September 16, 2019
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Situation in Sudan

Specialized: United Nations Security Council

Topic: Situation in Sudan

Since 2011, the Republic of the Sudan has been in a state of economic turmoil, edging towards a collapse. As a consequence of the secession of South Sudan in 2011, the Republic of Sudan lost three quarters of its oil production. This loss precipitated political turmoil, which after nearly a decade resulted in a military coup d’état and the ouster of then-President Omar al-Bashir in April 2019. The Bashir administration had implemented emergency economic measures, cutting subsidies down to living essentials, which triggered a series of widespread protests that drove the army to intervene. A Transitional Military Council (TMC) then assumed control of the government, and was met with demands for a civilian government by the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), a coalition of civilian organizations which have been staging acts of civil disobedience in the pursuit of a civilian-led government, free of the influence of the previous president.

Though the terms for the formation of a joint military and civilian transitional government have been agreed upon, the negotiations between the TMC and FFC have been fraught with tension and tragedy. The most salient example is the June 3rd massacre of protesters by TMC forces, which was met with international condemnation. Currently, the military and civilian constituents have agreed to an approximately three-year transition period, during which military and civilian representatives will share governing authority. A sovereign council, cabinet, and legislative body will be comprised of military and civilian nominees, a prime minister will be elected by the pro-democracy movement, ministers of defense and interior will be elected by the military, and other positions will similarly be split between pro-democracy and military representatives. This governing body will pave the way for democratic elections at the end of the transitional period.

The political situation in Sudan, having been precipitated by years of economic and domestic turmoil, is still fragile. The economic future of Sudan in part depends on its relationships with international bodies, which have been tenuous. Heavy sanctions from abroad have hampered its ability to grow economically, and domestic military conflicts in South Kordofan and the Blue Nile regions, which have displaced millions, continue to raise questions regarding human rights abuses. International support to the region, in terms of both humanitarian aid and peacekeeper presence, remains minimal, with Sudanese officials themselves calling for the withdrawal of peacekeeping forces by 2020. Intermittent armed clashes in the South Kordofan, Darfur, and Blue Nile regions remain a constant threat to human rights and political stability in the country. The effects of these domestic crises ripple outward into challenges for Sudan on the international stage, as it attempts to recover economically in the face of damaged relations with the African Union (following the June 3rd massacre), and broader international bodies. Any plan for resolving the Sudan crisis must address all of these multifarious concerns.

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Submitted Position Papers

Country: United States 

Committee: United Nations Security Council

Delegate: Hari Sanil 

Delegation: Troy High School 

Topic: Situation in Sudan

 

On behalf of President Donald J. Trump and the American people, the delegation of the United States of America bids warm wishes to all members of the United Nations Security Council. 

 

After thirty years of authoritarian rule over the Republic of the Sudan, President Omar al-Bashir has been dethroned by the Sudanese people in a coup d’etat. However, new problems have arisen. As the people of Sudan seek to choose their own destiny, the Sudanese military consolidated political power within the sovereign state. The result has been violence, resulting in death, destruction, and public outcry. 

 

The United States of America has long condemned the actions of the Bashir government. Since 1993, the U.S. has classified Sudan as a State Sponsor of Terrorism (SST) and placed sanctions on the nation. The U.S. has also recognized the multiple human rights violations committed by the Bashir government, including genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. 

 

However, as Sudan opens a new chapter in its history, the United States hopes for strong political and economic relations with the new Sudanese government. We fully support the efforts of the Sudanese people to bring the ideas of freedom, liberty, and justice for all through their proposals for democratic rule.  

 

Finally, the United States government makes clear that it has learned from past foreign policy blunders in the region. The actions of the Obama administration in rebuilding Libya led to a failed state where unrest between rebel groups, terrorists, and government forces resulted in the death of U.S. diplomatic officials. 

 

The U.S. will advocate for significant reforms to the Sudanese structure of governance, but we will ensure that government institutions remain strong enough to govern. If our suggested reforms are implemented, the State Department will introduce major changes in American foreign policy that will significantly benefit both Sudan and Africa as a whole. We hope the nations of the Security Council will lead the charge in assisting the Sudanese people. Together, we can make Sudan great again.

  • : United States of America
  • : Hari Sanil

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The situation in Sudan is very unfortunate, and not one that Indonesia would wish on any region.  Indonesia believes that in order for the UN to help Sudan succeed, we must work with the government to suit their needs.  That is, we must work with a government that represents the people of Sudan, only then can we faithfully help Sudan. Indonesia echoes France in saying that the UN must respect the wishes of Sudan to have Peacekeeping forces out by 2020, and that the UN should lift all sanctions on Sudan in order to promote free trade.  Indonesia hopes the Security Council can work with Sudan in order to find a solution that works for Sudan, and respects their sovereignty, while also helping the people of Sudan thrive. The UN should focus on lifting sanctions and economic aid in order to establish a democratic election. This should ensure a government run by the people of Sudan. 

