, Forest Hills Northern High School

 

The International Drug Trade has become such a pervasive issue that a large majority of UN nations are privy to the three conventions pertaining to it: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988. Despite this widespread cooperation and concern the illegal trade has grown and spread rapidly along with criminal organizations to supply them. As with all large and complex problems, many types of solutions have been proposed, including whether to prevent the supply of drugs, their demand or a combination of the two. All while balancing the dispositions of the several countries involved in the trade.

The State of Israel is not a significant drug producing or trafficking country, but does have a significant domestic market. As a result, the State of Israel has implemented a comprehensive system to the prevention of demand for drugs domestically and working with other countries to prevent the supply. The State of Israel signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the UNODC to further its cooperation with the UN in countering drugs and crime. The Israel Anti-Drug Authority (IADA) has worked with other Israeli Ministries and NGO’s to create evidence based prevention and treatment programs are implemented throughout the country, targeting the general and at risk populations. The State of Israel signed a MoU with the Palestinian Authority allowing for information exchange regarding drug demand and supply reduction. IADA also works closely with MASHAV – the Center for International Cooperation of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, organizing courses for participants from developing countries around the world in Israel, and on-the-spot short term courses, given in the participants’ home countries.

 

The State of Israel believes that there are specific actions the United Nations should take to ameliorate the drug trafficking situation. The State of Israel believes that the UN facilitate and agreement to encourage countries to combat the drug trade domestically with multifaceted, evidence-based strategies. Also, the State of Israel believes the General Assembly should pass a resolution that recommends an exchange of information between nations and multilateral programs to assist developing countries where these substances are grown, both of which would  better combat international trafficking. This topic cannot be taken lightly, and the State of Israel seeks to ensure that action is taken to curtail this growing crisis.

 

  • : Israel
  • : Owen Hart

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In the 21st century, the international drug trade is arguably one of the biggest issues on the world scale. The markets created for these substances as well as the health concerns that go with them have prompted this concern. The Cote d’Ivoire supports cracking down on the abuse of these substances as well as the illegal smuggling of these products into our nation. This illicit market has become especially prevalent in the lives of young people. According to data found in surveys from various municipalities, roughly 17% of students have used hard drugs at least once in their lifetime. This alone is too high. By aiming to implement programs that increase national stability, the reach of this drug market can be decreased and broken down. The prevalence of these markets can only be attributed to recent conflict having destabilized the government. By this logic, the international drug trade can be taken care of through the rebuilding of law enforcement and judiciary agencies to carry out the law faithfully.

 

To mitigate the market issue here on the consumer level, we have begun an extensive program educating people on the dangers of drug use and the implications of them in terms of HIV/AIDS risk. This has not changed much of the drug issue. In fact, because of lower-level corruption in law enforcement officials, many smugglers have simply bribed officers into letting them pass. This has led to very few documented seizures of substances such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin.

  • : Cote d'Ivoire
  • : Ian Pardee

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The international drug trade is a pressing concern for this committee to address. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crimes up to “thirty-five million people in the world suffer from drug use disorders and require services”, and 585,000 thousand people died from drug use in 2017, and 271 million people used drugs in the last year which is 5.5% of the global population. This issue affects every country and isn’t foreign to France with 1.6% of our population being cited for Cocaine use in 2017 alone. In order to solve the issue of the international drug trade, a multi-faceted solution needs to be presented and include solutions to address the supply and demand for drugs. This is a problem that can’t be solved by any country on its own as much of the international drug trade occurs between at least two countries. The current regulations on the books aren’t stringent enough as the production of Coca Bush, Methamphetamine, and Opium poppy are either at or near record highs in production. In order to address the problem, the UNODC needs additional funding to help with border security, checkpoints, and seizure operations. Additionally, this committee should consider addressing the problem of current Drug Addicts by funding more extensive rehab programs. Lastly, financial aid programs to farmers in the areas of drug cultivation should be considered. If the committee successfully implements these reforms the UNODC can continue to strive to its mandate in 1997 of fighting the international drug trade.

  • : France
  • : Luke Spitzley

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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Special Political Committee(SPECPOL): International Drug Trade

 

Drug trafficking is an epidemic that has been spiraling out of proportion. 3.3 million die every year around the world because of drug use. Latin America faces a growing Amphetamines and Cocaine issue, with 40 percent being addicted to the drug. 50 percent of all people that seek addiction treatment in Africa are addicted to cannabis. North America is dealing with opioids and cocaine, while Europe is dealing with ecstasy and tranquilizers. Opiate addiction rages through much of Asia. Each part of the world is dealing with their individual drug issues, but it is the international black market trade of these drugs that perpetuate these epidemics 

 

Our nation-state of Algeria is not in a detrimental condition like many other parts of the world because of drug use. We have had 445 deaths related to drugs in 2017, with about 0.26% of all deaths were drug-related, which makes it the 92 worse countries for drug usage. Our concerns are primarily only one-two illicit substances; cannabis and hashish. The most commonly confiscated substance is hashish, in 2017 out government caught 52,609.91kg of the illicit resin as it was being brought into our nation across our southern region in the Sahara desert. Cannabis is a domestic issue in Algeria much like many other countries, meaning it is more often locally produced and sold around our nation, almost 30% of all the addiction treatment given was for cannabis. 

 

Morocco is one of Africa’s largest producers of cocaine. Many drug traffickers will trek through our southern borders to make it to Libya and other places were cocaine is in demand, most of it will be smuggled through camel-back from southern Morocco in Algeria. At other points, cocaine smuggler ships will spot at our port cities before going north across the Mediterranian to sell the drug to European nations. In 2017 a record amount of 701kg of cocaine was intercepted by our coastguard and seized by customs authorities in the port of Oran. 

 

Algeria is in a critical position to stop the spread of cocaine from Morocco, and we have been increasingly successful at stopping the issue, but now as the issue grows and smugglers get more creative it takes more resources to stop the drugs. If our nation had the financial strength we could cut off the flow of cocaine and end the drug’s usage in other European and African nations. In committee, we will be looking for resolutions that address nations like ours whose very territory is were these drug traders are moving substances through. International aide, or cooperating with NGOs and UN agencies in Algeria would allow us to more effectively and efficiently stop the Moroccan cocaine trade and potential stop other drug trafficking issues in other nations and regions of the world. Algeria looks forward to solving this issue and making sure the movement of drugs between nation-states is exponentially diminished.

  • : Algeria
  • : Tony DiMeglio

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Griffin McEvoy, Mattawan High School

Iran

Special Political Committee(SPECPOL): International Drug Trade

 

The international drug trade is a humongous issue affecting every country worldwide. Many groups from a variety of different countries have attempted to control and manage where illegal and legal drugs end up globally. The United Nations is no different with their International Drug Trade efforts. Illegal drug policies have been passed, but still it is extremely difficult, nearly impossible, to truly understand where drugs, illegal and legal, are distributed. This problem is as apparent, if not more, today than ever due to the many advancements in worldwide communications and transportation. As a committee, we need to find a way to continue our fight against illegal drug trade while still allowing legal drugs to be efficiently given to places in need.

 

 

Iran has a very large drug problem that roots back to centuries ago. In Iran, drugs have an influence in our society, economy, and even politics. In the 19th century, Iran became addicted to opiods due to the expansion of the Far Eastern market. Opiates were used for domestic consumption, and in the early 20th century we passed regulations on the distribution of opioids, creating punishments for those who abused them. These laws were largely ineffective. We then tried banning opioids as a whole, but this ultimately encourage smugglers to use this opportunity for financial gain. As of now, one of Iran’s neighbors, Afghanistan, is the leading producer of drugs such as opium, which is in high demand in my country. Our ban on opiates has not only given smugglers a high paying job, but it has also increased the use of other illegal substances such as heroin. Heroin consumption in Iran has skyrocketed, and as time goes on it will only grow exponentially higher.

 

A good way to fight illegal drug trade is not only focusing on destroying those who supply drugs, but also getting rid of the need for them in the first place. To fight future and current addiction, we need to encourage and fund the many effective organizations who lead anti-drug/addiction agendas as well as establish an international system that regulates and watches the movement of illegal substances. With these searches, we must not affect the medicinal drugs that are needed throughout the world. With regulation of illegal substances comes the slowing of legal substance distribution. Finding a way to both combat addiction and distribution of illegal substances while still leaving the distribution of legal substances alone is needed so sick people can become healthy, and addicts can become sober.

 

  • : Iran
  • : Griffin McEvoy

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Samantha DePerno, Mattawan High School

United Kingdom

SPECPOL: International Drug Trade

 

There is an international epidemic currently happening. A global illicit trade involving cultivation, manufacture, and distribution of drugs, mainly heroin and cocaine. The UNODC has tried to put a stop to this drug trafficking, but has been unsuccessful. This global drug trade has only seemed to grow. World heroin consumption and seizure represent an annual flow of 430 – 450 tons of heroin into the global heroin market. However, the main problem seems to me in South-Eastern Europe and Asia. Around 380 tons of opium and morphine is produced in Afghan origin where five of those tons are consumed and seized in Afghanistan. The remaining 375 tons are then shipped on the main heroin trafficking routes, the Balkan and Northern routes. These link Afghanistan to the large markets of the world. The Balkan route has an annual market of $20 billion and the Northern route has a market of about $13 billion. This main path of supply needs to be cut off to prevent the drug trade from becoming even larger.

The United Kingdom desires the drug trade to cease. The UK government is aiming for a coherent and comprehensive strategy to tackle the problem from the source of supply through to the point of consumption. It allows enforcement agencies to target criminals and their organisational structures, their assets, the drugs themselves, and the precursor chemicals used in their manufacture. Also, the UK has multiple ways to deal with drug trafficking outside of it’s borders, such as, law enforcement activity in liaison with foreign counterparts, bilateral diplomatic activity, backed up by assistance to foreign governments, multilateral engagement, mainly in the United Nations, European Union, Financial Action Task Force and the G7 and G8, but also in less formal groupings such as the Dublin Group which brings together EU and other donor countries to coordinate policies and international assistance, and the international and frontier controls.

The Special Political Committee has been brought together to find a solution to stop the drug trade. The United Kingdom calls for the disruption of trafficking organizations to help decrease this number so there will be less places to trade to. Also to reduce the production at the source, so there is a smaller supply of these drugs, and most importantly to control the precursor chemicals essential to the manufacture of these illicit drugs, so they are more heavily secured and have less of a chance to be created illegally and sold. However, whatever the solution is, this committee needs to gather as one to create a safer place to live, due to the dangers caused by this drug trade.

 

  • : United Kingdom
  • : Samantha DePerno

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

International Drug Trade

Republic of Azerbaijan

Emma di Pretoro

Forest Hills Eastern    

 

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of illicit drugs. With an annual worth of 435 billion USD, the international drug trade poses a threat to states across the globe and has undermined socio-economic and political stability throughout history, from the opium trade in ancient China to the current opioid crisis in the United States. Addressing this ongoing problem is crucial to maintaining international peace and security. 

 

In Azerbaijan, there is a limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for consuption in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). 90% of the drugs in Azerbaijan come from Afghanistan through Iran. Such data was noted by Guloglan Muradli, the head of the customs violations and combat smuggling of the State Customs Committee. Government agencies and officials are behind drug trafficking. According to the chairman of the Popular Front Party, Ali Kerimli, combating drug trafficking requires the participation of the whole society. “No one can stay away from this tragedy, as in every fifth families there is a drug addict, and their number is growing rapidly,” he said. There is a strong link between organized crime and illicit drugs and the need for regional cooperation is more important than ever. Only by dealing with these issues as a collective and not on their own can we see the difference. Since establishing a presence in the country in 2007, UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) has cooperated closely with Azerbaijani officials on a number of fronts. Action to counter drug trafficking remains one of the key collaborative efforts of Azerbaijan and UNODC. Azerbaijan and other countries in the region are used as transit countries for the smuggling of heroin from Afghanistan to Europe, as a result of which increasingly advanced surveillance is needed. Earlier this year, Azerbaijan began participating in the joint UNODC-World Customs Organization Container Control Programme, the aim of which is to develop a network of border control cooperation units at various land and sea ports to stem the flow of drugs, precursors and other illegal goods. CARICC (Central Asian Regional Information and Coordination Centre), initiated by UNODC, brings together law enforcement agencies from Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation and facilitates cross-border information-sharing and enhanced coordination and implementation of counter-narcotic operational activities.

 

Recognizing the challenges of tackling the threat caused by that trade, Mr. Fedotov, the Executive Director of UNODC, noted three crucial steps that need to be taken: first, further acknowledgment is needed that tackling the drug trade is not the responsibility of only a handful of countries, but rather a joint problem requiring the collective action of the international community; second, while drug-related crimes are often local in nature, the solutions must be global, particularly given the nature of drug trafficking, which is at the centre of a shifting web of transnational organized crime; and lastly, the causal connections between drug trafficking and insecurity must be taken into account, specifically with regard to the production and trafficking of drugs, which undermine security and promote corruption, crime, terrorism and instability. 

  • : Republic of Azerbaijan
  • : Emma di Pretoro

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee 

International Drug Trade

Republic of Finland 

Maddie Thompson

Forest Hills Eastern High School

 

The International Drug Trade is at a high point, there is an increased number of non prescribed medications and psychological inebriants circulating on behalf of large criminal networks such as cartels and terrorist organizations. This is a topic of interest for the committee to address because the demand for narcotics and psychotropic substances has dramatically increased worldwide. Finland is concerned for the well being and health of its own citizens as well as millions of people around the globe. According to Statistics Finland, a Finnish data company, there were more than 200 deaths in 2017 due to drug abuse. The question surrounding the legalization of different controlled substances in different countries is very prominent because of the diversity on the map. In Finland, the use of unprescribed medication is illegal, although it is understood that most countries will not take this stance because of the economic benefits of their drug exchange. Illicit drugs generate large sums of money which then flows back into the financial sector of the economy. 

 

Drug use in Finland is primarily based around prescription drugs. Although there is a prominent illicit drug problem in the Republic. Prevention is run by the central and local governments usually headed by the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Non-governmental organizations, such as the A-Clinic Foundation or A-Klinikkasaatio are also prominent in helping rehabilitate addicts by establishing centers and therapy. Finland’s drug and opioid use has dramatically increased in the last year, most commonly with cannabis and ecstasy. In 2012 alone there were between 18,000 and 30,000 problem users of amphetamines and opioids in the country. On a national level, Finland has participated in many conferences such as the National Drug Strategy of 1997 and the Narcotics Act. There were approximately 27,800 narcotic offenses in 2017. 17,050 of these offenses were possession charges while the rest remained aggravated narcotics offenses. Government officials are in consensus about the general health of the people and the illegality of unprescribed drugs, although in moderation a conversation about the legalization of cannabis has started to be brought up. The Organization addressing this issue in Finland is the National Institute for Health and Welfare. 

 

Finland proposes the United Nations set a standard drug spectrum. The decision on worldwide levels of drugs and their benefits or detrimental effects on people. After doing this, countries could individually handle the legalization of drugs on their own. 

 

  • : Republic of Finland
  • : Madison Thompson

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The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has watched nations allow their people to fight and struggle over the international drug trade for decades on end. The delegation looks begin to put an end to that in the committee. The Glorious Republic has never suffered from any form of drug epidemic or demand problem for a simple reason: the DPRK has always dedicated part of its budget to border security and drug law enforcement.

The DPRK would recommend that all nations follow the steps it has taken in order to reduce the effects of the International drug trade. Rather than focusing on supply and demand, focus on how that supply gets in and how will enforce said supply. The demand will ultimately diminish if you quell the addiction that ensues the supply. In order to do so though, a nation must invest in border security and drug law enforcement. By stationing a large number of military and anti-drug personnel along a national border, especially when near a drug producing nation, it makes it easier to enforce drug laws. Nations can control drug trade more because they can simply send drug shipments back to the nation they came from, or claim them as illegal and seize them. This allows for every nation to control the flow of drugs into its country. The downside of this though is this does cause in an increase in illegal trade. That can be solved by increased investment in drug law enforcement though. If nations were to invest in sophisticated drug law enforcement, such as the United State’s Drug Enforcement Agency(DEA), this would quell the amount of illicit drug trade taking place within a nation. A strong military-like force would control the flow of drugs throughout a controlled area and ultimately create a lack of not only supply for drugs, but demand for drugs, as the more they crack down on them, the less addicted a nation’s citizens will become. 

 

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has always had a tight policy on drug trade and drug law enforcement. That policy has created a pure and non-addicted society within the one, true Korea. As long as there are loose guidelines and loose enforcement surrounding drugs, the deadly and addictive culture surrounding them will only grow and become more dangerous. The delegate implores the committee to take an aggressive approach to this topic and make major domestic reforms. It is for the betterment of the global society that the DPRK is so delighted to play a part in. 

  • : Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • : Olivia Jackson

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DATE: NOVEMBER 14, 2019

SUBMITTED TO: SPECIAL POLITICAL 

FROM: SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM

SUBJECT: INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRADE

 

It is no surprise to anyone that the international drug trade has been on the agenda of international policy makers for quite some time. To be more specific, it has again and again found a spot for itself on the U.N table with a multitude of policies attempting to tackle it once and for all. Unfortunately, currently implemented solutions have not produced the results the international community is looking for. The international drug trade has created a massive global network of traffickers, producers, consumers, criminals, and terrorists that seek to undermine and evade international law. It is this committee’s job to implement effective policy that addresses this elusive network.

Vietnam has dealt with the effects of the drug trade due to its close proximity to the Golden Triangle, an area covering 367,000 square miles in Southeast Asia where a large portion of the world’s opium is produced. The birth of this region can be attributed to European monopolization of the opium trade in the 1800’s. Europeans hoped to gain access to Asian markets since there was little demand from the Chinese and neighboring provinces for European goods. The illicit narcotics trade was further cultivated in the 1950’s and 1960’s with U.S intelligence efforts that attempted to support anti-communist insurgents in the region by supplying arms, ammunition, and air transport aid insurgents in the trafficking and production of opium and other narcotics. This area is created by the borders that separate Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand. The mountainous terrain and distance from major urban centers creates an ideal place for illicit poppy cultivation and opium smuggling. An impactful resolution must be able to address major regions of cultivation such as the Golden Triangle.

Vietnam proposes a framework that answers specific policy questions in hopes of molding effective responses. The issue of how to deal with the diversification of local, regional, state, and international policies is a crucial one since conformity is needed to objectionalize the problem at hand. Another crucial issue is how to effectively prioritize the international drug problem while preventing it from being used to push broader developmental affairs and state-run interests. If these questions are successfully answered, this committee will move in the right direction to create impactful international policy.

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam strongly affirms that the drug trade problem must be an international effort in order for solvency to be reached. An effective resolution should focus on three aspects:

1. Using effective supply and demand reduction policies

2.Balancing regional and international cooperation

3. Full conformity with the UN charter and respecting the sovereignty of each nation

 

To highlight the impact of this approach, Vietnam has successfully eradicated the cultivation of illicit narcotics following a 10 year plan as outlined by the 2009 Political Declaration and Action Plan that adheres to the three aspects previously mentioned. In addition, we have also diversified our treatment options for those who are addicted since harm reduction is a major step towards eliminating a prominent illicit drug network. Viet Nam is committed to working closely with other states, international organizations and UN agencies in addressing and countering drug problem in the region and around the globe. This holistic scope, supported by international cooperation, will bring solvency to the issue at hand. Vietnam looks forward to creating a comprehensive resolution with effective mechanisms that guarantees change. 