  • : Indonesia
  • : JD Lancaster

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Country: Côte D’ivoire

Committee: Security Council

Topic: Situation in Sudan

Delegate: Jasmine Jacobs

School: Kalamazoo Central High School

 

The situation in Sudan is a huge issue one that we can’t not take lightly. They have little to none economic stability as well as mase political tension throughout their country. Thousands of people are dying and the government is in shambles. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) is refusing to give up power over the government and disagrees with converting their government into a civilian government.

The African Union held a meeting to suspend the Republic of Sudan of all African Union activities until the government becomes a civilian-led Transitional Authority.The  United Nations created a Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) to bring peace and security. The United Nations is doing all it can to help ease the country’s political tension and convert the government to a civilian led authority.

 

As much as we deeply sympathizes with Sudan we can’t put our self in the risky, dangerous and expensive situation of providing support to them. We wholeheartedly believe that Sudan is a capable country and in due time will have made great strides towards its citizens safety and security.

 

  • : Côte D’ivoire
  • : Jasmine Jacobs

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The situation in Sudan is constantly changing, there are protests frequently to ensure the government becomes a democracy.  There is a three-year plan in place, however relations are still fragile between the ordinary civilian population, the Forces for Freedom and Change, and the Transitional Military Council.  When the military first ousted Al-Bashir in April, they brutally cracked down on all protests, it is common for the Transitional Military Council to do whatever is necessary to restore order, even if it gets out of hand like at the June 3rd incident.  The June 3rd incident was unfortunate due to the military killing civilian protesters. The new Sudanese government wishes to have all United Nations troops leave their country by the year 2020, however, the U.N. will most likely have to stay longer to ensure no conflict breaks out between the Transitional Military Council, and the Forces for Freedom and Change like they have before.  

 

China enjoys strong relations with the state of Sudan, even with the new change in government.  China has just recently helped Sudan develop and successfully launch a space satellite designed to monitor their country.  This would not be possible without help from Chinese funding, and Chinese scientists. China has always had strong ties to Sudan, even in the mid 1900’s and will continue to support the Sudanese people.  With frequent funding from China, Sudan has been able to invest the money, while also strengthening its ties to the Chinese state. China has invested close to 10 billion dollars into Sudan, focusing on oil, agriculture, and minerals.  China also invested money into different gas, mineral, and oil pipelines through Sudan and Africa. These pipelines will allow Sudan to quickly move their natural resources quickly through Africa and the Middle East. Currently most oil fields in Sudan are operating at extracting 20,000 barrels of oil a day, however investments are allowing projections of up to 300,000 barrels a day.  Chinese investment into the region has allowed Sudan to create a successful startup economy around oil, gas, and minerals. China wishes to help the new Sudan government overcome this time of instability in order to help it create a strong foundation and let the country flourish with Chinese and United Nations help.  

 

In order to help the country of Sudan it is highly recommended that the United Nations give funding to Sudan’s Transitional Council in order for the country to organize everything needed to create a successful transitional government.  Supporting the Transitional Council will ensure that order can be first be established and stop any unrest from further destabilizing the country. Sudan must have a strong foundation for a government or else the country will be unstable, and will be at risk of collapse. The support for the Transitional Council will allow the relatively new state to successfully establish itself with the support of both China and the United Nations.  It is also important that Sudan’s national sovereignty be respected, Sudan has expressed wishes that all United Nations forces be removed by 2020, this wish it to be respected and enforced. It is important to recognize that national sovereignty would also allow the Transitional Military Council to prosecute the soldiers who were apart of the June 3rd incident, not the United Nations International Court of justice. This is an important step in allowing Sudan become its own country, with its own laws and its own constitution. 

  • : People's Republic of China
  • : Spencer Peters

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Committee: Security Council

Topic: Situation in Sudan
Country: Poland

 

Since the removal of al-Bashir in April, the country of Sudan’s military government was tasked with creating a transitional government to reroute the country for the next three years until its security could allow for government to be restored. Just several days ago, the military council failed to set up this new government, straining its ties with nations involved in its well-being, especially with this being the second extension after the peace deal was signed. As a large producer of oil prior to the economic recession in 2011, the leading cause of the political crisis, Sudan suffered greatly in international trade. Terrorist groups currently have a strong hold in Sudan, making any sort of reform difficult, as their control prevents outreach into many areas in the country. Sudan has already tried to solve this problem, specifically asking the United States for their removal from the terrorism list, and the countries are currently in negotiations.

 

It’s easy to say that the solution to this issue would have to be multi-faceted, able to attack the social, political, and economic crises caused by the recent removal of al-Bashir and the recession. The hard part is creating this said solution. Poland has already cooperated with Sudan on several issues, including migration and agro-processing and even signing an agreement in March of 2016. Due to these past relationships, Poland would like to see the quickest restoration to Sudan’s state of peace and prosperity. The use of economic assistance, such as relaxation of controls on their foreign trade. Poland fully backs the removal of Sudan from the USA state sponsored terrorism list, as its position there prevents it from recieving funding from both the IMF and World Bank, along with ineligibility for debt relief. The beginning of saving Sudan is in economy. Along with these steps, Poland would like to see stabilization on a local level in Sudan, possibly with the use of peacekeepers. Finally, Poland would like to stress the importance of a solution in Sudan that would help to further stabilization in the whole of northern Africa.