 

  • : Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • : Connor Brezenski

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November 14, 2019

Submitted To: SPECPOL

From: Rwanda

Subject: International Drug Trade

 

The international drug trade is one of the biggest issues facing the world today. This is an issue that affects billions of people in every province, state, territory, region and country in the world. According to the CDC 47,600 people died from drug related deaths in 2017 and this number is only rising as the world population does. We must at this conference take action to combat this issue.

As we approach this conference we are hoping to provide solutions to help solve this issue. But before we do that, we must answer some critical questions. One critical question the committee must answer is: How can we, as the United Nations, take steps to deter international drug traffickers and dealers? What is the best way to coordinate cross boundary efforts to stop the illegal drug trade?

The Republic of Rwanda believes that in order to effectively and efficiently move forward in committee we must discuss and find a way to increase international cooperation regarding this issue.  Rwanda believes that the best way to combat this issue is by making use of two organizations, the UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) and regional organizations such as the African Union or the Arab League. For example the UNODC has partnered with the regional organizations in africa like the Economic Community of West African States to implement greater cooperation and intelligence sharing between states in West Africa. By using regional organizations we can encourage more participation because countries may be more comfortable collaborating with surrounding countries and it allows our plans of attack to be more specialized based on the specific problems in each region. 

Overall the Delegation from Rwanda looks forward to taking steps to solve this massive issue and looks forward to cooperating with other nations to find the best solution to this issue.

  • : Rwanda
  • : Jake Wilcox

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International Drug Trade

Japan

SPECPOL

 

For many decades, the world has been locked in the war against drugs. The fact of the matter is, illegal drugs still exist in resilient transnational networks of smuggling, which are even now beginning to make use of the dark web and other darknet markets. In the 2000s, Afghanistan changed the global scene of international drug trade when their nation emerged as the unchallenged number one producer of opiates, placing a staggering 90%+ of opiate production in the golden crescent region then and afterwards according to US estimates from 2014. The issue of international drug trade is a complicated one, drug laws vary from nation to nation, and so do too their respective abilities to combat the issue. What is important to the delegation of Japan is that, while facing this issue, free trade must be upheld, and nations must be willing to cooperate.

The delegation of Japan also feels the need to point out the sources of these drugs, which are most notably the golden crescent of Afghanistan, the golden triangle of Southeast Asia, and South America. Japan understands the motivation that other countries have to attack this issue at its source. For example, the “UNODC One Concerted Approach for Europe, West and Central Asia”, a group of programs which have placed significant focus on targeting production and transit through these regions, as opposed to dealing with it in the receiving nations. Nonetheless, the delegation of Japan sees however that this issue is one which needs to be solved at the receiving ends rather than the source regions.

The delegation of Japan finds the most intelligent approach is to first rid the receiving nations concentrated in Europe and North America of their demand for illegal substances, opiates and cocaine most notably. The best way to go about this would be to improve drug and health education from a young age, as well as bolstering the strength of law enforcement, especially in the realm of drug control. Limiting prescription opioids could be beneficial as well. Finally, better rehabilitation for former drug users would be in order. Japan also believes in border security as an important aspect of stifling this trade. Improved border security in transit nations such as those in central and western Asia, as well as Central America would be best. Japan believes in concentrating the effort to undermine the international drug trade in key areas of its function as opposed to burning through resources and time with solutions that are simply too broad. Japan also wishes to maintain strong free trade, and believes that increased paranoia about what enters countries, especially those which are close trading partners of Japan, may potentially weaken Japan’s recent bout of economic prosperity. The delegation of Japan would also suggest less diversion of effort towards source nations for these substances as opposed to those on the receiving end of the drug trade. Driving causes beyond the scope of the standalone issue of drug trade, such as poverty and corruption, fuel the production of these substances far more than anticipated. For example, in Afghanistan, opium is produced because it is profitable, cheaper to grow than wheat, often serves as some of the only means by which poor farmers can make a reasonable living according to Afghan drug trade researcher and expert, William Byrd. If these farmers were to face a crackdown by their government, there exists due fear that they would lean in favor of the Taliban, a group known for rivaling the Afghan government and one which already controls significant opium producing territory. If foreign demand decreased for opium, farmers would gradually return to producing more historically characteristic crops such as wheat. It is also likely that if heroin and cocaine production in specific regions of the world were shut down, they would begin in new regions as long as a demand from receiving countries continued to exist.

Ultimately, the international drug trade is a plague to the modern developed world, but most importantly is an issue equally from the modern developed world as it is from those less developed countries that produce opium and cocaine. Producing countries such as Afghanistan have a much lower degree of control over the disconnected rural population, and as result, due to a combination of poverty, corruption, groups like the Taliban, and large-scale organized crime, are helpless to this virus. Developed countries on the other hand such as those of western Europe and North America are not helpless and must be willing to focus on specific solutions rather than vague, unconcentrated ones which lessen any lasting impact that could result. Developed countries must resolve the demand for drugs in the ways suggested and focus more on starving drug production from the receiving end. When developed nations say they will stop opium or cocaine production at their sources, they are attempting to cure the symptoms of instability in these producing nations, rather than the disease of instability itself.

 

  • : Japan
  • : Ian Brown

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14 November 2019

SUBMITTED TO: Special Political

FROM: Russian Federation

SUBJECT: International Drug Trade

DELEGATE: Amanda Morello, Royal Oak High School

 

According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, “thirty-five million people in the world suffer from drug use disorders and require services.”(1) This staggering statistic doesn’t come as a surprise to the Russian Federation. In 2013, the Russian government claimed 6% of their population used serious drugs like heroin. Alcoholism, which is commonplace, even before the transition from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to the Russian Federation, has yet to be eliminated from Russian society. Beginning in 2013, Russian Narcologists established a tiered system of detection and treatment enacting a Zero Tolerance Drug Policy. This action highlights a commitment to destabilizing the international drug trade.

 

It must be noted that Mr. Yury Fedotov of the Russian Federation is the executive director of the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime and the United Nations Director-General of the United Nations Office in Vienna. Mr. Fedotov has ensured that not only is the Russian policy on drugs evident in the international community, but is also committed to upholding the office’s legitimacy in analyzing reports and data on drug trafficking trends, curbing the illicit development and distribution of drugs, and ensuring the office’s capacity to continue its mission. Russia has sent millions in USD to the UNODC, beginning in 2011(2). The Russian Federation, separate from its involvement in the UNODC, has established a trilateral effort between themselves, Afghanistan, and Japan to counter the development and distribution of narcotics in the eastern drug corridor. This effort met its second phase on 11 December 2015 and was reacknowledged on 12 November 2018(3). 

 

At the launch of the World Drug Report on 26 June 2019, Mr. Fedotov said, “Health and justice need to work hand in hand to effectively address the world drug problem…” (4) This is something Russia has taken in stride and has defined its projected path with. Furthermore, for the Special Political Committee to continue its fight against the international drug trade, we must implement a solution for both the supply-side and demand-side of the drug trade. This includes looking at the actions of the United States and its NATO allies in destabilizing the Middle East, the US opioid crisis, and drug wars in unstable Latin and South American countries. A specific cause for concern for Russia and several other member states is the international community’s desire to legalize cannabis for non-medical purposes(5). Such acts like these normalize drug use and establish a precedent for the recreational use of harmful substances.

 

Russia is committed to safeguarding its future against the global drug crisis and seeks a resolution that emphasizes the need for multilateral cooperation. This will result in a strengthened domestic health care policy and education.  Internationally, a resolution must bring attention to the consequences of the actions of the United States and its NATO allies in facilitating the growth of a hostile environment for drug and criminal networks to survive by provoking the conflict in the Middle East. There, the destabilization of governments allowed the Islamic State and other extremist groups a stage to fund their war efforts, consequently increasing the amount of trafficked drugs into Russia and their use within Russian society. In order for Russia to be fully behind a resolution it must see that national legislation is ultimately left to be determined by appropriate governing officials.  This is imperative to ensuring the Russian Federation values territorial integrity, national unity, and sovereignty.

 

This committee’s resolution must have a five-pronged approach:

  1. Establishes and promotes law enforcement to curb the illicit drug trade as it funds insurgencies and destabilizes communities including clauses acknowledging and countering international trade networks;

  2. Reaffirms the importance of judicial cooperation to ensure producers, manufacturers, distributors, and users are held accountable for their actions;

  3. Realizing the importance of social and human development to understand the effects of drugs on the human body;

  4. Believing fully that the research and analysis of the effects of policy is imperative to working towards an international community unscathed by drugs; and

  5. Keeping in mind the violation of sovereignty, national unity, and territorial integrity by nations whose political motives do not have a region’s best interest in mind.

This will only be possible if we allow for an open dialog between the international and scientific community, furthering the mission of Mr. Fedotov in the UNODC, ensuring the global community enacts a zero-tolerance policy on drugs including their manufacturing and distribution, and the perception of drug use in society.

 

The Russian Federation has made clear its efforts to tackle the global drug problem first hand.  The Russian delegation will bring up the consequences of western influence in the Middle East to not only demonstrate how our efforts have begun to restabilize the region, but to ensure that a solution works to reestablish the bounds of national sovereignty. 

1. Fedotov, Yury.  Launch of the World Drug Report 2019. UNODC.  26 June 2019. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/speeches/2019/wdr-260619.html

 

2. UNODC. UNODC Executive Director Notes Key Role Of Russia In Curbing Drug Trafficking. 2019, https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/press/releases/2011/April/unodc-executive-director-notes-key-role-of-russia-in-curbing-drug-trafficking.html. Accessed 13 Nov 2019.

 

3.  “Trilateral Cooperation Between Japan, Russia And UNODC To Support Counter-Narcotics Efforts Of Afghanistan”. Unodc.Org, 2019, https://www.unodc.org/islamicrepublicofiran/en/trilateral-cooperation-between-japan–russia-and-unodc-to-support-counter-narcotics-efforts-of-afghanistan.html. Accessed 12 Nov 2019.

 

4. Fedotov, Yury.  Launch of the World Drug Report 2019. UNODC.  26 June 2019. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/speeches/2019/wdr-260619.html

5.  Ulyanov, Mikhail.  STATEMENT of the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the International Organizations in Vienna Mr. Mikhail Ulyanov at the 5th intersessional meeting of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. UNODC. November 7, 2018. https://www.unodc.org/documents/commissions/CND/2019/Contributions/November/MS_Statements/7_November/Russian_statement_7_November_ENG.pdf

  • : The Russian Federation
  • : Amanda Morello

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Dominican Republic

Special Political Committee: International Drug Trade

 

The international drug trade has been an issue ever since the days of the development of various trade routes such as the silk and sand roads. While synthetic and lab-developed drugs were developed much later, the issue of regulation and legality of drugs has always been a large problem within different nations and the United Nations all over the world. Starting with the Ten Year Agreement in 1907 between China and India over the drug opium, various efforts all around the world have taken place to regulate the international drug trade. Determining the legality, intervention of governments, and the reduction targets all provide for a safer place within and outside of our respective nations.

 

The drug trade within the Dominican Republic has always been a hot topic. As one of the main passageways of cocaine and heroin between South America and the United States, it has seen its fair share of illegal activity, impacting every one of our citizens every day of their lives. The Dominican Republic has always been one of the largest Carribean drug ports of the modern world as a result of its resources, access to the rest of the world, and its access to large shipping containers. Its relations and proximity to Venezuela, one of the main producers of cocaine allow it to be an effective route for these drugs. This directly impacts the safety of our citizens and it gives the country a bad name. As a result of this, the Dominican Republic has and will continue to work towards a better future and control the international drug trade along with those willing to work with us to control and hopefully eradicate the illegal drug trade. 

 

Upon the commencement of the committee, the delegation of the Dominican Republic would like to work with all countries to efficiently produce effective solutions and resolutions. This delegation would like to see resolutions that focus on reducing the demand for these illicit drugs. Reducing the demand using various UN or country-lead programs will lead to supply reduction automatically. Controlling the trafficking and sale of these drugs is also a big priority when dealing with this issue and this is something that the Dominican Republic believes is essential to the eventual control of the trade as a whole.

 

 Historically, the Dominican Republic has been actively involved in many different UN-lead initiatives such as The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and the United Nations Conference Against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances of 1988. The Dominican Republic has ratified, accepted and approved the measures for both the 1988 and 1961 conventions. In order to find an effective solution, the Dominican Republic, along with countries should continue to take action to control and eradication the international illicit drug trade once, and for all. 

  • : Dominican Republic
  • : Taj Dhillon

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee 

International Drug Trade

Federal Republic of Somalia

Jacob Potter

Forest Hills Eastern

 

The International Drug Trade and illegal smuggling is a critical issue around the world. Weak enforcement and high demand are what cause the issue to get out of hand in many countries. The smuggling of illegal substances can cause chaos when law enforcement cannot control the situation. Action is needed to either reduce the demand or control the supply side of the issue.

Increasing restrictions would not solve the issue when it cannot be enforced. Peace cannot be obtained when drug networks overrun cities and borders. The UN Special Political and Decolonization Committee must address these concerns and improve the system to prevent illegal smuggling of drugs, resolving the issue worldwide.

 

Due to Somalia’s internal conflicts, the drug trade has progressed within its borders. Networks of drug trafficking run rampant. Although it has tried to regulate the issue, Somalia does not have enough military strength to resolve the issue on its own without international regulation. Somalia has strengthened military presence to try to regulate drug trafficking, but it has not proven to be successful. Somalia is a state party to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and supports restricting the drugs listed in the treaties. Additionally, Somalia urges the UN improve strict regulation internationally by reducing demand, controlling networks, and preventing manufacturing of illicit drugs. If the UN does not improve the situation, drug networks will only grow substantially at this rate between Somalia’s internal conflicts and the advancement in technology and social media.

 

Strict reduction in the production of illicit drugs, enforcement of trafficking, and reduced demand will greatly reduce the strength of the drug trade internationally. Somalia supports the United Nations in restricting both supply and demand sides of the drug trade to weaken networks on an international level. The UN must urge countries to enact stricter punishments involving the manufacturing, possession, and use of illicit drugs. Creating strict laws for citizens to follow will help countries moderate the problem and create stability. The drug crisis in Somalia is an urgent issue and needs to be improved greatly to be a step closer to peace. If no further actions are taken by the UN, countries will remain chaotic and dangerous with gangs and cartels in control without law enforcement to control the problem.

  • : Federal Republic of Somalia
  • : Jake Potter

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Committee: SpecPol

Topic: International Drug Trade

Country: Thailand

Delegate: Melvin Lopez

School: Fishers High School

 

International drug trading has not only become a great ordeal for many countries throughout the entire world but has also been a global hot topic on the news on how countries will approach this situation. Solutions such as The Ten-Year Agreement of 1907, and the Hague Opium Conference of 1912 have not only failed but have sparked interest and ways to put a stop to the International drug trades. With the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, the demand for Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances has greatly increased with the more recent development of technology creating an even bigger problem. Thailand has unfortunately been apart of this global issue with the “Golden Triangle” being ran in South East Asia connecting other countries such as Laos and Myanmar. According to the UNODC, (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), in its Myanmar Opium Survey 2018 they stated 37,300 hectares of land in the country was under poppy cultivation last year with nearly 90 percent of all the opium being grown in the northeastern Shan state. And with cheap pills being generally trafficked into Thailand, Laos, China and Myanmar going for $1 to $1.50, causing a higher rate of methamphetamine seizures. Therefore, creating a reason for Thailand to want to further proceed with a greater solution to this problem.

Thailand has taken more extreme measures on their part to find and put a stop to drug smugglers and consumers by having parts of their military on the hunt for these people. With more than $137 million worth of drugs being confiscated in November alone, demand is still high for distributors from neighboring countries within the Golden Triangle and beyond. With Myanmar being a key country for distributors to farm Opium, Myanmar has had to have military forces at the border on patrol of smugglers in order to stop the cross-country distribution to Thailand. Thailand though has blamed the UWSA, (United Wa State Army), for allowing drugs through. With this conflict, Thailand may look forward into strengthen border security to prevent smuggling between countries. Laos is also thriving for an alternative for Opium drug cultivation through the National Social Economic Development Plans (NSEDP) program to help farmers find alternative farming for profit. With this change, countries have less and less supply, therefore lowering demand for these drugs.

With this in mind, Thailand would like to follow the examples and improve upon these current solutions to solidify a greater future for the world. Thailand see’s that the best fit for countries is to strengthen border patrol and help countries that may not be currently at a strong hold. By doing so, the distribution of smuggling narcotics will greatly reduce demand. But countries must be able to provide financial aid for farmers in transition programs such as the National Social Economic Development Plans (NSEDP). Farmers will then have the confidence to change to an alternative as opposed to opium and other narcotics. Countries may see a slow rate of change but must always keep farmers and others in check with strong punishments due to contributions and involvement in a global crisis.

  • : Thailand
  • : Melvin Lopez

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       Hello fellow delegates and honorable chair. The matter of drugs is not a light one and needs to be dealt with immediately. Drugs have the power to tear apart families, fracture economies, and even pit nations against each other. If we do not take any action to stop the drug trade, then all of our lives will be put at an unnecessary risk. Drugs like heroin and cocaine have very specific places that they are grown and distributed from. Cocaine and heroin are two of the most toxic and devastating drugs, and they are used too commonly. The effects of cocaine are, depression or anxiety, suicidal thoughts or actions, chills, tremors, muscle aches, and nerve pain. Heroin is also a highly addictive drug that could kill anyone who overdoses and has very similar effects on the body. Qatar has been subject to drug trafficking and drugs have plagued the youth along with the rest of our society. The heroin traffickers that go through Middle Eastern and African countries end up in Europe. If we wish to rid any country of drugs then we must get rid of the suppliers.

       The United Nations has an organization founded on the basis of solving the drug and crime problems that the world faces. The UNODC has been combatting the world drug problem and the numbers of seizures has increased significantly since 2008. If we continue this trend, then the world drug crisis could be dealt a serious blow.

       The seizures worldwide have increased, but the use has still been increasing. In the United States alone, from 2008 to 2017 there was an increase of 34,227 overdose deaths. In England it was recorded that from 2008 to 2017 the number of overdose deaths went from 3000 to 4500. Qatar believes, there needs to be stricter penalties for drug traffickers and dealers. At the Treatment and Rehabilitation center it was estimated that 3 to 5 percent of Qatar’s population is addicted to drugs or alcohol.

There is a stigma in Qatar that needs to end along with any other area of the world. Otherwise, the numbers will increase and there will be more drug related deaths compared to any other. Narcotics as with any type of drug do not just affect the user, they affect the family, friends, and work/standard of living of the person. The negative effects of drugs need to be taught at a young age especially in less developed areas where they are more prone to addicted and help is less available.

       Qatar urges the United Nations to help fund organizations that teach people about the effects of drugs, so that they are better educated about what they do to people’s lives and early prevention needs to take place. Qatar will happily fund new organization that wish to help fight drug trafficking and drug consumption. If a child is caught doing drugs, they need to be given immediate help and lessons about the dangers and horrors of drug use. If the children are taught, then there will be less consumption of drugs which will help diminish the global drug trade. There needs to be more strict laws for the imprisonment of drug dealers especially ones that deal to children.

       If the world implements stricter punishments against drug dealers and smugglers, then there will be a much higher chance of drug trafficking decreasing along with the number of people using.

 

  • : Qatar
  • : Salmaan Seraji-Bozorgzad

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Committee: Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL)

Topic: International Drug Trade

Country: Equatorial Guinea

Delegate Name: Emily Kinnicutt

School: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy (SASA)

 

The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is concerned by the growing number of those affected by drug trafficking, especially the impact it has on nations all throughout Africa. A shocking 31 million people worldwide have drug use disorders (World Health Organization, 2018), with that number only increasing as the network of drug traders expands. Growing drug trade is also due to the increasing amount of drug production, with global cocaine, opium, heroin, and cannabis manufacture estimates by the UNODC, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, reaching an all time high (World Drug Report (UNODC), 2019). As of now, there are three UN treaties that govern global drug trade, and they are: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol; the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971, and the Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988. Each of these treaties aim to ensure that certain substances are available for medical purposes while preventing them from being put towards illegal practices. Even still, as shown in the 2019 World Drug Report, drug production and trade has only expanded. 

The Republic of Equatorial Guinea has unfortunately faced an increase in drug trafficking due to its neighboring Western and Eastern Africa being an epicenter of drug trade. Central Africa is a large exporter of narcotics, and can manage to transfer it between borders due to the instability from many displaced refugees and from conflict between nations. Unclear borders, both land and sea, as well as economic instability have led to drug trade flourishing in African nations. One front that has been more prevalent and is a reason that Africa has a large number of drug traffickers is that of anti-malarial drugs. Traffickers would incorporate non-medical antibiotics into these drugs intended to cure those affected by malaria, which interferes with the initiative to help those who could potentially die due to malaria. Equatorial Guinea has taken steps to stop drug use by passing no tolerance drug use policy as well as by collaborating with the African Union to ensure that drugs do not pass between borders or cause damage within member states (Interpol). Drug trade has also shown to have a detrimental effect on the economy of many African nations as they are used as transit areas. Not only is the value of the drugs brought through the nation higher than many nations’ yearly income, but it also destroys many young people’s lives, making them susceptible to being “mules”(African Union).

 

Equatorial Guinea believes it is imperative that, in this committee, we not only look at addiction and the production of drugs, but also the underlying causes that allow for international crime to exist between borders. In many cases, the driving forces behind networks of international drug traffickers are terrorism and money laundering. Equatorial Guinea would like to ensure that these topics are addressed, and that measures are taken to encourage member nations to take action. There is, particularly in developing nations (like Equatorial Guinea) a lack of resources to maintain any of the programs put in place. Not only should this issue garner international support both financially and intellectually from other member states, but also with those NGOs that are in the Vienna NGO Committee on Drugs. In the past, the UN’s lack of regard for humans’ rights when developing their treaties on drug trade has led to the implementation of abusive and repressive drug policies. This is why we must ensure that those who have had drug issues get a fair trial and are placed into the proper systems to recover. Certain forms of drug seizures by the UNODC and Interpol have proven to be successful, but only when the aim is to dismantle large drug organizations, so it is recommended that those are expanded. 

  • : Equatorial Guinea
  • : Emily Kinnicutt

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

International Drug Trade

The Democratic Republic of the Congo

Hannah Ferrer-Medina 

Forest Hills Eastern High School 

 

Drugs and drug trafficking has been a major problem in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and globally. The distribution and use of illegal substances have steeply increased, even after the ratification of  the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance (NDPS) treaty by DRC in 2005. The effect of illicit drugs – especially that of cannabis –is destroying not only congolese agriculture, but the spirit of our country itself.  The use of cannabis has harmed the mind of our people, has caused the burning of hundreds of villages, as prompted the rapes of throusands of women and children, and has corrupted our government. The ravaging effects of drug use needs to be stopped. 

On a global scale, the regulation of illegal drug trade is absolutely necessary. Each country should hold the responsibility to track and halt the shipment of narcotics before it even leaves the country. The U.N. has made galient efforts to reduce substance trafficking through the NDPS; however, it is not enough. The United Nations should strengthen drug trafficking restrictions through education and regulations. States concerned with the health and well being of their people should be highly concerned with the distribution of illegal substances and should enforce efforts to criminalize international drug trade and should reduce the amount of illicit substances being produced nationally. 

The Democratic Republic of the Congo will not forget to do the same. First, we hope to reduce the amount of cannabis being produced through regulation, policy, and more policing of marajuana production. Annually, 200 tons of cannabis is smuggled globally, valued at US$3 million per year. This is completely unacceptable. With this amount of revenue corruption, though abhorrent, is bound to happen. Second, DRC will increase efforts to secure borders and reduce the control that rebel groups, like the Hutu militia, have on marijuana trade. We strongly encourage the rest of the international community to consider how illicit substances impact our society and for the regulation of international drug trade.        

  • : The Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • : Hannah Ferrer-Medina

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

International Drug Trade

The Republic of Turkey

Anika Deshpande

Forest Hills Eastern 

 

The international drug trade is one of the biggest worldwide issues and many international groups have targeted it in an attempt to regulate and restrict the course of both legal and illegal drugs throughout the world. The United Nations has formed multiple agencies that make policies regarding illegal drugs, such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). The global drug problem is more acute today than ever before due to the expansion of the Internet where drugs are bought and sold easily online without concern for distance. Also aiding illegal drug trafficking is the growth of quick transportation methods and complex criminal operations through which drugs flow. The Special Political and Decolonization Committee must form a resolution to decide how authorities should combat the illegal drug trade and advocate for drug-free communities. 

 

Turkey is faced with drug problems due to its location; Afghanistan, to the east of Turkey, is home to a large heroin production scene, and East Europe holds much of the demand for the same product, placing Turkey in the midst of that process. Turkey also is affected by methamphetamine, MDMA, and cocaine transit problems. In response to these issues, Turkey has focused mainly on supply-side reduction, with campaigns against domestic and street dealings as well as against international drug trade networks. According to the UNODC, the Turkish National Police have made almost 20% of global heroin seizures, and in 2016 confiscated almost 111,000 kilograms of marijuana. Turkey has also contributed to many major international anti-drug projects such as the UNODC and OSCE. 

 

Turkey implores that other nations help support Turkey’s attack on the international drug problem, with the focus on demand-side reduction in addition to supply-side tactics. To lead this battle, Turkey recommends that the international community help finance international anti-drug organizations such as the UNODC and OSCE as well as increase international coordination in the movement against the illicit drug trade and use. The United Nations should establish an international medium with which to frame and reduce drug addiction globally. A resolution that targets the drug problem at the source with programs that educate people from all around the world about the dangers of drug abuse will drastically help regulate the international drug trade.

  • : Turkey
  • : Anika Deshpande

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Special Political Committee (SPECPOL)

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

International Drug Crisis

Will Roossien

Forest Hills Eastern

 

Trinidad and Tobago has a long history of drug trafficking. Drug trafficking has been a very difficult problem for our country and it has been existent in our country for decades. Trinidad and Tobago was an area many drug traffickers used from Venezuela and Columbia since the 1980’s. This proved to be a crisis due to our country being used as a passageway. This lead to the production of the Dangerous Drugs Act that was enacted back in 2015. This showed a great impact on the drug trafficking operations running through our country.

Trinidad and Tobago has made an impact on the trafficking process with laws being put into place such as the Dangerous Drugs Act of 2015 which stated that anyone caught with anything deemed a dangerous drug that person would be forced to pay three times the street value and serve twenty five years to a life sentence. Over all, the Act was unsuccessful in completely stopping drug trafficking and also failed to decrease the amount of recorded crimes. Trinidad and Tobago wants to lower the amount of overdoses as well as create a safer environment for our citizens.

As Trinidad and Tobago, we believe that the committee should create a resolution that makes all drugs deemed dangerous and illegal carrying a life sentence if caught trafficking. This would make it more dangerous for traffickers to bring these drugs through the countries with this law. The countries with borders that are being flooded by illegal immigrants, where said country is unable to stop the influx of immigrants would see a decrease in trafficking due to the insertion of an amendment that would strengthen borders. If the resolution would be enacted each country would have the right to deem a drug dangerous based on the country’s beliefs and how each drug affects each country.Trinidad and Tobago hopes this committee collaborates to efficaciously address the systematic blight of drug trafficking. Certain drugs can have medical advantages and should be regulated by a country’s government.

  • : Republic of Trindidad and Tobago
  • : Will Roossien

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Special Political

International Drug Trade

Cambodia

Braxton Orban

 

As the trading of illegal drugs has become an international problem, action must be taken in regulating the flow of drugs. Illegal markets span across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Although Cambodia is not part of the “Golden Triangle,” an area of Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand where much of the world’s opium and heroin are produced, it shares both a closer border and many of the same drug issues. Cambodia, along with many other Southeast Asian nations, has very strict drug laws, including possible charges of life in prison, but enforcement of these policies is flexible. This is a common flaw across many drug trade solution programs to illegal drug problems: strong laws with weak reinforcement.

 

After the Cambodian Civil War in the 60s and 70s, many poor Cambodians entered the illegal drugs trade in a desperate attempt to make a living in a devastated country. Cambodia has made significant progress from this point, but a market for outlawed drugs still exists. In 2018, over 16,000 people were arrested for having illicit drugs in Cambodia. Over 533 kilograms of heroin, cocaine, and other illegal substances were confiscated in the same year. Although the death penalty is outlawed in Cambodia, life sentences can be given to individuals caught trafficking 80 grams or more of and illegal substances across Cambodian borders. An increased attack on illicit substances in 2017 has sharply increased the number of prison inmates in Cambodian jails, straining the national budget and creating new issues, such as overcrowding and threats to prison security. Cambodia’s overall attacks have been targeted to both users and sellers of illegal drugs equally. (pick either why your country is in need of help or has made progress)

 

The current global drug crisis needs an immediate and clear resolution. Cambodia recommends that both the supply side and the demand side of drug interactions should be combated. Due to the global nature of this problem, the United Nations should establish an international program to reduce worldwide drug abuse. Cambodia encourages increased finance for anti-drug organizations and for states to be more meticulous in their enforcement of anti-drug laws and policies. In order to minimize the current levels of drug abuse and addiction globally, a resolution that attacks the drug trade on a global scale, prosecutes all possessions of illegal substances, and increases state action of the issue is imperative.

  • : Cambodia
  • : Braxton Orban

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Special Political and Decolonization Committee

 

International Drug Trade

 

Portugal

 

Praneet Gundepudi

 

            While the issue of illicit drug trade may be an international issue, the specificity of a state’s individual situation makes it such that the issue must be handled at a state-specific level. Drug trade and drug usage follow a common philosophy that extends across all cultures; legality and scarcity change the appeal of usage and facilitation. While participation in the three major conventions concerning drugs — the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances — is imperative in the controlling aspect of the illicit drug trade, control is only half of the battle. The only way to eradicate an issue is to attack it from the source, and that is determining the reasoning behind the ever-increasing influx and seizure of drugs, especially heroin. While prior conventions have set the precedent of the role of the International Criminal Police Organization to identify and control drug traffickers (Resolution III of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs), and financial provisions have been made for nations, and the success of the resolutions and policies have been proven, none of the prior conferences have addressed the demand-driven nature of the international drug trade market, and in order to capitalize on the success of prior conferences, successive ones must address the situational uniqueness of each nation as well as how to control the demand-driven market.

 

            Portugal, among other states, has had the severe domestic struggle of controlling rampant drug usage, trafficking, and addiction in the post-WWII time period. Portugal decided to take the health-related approach by attempting to solve the health issues related to drug usage rather than the usage, itself, and thus established the 2001 decriminalization law. By decriminalizing drugs and replacing incarcerating punishment with mandatory health facility participation, Portugal, as a nation, dropped from one of the worst drug epidemics in the world to having a drug-induced death rate that is five times lower than the European Union average. Inadvertently, though, the drug usage and facilitation in Portugal dropped as well. This is due to the adverse effect decriminalization of drugs had on usage rates. Even though it produced no immediate results, in the long run, the demand for opiates decreased which decreased the volume of the drug trade. Additionally, much of drug usage and trade involves relapses, and by combatting that with education and health counseling, the popularity of the drug trade decreases as well. Portugal is also a member and signatory of all three of the aforementioned resolutions derived from the conventions, and the participation of all nations within those is imperative to combat the drug trade in accordance with demand-attacking policies.

 

            Portugal urges all states to accept the policies set forth by the resolutions made at the three aforementioned states as it sets precedents for the action of the International Criminal Police Organization to identify and pursue drug traffickers. Additionally, it must be recognized that all nations may be dealing with unique situations, and given that, nations must submit long term plans to an oversight committee for ratification that deals with the reduction of their drug production or importation depending on whether they are an import or export constituent. Portugal also strongly suggests incentives for all nations to decriminalize their highly abused drugs as Portugal’s domestic success is indicative of the beneficial properties decriminalization has. By decriminalizing drugs and decreasing the demand for drugs, the industry decreases in popularity at the domestic level, but also, and more importantly, at the international level.

  • : Portugal
  • : Praneet Gundepudi

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Delegation from                                                                                                                                        Represented by

Libya                                                                                                                                                          Jack Starling

  1. International Drug Trade    ddddddddddddddd

Libya, deeply concerned by the fact that, according to the United States Drug Enforcement Administration’s National Drug Threat Assessment in 2018, a majority of the opioid-related contraband that is trafficked into the United States, including pill presses, stamps, dies, and opioids themselves, arrives through the postal system, suggests that member states adopt programs similar to the Tripoli Action Plan on Combating Drug Trafficking and Money Laundering Through the Mail, which works with local postal companies to detect drug smuggling and money laundering attempts through postage while giving due consideration to observing speed and confidentiality of the mail. The delegation of Libya, aware of the fact that, according to a United Nations World Health Organization Critical Review Report in 2018, illicit substances, such as tramadol, unfairly affect African and West Asian regions, including Libya and its surrounding nations, encourages the formation of regional agreements to assist in the growth and development of opioid addiction treatments between programs such as the American Association for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence (AATOD) and countries most affected by the opioid epidemic. These partnerships would exist to foster both medicated and non-medicated opioid addiction treatment techniques and establish new programs within these countries to carry out these treatments. Libya is alarmed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime World Drug Report in 2019, which states that “gateway drugs”, such as cannabis, primarily provide risks towards young people. Therefore, Libya calls upon member states to use plans such as the National Anti-Drug Strategy by the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission and particularly its sub-focus on media campaigns that and youth-based prevention initiatives as models for the creation of new strategies. The Internet and media have become very effective ways of connecting with the young community in recent decades. So, utilizing these tools to protect the world’s youth is vital. Libya, observing the record-breaking annual production rates of coca, the primary ingredient in cocaine, in the last year, as stated by the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report in March of 2018 by the US Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, urges the United Nations to expand and provide further funding for programs similar to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, which provides for the exchange of information and the application of investigative powers for the reduction of drug production and money laundering. This system could be integral to assisting developing countries in combating organized crime if extended to those regions and stop international drug trade before it can even begin.

  • : Libya
  • : Jack Starling

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The international drug trade is detrimental to every country and every person involved. Because of this The Republic of India believes that the committee needs to take a strong stance against it.  However, India, Australia, France and Turkey accounted for 83 per cent of global production of morphine-rich opiate raw materials in 2017, the report said. “The stocks were considered sufficient to cover 19 months of expected global demand by manufacturers at the 2018 level of demand,” it says. This has come from the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, which published a report in 2018 regarding this topic. The drug trade in India is a crucial part of their vibrant pharmaceutical scene, which is a big part of our economy. Because of this I think the committee should focus on regulating the drug trade, as opposed to prohibiting it. In 2018 alone India produced 66 tons of Opium, some of which went to people who needed the drug. Although a vast majority of the drugs were funneled into the black market, they still helped people who rely upon those drugs. India is also a big country to aid in the transit of drugs, as it is one of the hubs in Southeast Asia. This too aids the economy, so the committee should focus on regulating the transportation as well. India proposes creating a subcommittee to aid in this. Doing so would not require much effort from the committee, so it would be very efficient.

  • : India
  • : Paul Janes

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Forest Hills Central

New Zealand (Aotearoa)

Special Political Committee (SPECPOL): International Drug Trade

 

For quite a few years, there has been an underlying problem of drug trafficking. This is an illegal trade (illicit, at that), spans internationally, and has many, many ramifications. Drug trafficking involves many illicit substances, most notably cocaine and opium (in the form of heroin and mostly originating from Asia). There have only been a small number of successful seizures of said substances, with only 73.7 metric tons of heroin being seized in 2008. When the people trading them are caught, they are always put through serious consequences. Along with drugs, many people are being trafficked; for sex, labor, and other reasons. We can not allow this to keep happening.

 

This crisis affects New Zealand in a very profound way. Many drugs, most notably heroin, have been illegally traded to our black markets for quite a few years. Global heroin is produced in four main regions, Afghanistan, China, Southeast Asia (Laos and Cambodia), and South America (Colombia and Bolivia). Most of the Heroin that reaches New Zealand is from Afghanistan or the Monsoon Asian region of Asia. While many opioids are legal in New Zealand, heroin, which is an opioid, is outlawed in all cases, but many people use it regardless. Our situation may be regarded as almost as bad of an epidemic as the opioid crisis in our allied nation, the United States of America.

 

Drugs such as cocaine have also been traded throughout many countries, although they have not made it to New Zealand as much as heroin has.

 

Meanwhile, amphetamine-type stimulant labs and cannabis farms have been found all across Oceania, most notably in Australia and in our very own New Zealand.

 

We, the nation of New Zealand, believe that illicit drug trade and usage are detrimental to our people, which is why many drugs involved here, such as cannabis, heroin, and amphetamines, are banned in our country, and that this issue must be resolved as soon as possible, as anything that goes against law must be stopped and inspected immediately.

 

Once committee has convened on this issue, there are several things that we could do. Our delegation of New Zealand will move to support any resolution that would ban all trade of heroin, cocaine, and other drugs that are widely outlawed because they are considered harmful and make sure that nothing of the type could be transferred between countries by implementing stricter trade policies. If anyone gets caught trading, it will be an automatic trial under the jurisdiction of the country in which the perpetrator is caught. The judicial process and laws of said country will apply. I also urge other delegates to propose resolutions that would fix this crisis and bring an end to the illegal drug trade in today’s world.

  • : New Zealand
  • : Victor Jammal

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Country: Fiji
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: International Drug Trade
Delegate: Jasmyne Bush
School: Williamston High School

 

The international drug trade is a global issue because they are being imported and exported all across the globe by a variety of ways. The Ten Year Agreement of 1907 and the Hague Opium Conference of 1912 sparked a giant push for this international drug trade. These things set a precedent for years to come. The problem was that it required very little. Now, the UNODC is continuously monitoring and researching global illicit drug markets in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of their dynamics. At current levels, world heroin consumption (340 tons) and seizures represent an annual flow of 430-450 tons of heroin into the global heroin market. Of that total, opium from Myanmar and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic yields some 50 tons, while the rest, some 380 tons of heroin and morphine, is produced exclusively from Afghan opium. While approximately 5 tons are consumed and seized in Afghanistan, the remaining bulk of 375 tons is trafficked worldwide via routes flowing into and through the countries neighbouring Afghanistan. The Balkan and northern routes are the main heroin trafficking corridors linking Afghanistan to the huge markets of the Russian Federation and Western Europe. The size of that market is estimated to total $13 billion per year.

 

It is the drug route you’ve never heard of: a multibillion-dollar operation involving cocaine and methamphetamines being packed into the hulls of sailing boats in the US and Latin America and transported to Australia via South Pacific islands more often thought of as holiday destinations than narcotics hubs. In the past five years there has been an explosion in the number of boats, sometimes carrying more than a tonne of cocaine, making the journey across the Pacific Ocean to feed Australia’s growing and very lucrative drug habit. Fiji is one of the countries caught in the crossfire. However, The transnational shipment of drugs through the Pacific is not the only cause of Fiji’s burgeoning domestic drug problem, it is also the booming tourism industry and increasing wealth in the country that also plays a part.With drugs in Fiji comes great violence. Like in any country, at the top of the food chain, drug dealers are dangerous men. There is no data collected in Fiji about drug use or addiction. There is no rehab centre in Fiji, no methadone clinic, no addiction health specialists, not even a Narcotics Anonymous meeting to be found. If addicts want or need treatment, they end up at St Giles, the psychiatric hospital in Suva (the capital), which reported that nearly 20% of its patients in the year from May 2017 to April 2018 were treated for substance abuse issues, mostly for addiction to methamphetamines.

 

Considering there is no data being collected about drug us or addiction, I would say that would be a good first step. If no one is looking at such data, there would be no need for change. Having more rehab centers is very important. In Fiji, the only place where people can get help with addictions is in Suva. There should be many more throughout the country so people can have easy access to get help. Creating a Narcotics Anonymous would be a good way to deal with drugs and addiction. Any help is good help and so far Fiji has none of it. If these things don’t change, there may never be a time in which Fiji escapes the horrible effects of the international drug trade. 

 

  • : Fiji
  • : Jasmyne Bush

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SPECPOL

International Drug Trade

 

While the impact that the international drug trade is felt worldwide, Mexico, who is caught in the middle of it, is firmly against the global black market that cultivates, manufactures, and distributes illegal substances. Since the Hague International Opium Convention of 1912, which contained many elements of drug control, and inspired many nations to create their forms of drug control. There have been many conferences since then on the same topic of drug control, but the rates of drug usage are now on a much larger scale. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 consolidated previously established treaties and added more synthetic opioids to the list of prohibited drugs that should not be produced or supplied. This convention broadened the scope of the convention to include cannabis and similar drugs. With over 90% of the countries in the United Nations being state parties, it is evident that the problem is not about how many articles are existing, but how many require an action of countries and cause change.

 

Mexico is a country that is often regarded as a supplier of illegal substances and is the leading supplier in the North and South American drug market, along with Colombia being the second- largest supplier. According to the World Drug Report of 2008, Mexico is where the majority of cannabis seizures in North America took place. To help demonstrate the magnitude of this, the consumer market for cannabis dwarfs those for other drug groups, according to the UNODC. While the usage of cannabis in 2006 in most other nations and areas either stabilized or declined, the usage in Mexico has increased. The Mexican president has recently declared that “a prohibitionist strategy is unsustainable”, as it causes violence and health harms, and criminalizes people who use drugs. The plan is to negotiate with the United States to end the war on drugs and redirect the resources into treatment programs. In the future, Mexico is going to decriminalize drugs and fund treatment for addicts, as a war on drugs can not be won.

 

More countries need to decriminalize drugs and offer treatment for addicts. In many countries, drugs are produced by parties not affiliated with the government, such as the cartels of Mexico. With decriminalization, drugs can be regulated with ease, which will make the drugs much safer and it will also bring down cartels as their income slows. Decriminalization is replacing existing laws that previously required penalty for drug-related offenses with a new system that seeks to address drugs as a health issue rather than a criminal justice issue. Mexico believes that the main topic of the committee should be the regulation of drugs and how every nation should at a minimum open up rehabilitation centers. After all, the goal should be to cause fewer overdose deaths than before, and these progressive and modern approaches will reduce harm and be better then the war on drugs approach.

  • : Mexico
  • : Gabe Howald

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Country: Kuwait
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: International Drug Trade
Delegate: Divya Reddy
School: Williamston High School

 

The international drug trade has come to be is a very prevalent topic in the modern age. The international drug trade was first brought to light as a pressing world issue at the Hague Opium Conference of 1912 and the Ten Year Agreement of 1907 where the need for regulation of drug flow across nations was first sparked, and as a result a framework of complex rules and laws concerning drug use and distribution were created across the world. Today, drug trafficking, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), accounts for the cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and sale of substances that are subject to drug prohibition laws. As the demand for narcotics and different varieties of drugs increases, it is becoming unclear where exactly governments have jurisdiction to limit drug accessibility in their own nations, as well es how many international regulations of drug manufacturing and distribution can be placed without infringing upon a nation’s sovereignty. According to the UNODC executive summary, In 2017, an estimated 271 million people, or 5.5 percent of the global population aged 15–64, had used drugs in the previous year. This number is 30% higher than the 210 million recorded in 2009. Along with that, in 2017, it was recorded that about 53.4 million people worldwide had used opioids in the previous year. This number is 56 percent higher than the estimate for 2016. Among those people, 29.2 million had used opiates such as heroin and opium, 50 percent higher than the 2016 estimate of 19.4 million. These estimates show that new regulation for both drug intake, manufacture, and distribution is needed worldwide in order to halt this crisis before it can grow to a bigger problem than it already has. 

Kuwait is struggling with large drug addiction among its citizens. It is estimated that Kuwait had a population of nearly 20,000 addicts, nearly one percent of the population, and when there are particularly “bad batches” the death rate is known to spike above its current 75 people per year. One of the possible factors health and law enforcement officials point to when examining this drug crisis is the Iraqi invasion. The invasion left residents traumatized and more prone to seek comfort in drugs. And it was also noted that the current population of two million is slowly getting younger and as a result, bored youths (with money to spend), who find little entertainment in the religiously conservative emirate, take drugs to pass the time. Another issue is the reluctance to receive treatment. After the addiction starts, these people typically don’t want to receive help due to the fact that the main source of treatment is through a government-run psychiatric hospital and addicts are reluctant to seek help due to the stigma around being labeled “mentally ill”. This only leads to the addiction to progressing and worsening problem. There are also no rehab centers easily available since it is believed that stopping people by force through arrestment is the best policy, and drugs are also easily accessible in jails through means of bribery. 

 

The first step that needs to be made on a national level is the construction of rehab centers, as well as a reworking of the jail system in order to halt the current method of “treatment” being used. Regulation on the current ban on drugs also needs to be altered. The Iraqi ban on alcoholic substances still holds strong, however, this just means Kuwaiti citizens are shifting towards greater use of illicit drugs. As for the current opioid crisis the Kuwaiti government agrees with others such as Ireland and Norway, that the crisis will not be solved without halting the international distribution and flow of prescription drugs through widespread regulation on such substances. Kuwait believes that this regulation should be the main topic of discussion throughout the committee and that the only way this regulation can be carried out successfully is if each nation contributes to its formation as well as its implementation.

  • : Kuwait
  • : Divya Reddy

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Country: Denmark

Committee: SPECPOL

Topic: International Drug Trade

Delegate: Dane Webb

School: Williamston High School

 

I, as the delegate of Denmark, find myself quite invested in the issue at hand. Denmark has consistently been a very progressive country always willing to accept change for the better. Denmark has had a pro legalization policy for awhile now and believes that is one of the best solutions to the growing epidemic that is the international drug trade. This legalization only goes for drugs with worthwhile properties, such as cannabis. That is because 11,000 out of Denmark’s 33,000 registered drug users are abusers of cannabis. Denmark however, would never call for the legalization of a drug as heinous as crack cocaine.

The second portion of this argument comes when you bring up such heinous drugs as crack cocaine, heroine, methamphetamines etc. which claim the lives of thousands every year due to overdoses. However, as of 2010, the number of experimentation with illicit drugs in Denmark has decreased dramatically going from making up 8% of those under the age of 25, to only 4%. Denmark believes this to be a direct correlation with the beginning leniency in uses of tame drugs such as weed. Along with that, Denmark believes those who abuse drugs must stop being locked away for years of their valuable lives. This will merely crowd up the prison system as it has been for years and offers no real solution other than to isolate them from the society they already struggle to cope with. No, these poor civilians need to be rehabilitated, not locked away in some jail cell.

That brings me to my final point of solutions. Nations devoted to the United Nations should begin to open up rehabilitation stations that these abusers of drugs can be sent to for treatment of their addiction. Along with that, the government should attempt to compensate these people for their visits to such rehabilitation stations and help them in their recovery process. Along with that, bigger nations should support the endeavors of smaller, developing nations as to stop this problem from rooting itself in the foundation of these nations and allowing it to unleash its wrath on the populous through massive spikes in drug overdoses. Along with that, Denmark calls for worldwide legalization of tame drugs that have restorative properties and serve no threat to the people of their country. This would take the allure out of said drugs, and would keep the prisons and rehabilitation station less crowded over pointless crimes

  • : Denmark
  • : Dane Webb

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Country: Brazil

Committee: SPECIAL POLITICAL COMMITTEE (SPECPOL)

Topic: International Drug Trade 

Delegate: DJ Emch

School: Williamston High School

The international drug trade is a big problem with the imports, exports, and consumption of drugs in the world. Countries are making and supplying drugs legal illegally and it needs to stop. The main problem is the supplier countries. Several larger countries plan to stop the routes of the drugs into the country and stop the production of drugs. Most countries are siding to get programs and organizations to help solve this problem.

Brazil is the second most leading country just behind the U.S.A in cocaine use. Brazil is fighting this problem mostly because of the surrounding countries like Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, these countries are all top producers of cocaine. Brazil also has gangs or organizations like the PCC which is a large group of prison inmates that export drugs to European countries.

Brazil has done multiple things to help deal with the drug problem mostly in the country Brazil such as dealing with the amount of imports and exports of drugs, Brazil has set up programs for helping eliminate drugs, and importers, and Brazil wants to promote and enhance the amount of police force to stop drugs. 

 

Brazil goal at this conference is to limit drug use by promoting programs, and improving the police force to stop importers and exporters, who are mostly criminals. Brazil wants the production of drugs from other countries to decrease so the criminal activity in Brazil also decreases. Brazil also want other countries to fund programs to help eliminate drugs and drug cartels.

  • : Brazil
  • : Dennis J Emch

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Country: Morocco
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: Illegal Drug Trade
Delegate: Caleb Barker
School: Williamston High School

 

The international drug trade is a huge problem across all parts of the globe. This illegal drug trade is defined as the illegal production, distribution, and sale of substances subject to countries drug prohibition laws. This is a complex problem to take down, because the producers, cartels, smugglers, consumers, gangs, and organizations are so spread out and diverse, it’s hard to see where to even start trying to tackle this. The first conferences discussing this issue, such as the Ten Year Agreement, and the Hague Opium Conference were held in the early 1900’s, but since then the production, and consumption of illegal substances has grown to a much larger scale. Over 95% of countries in the united nations are members of one of  3 conferences regarding the international drug trade, but it doesn’t seem to be enough. It’s Clear that drastic action must be taken to shut down this movement of illegal drugs across national borders. 

 

Morocco’s FBI and law enforcement has made great strides in protecting its citizens from the danger of illegal drugs. In October 2017, they seized 2.5 tons of cocaine, and in august 2016 they foiled an attempt to smuggle 198 tons of marijuana into the country. Despite this, Morocco remains the world’s largest producer of marijuana, and is responsible for 60-70% of cannabis seized in Europe.In fact, over 50% of the countries economy relies on the black market, and ⅔ of that specifically is the drug trade. Government officials seem to be complacent about the countries export of illegal drugs to surrounding areas and European countries. 

 

Because my country relies so heavily on marijuana for its economy, cracking down on the production and transport of it would cause huge economic repercussions. Cannabis cultivation and exportation provides income to 800,000 citizens, so it’s easy to see why eliminating this aspect of our economy could pose a problem. However, drug trafficking is often linked to corruption, as well as other crimes, such as money laundering, human trafficking, and organized crime circles. Our government is working hard to find alternative solutions to support our economy, such as rural tourism. It is clear that this international drug trade poses a threat not only to my country, but to the entire world, and our country plays a huge role in the distribution of illegal substances to Europe and other surrounding areas. Because our citizens rely on the income provided by this drug trade however, it is difficult to find a solution that does good for the world as a whole, but doesn’t harm our country’s citizens and economy beyond the point of repair. This is why we need help from the United Nations. If we can get economic support to provide for our citizens until an alternative source of income can be found, this will allow us to crack down heavily on the production and exportation of illegal drugs in our country. Because our country is the leading producer of marijuana, this would be a huge step in eliminating this problem once and for all.

  • : Morocco
  • : Caleb Barker

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Country: Afghanistan
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: International Drug Trade
Delegate: Caroline Munson
School: Williamston High School

The complex drug trade impacts all countries of the world. Whether that be a producing, middle-man, or consuming country, it is a global issue. Past committees have been called for to bolster change but this trade has been overtaken by many larger criminal networks that are difficult to control. Some countries have severe punishments based on what stage of production and amount, while others have an illegal trade network on such a massive scale it is impossible to defeat. In more developed countries, demand and addiction is more of an issue than supply. The consumer countries may not see the effect it has directly of the government of the producing countries, because to a consumer country it is seen as an outside problem they have a very little part in. The distribution to different countries is what makes it a truly global issue. Latin and South American producing countries will keep product in the Americas. The Golden Triangle of Southeast Asia focuses more on China and maritime trade. The Middle-eastern producing regions have the most expansive network reaching north through Kazakhstan and Russia, into Eastern Europe spreading all the way to Portugal, and the resurgence in demand in Africa achieved through the Balkan region and maritime trade.

The main sources of Afghanistan’s legitimate economy are foods such as fruits and nuts, wool, and illegally, opium. Afghanistan is one of the top illicit opium producing countries in the world. It produces over 90% of the world’s non-pharmaceutical opium, and supplies over 95% of Europe’s opium. From 2016 to 2017 the area of opium poppy cultivation increased by 63% to 328,000 hectares. This is almost entirely controlled by the Taliban or is cultivated and exported in Taliban controlled areas. It is not solely done by Taliban members, but also ordinary citizens because it is the highest paying source of income an Afghan could have. It is a vital lifeline for many Afghans that establishes some sort of security. There is nothing that creates more jobs than the opium poppy economy. It provides a daily wage labor that helps both Afghans and migrants. This is a major source of funding for the Taliban as they place a tax on farmers for cultivation, labs converting opium into heroin, and smugglers. The Taliban could earn anywhere from $100 million to over half a billion. The prices vary and increase based on where it is in the world and how far it traveled to get there. The northern route through Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan is the main heroin trafficking path linking Afghanistan to the markets in Russia with an estimated market value of $13 billion. The Balkan route through Iran, Turkey, and Greece reach South-East Europe with a market value of some $20 billion. Afghanistan has strict punishments for those involved in any part of the trade including cultivation, selling, smuggling, orchestrating, using, being in possession of, and knowing such matters are happening. Depending on amount and stage of trade, there could be a minimum jail time of a few months and going up past ten years. This is of course if a person involved is caught, which is difficult if Afghanistan because of the threat posed by the Taliban. 

 

Across the globe the laws, legalization, and punishments of drug use, possession, or sale differ greatly. Numerous countries have legalized cannabis, some European countries like Germany and the Netherlands have more relaxed laws regarding drugs, while the US has very strict, black and white laws. More developed countries will focus on the reduction of supply, to lessen the amount of illicit drugs into the country, while less developed countries hope for a reduction in demand. Afghanistan wants a decrease is demand of opium, because if no one is buying, the Taliban cannot sell and therefore loses funding and power. The manual eradication of poppy opium has been largely unsuccessful in Afghanistan. Consuming countries, particularly in the regions that create the strongest demand, need to strengthen their efforts to reduce consumption within their borders. Border control is difficult, especially in the southern provinces, as it is heavily controlled by the Taliban. Another way it spreads is obviously maritime trade. Only some 2 percent of the millions of containers shipped across the globe can be physically searched. The further drugs move away from their source, the more widespread drug shipments become, making it harder to detect and intercept. This is why Afghanistan and other major producing countries cannot be alone in trying to stop this illicit and dangerous trade that has become a worldwide epidemic.

  • : Afghanistan
  • : Caroline Munson

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Madagascar on the International Drug Trade

 

Committee: SPECPOL

Topic: The Situation in Libya

Country: Madagascar

Delegate: Alex Dukhan from Royal Oak High School

 

    Madagascar believes strongly in upholding progressive values, and keeping people equal in all respects of life. That is why Madagascar believes in modern drug policy, putting citizens first, before profit. Madagascar wishes to eliminate archaic war-on-drugs-era policy which has been shown to be ineffective, and replace it with a more modern approach, as outlined by such countries as: Sweden, the Netherlands, and Denmark.

    55% of federal prisoners and 21% of state-level prisoners in the United States are incarcerated due to drug-related offenses, and this paradigm stands for other nations as well. 34 countries still tout the death penalty in cases relating to drug trafficking or distribution, and these aren’t small countries, either. The countries with this out-dated policy include the USA, India, and Egypt. The Philippines in particular have been extremely tough on drug distribution. Their punishments have been known to range from life-time imprisonment to human rights abuses, like extrajudicial killing and forced disappearance.

    But how can we remedy these discriminatory policies and orient countries for the better? By passing modernizing legislation. The Netherlands will be our example du jour. The Netherlands has a non-enforcement policy (gedoogbeleid) on soft-drugs. This allows users of cannabis, alcohol, nicotine, and other such drugs to use them freely under certain circumstances. Additionally, these policies include governmentally instituted chemical testing facilities, and drug-use-oversight buildings (as prescribed with the introduction of heroin-assisted treatment of 1998), where victims suffering from hard-drug addiction can go to use drugs under doctor supervision, preventing millions of overdose (O.D.) deaths per year. 

And after all, that is the goal here. Not to imprison more citizens, not to proliferate drug lords and gangs, and certainly not to cause more O.D. deaths and other such incidents that we already have per year. Our goal, on an international scale, is to reduce harm, and as the Nordic countries among others have outlined, progressive and modern approaches are the only scientific way to a better, more drug-clean society.

  • : Madagascar
  • : Alex Dukhan

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