  • : Poland
  • : Jane Swartz

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Committee: Security Council

Topic: Situation in Sudan

Country: The United Kingdom

Delegate: Will Lacey, Mattawan High School

 

The situation in Sudan is obviously less than ideal. Dealing with this issue will take a very light and careful touch, ideally with minimal further intervention. However, the massacre by the TMC and the displacement of those in South Kordofan and the Blue Nile region show that we cannot back off completely in order to ensure the safety of the Sudanese people and the establishment of a stable and just government.

 

The UK is happy to support the Sudanese people and the transitional government, and is pleased to see Sudan taking steps towards a democratic government. We also approve of the agreements made between the TMC and FFC, and hope they can continue to maintain diplomatic relations while working through these tense times. We will continue to provide assistance during this period as long as Sudan stays on track, and encourage. However, the domestic clashes and requests for removal of peacekeepers are tricky issues. Any significant intervention in the conflicts may destabilize the transitional government due to their requests for the withdrawal of UN forces, while leaving it be may result in larger-scale conflicts that could also destabilize the government. The UK believes that intervention is a necessity, but we must first negotiate with the Sudanese officials instead of forcing it upon such a volatile and fragile government.

  • : United Kingdom
  • : William Lacey

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Committee: Security Council

Country: The Republic of France

Topic: The Situation in Sudan

Delegate: Robert Janes, East Grand Rapids

 

The Situation in Sudan is one of political turmoil and uncertainty for what the future holds. The Transnational Military Council that is currently in control of the country does not accurately represent the wants of the people, and this has led to violent protests from both sides. France fully supports Sudan, and is a big economic supporter of them, but in order for France to continue to support Sudan, stability is needed.

France would like to see an increase of UN peacekeepers within Sudan, but due to Sudanese officials asking for a removal of all peacekeepers by 2020, this is impossible. Due to not being able to manually stabilize Sudan, France believes it is in the best interest of the security council to remove any sanctions placed on Sudan, and attempt to open new trade lines. By providing economic aid to Sudan, the transition from the TMC to a democratic government will be much smoother, and hopefully prevent any more violent protests from breaking out. France realizes that economic aid is not necessarily the best way to ensure stability within Sudan, it is one of the only options available at the moment. The lack of a sizeable force of peacekeepers currently within Sudan combined with the removal of said peacekeepers by 2020 means any aid to Sudan will have to be through diplomatic relations. France urges the other members of the Security Council to provide aid to Sudan through trade, and believes that any sanctions placed on Sudan will only get in the way of any attempts to de-escalate the tension between the TMF and FFC. 

 

France urges all current members of the Security Council to support Sudan during this transitional period, and do everything in their power to aid a peaceful transition of power. France recognizes that not all members of the Security Council are able to provide financial aid to Sudan, and asks that all members attempt to at the very least maintain favorable relations with Sudan. 

 

  • : France
  • : Robert Janes

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The military coup d’etat of Sudanese president Omar Al-Bashir in April 2019 has lead to massive instability in the nation. The current military regime, the Transitional Military Government (TMC) has committed many heinous acts upon the population of Sudan by brutally putting down protests for a civilian government. Condemnation by the international community and suspension from the African Union (AU) has forced the TMC to slowly give up authority to the civilian constituents in a three-year transitional period. At the end of this period, democratic elections are to be held and the current governing body is to be replaced with a civilian government. The role of the UNSC is to assure that this process will continue to go through and that the previous brutal human rights violations committed by the TMC and the former Bashir government do not happen again.

 

The UN has maintained its two peacekeeping missions in Sudan, United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) and United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA). In June of this year, the AU temporarily suspended Sudan until it was clear that some form of stability was established. Now that the TMC has agreed to transition the government of Sudan in a set amount of time the suspension of Sudan from the AU has been lifted. 

 

Equatorial Guinea believes that Sudan as of now is making the right steps and with some assistance from the international community Sudan can recover from its current crisis. Equatorial Guinea believes that many of the sanctions put on Sudan should be lifted and that the international community should work to revitalize the Sudanese economy. Many of the issues in Sudan are economic and the crisis in Sudan can not be fixed with a failing economy. Sudan must heal its relations with the AU and the broader international community if it hopes to function and succeed on the world stage.

 

Equatorial Guinea reaffirms the solution of the economic stimulation of the Sudanese economy. Support in the form of food, water, and shelter should also be given to the citizens of Sudan who are suffering greatly from the many crises across the nation. The UN also must form a resolution that assures that the transitional government fulfills its promises of holding democratic elections at the end of its three-year transitional period.

  • : Equatorial Guinea
  • : Arjun Singh

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Committee: Security Council

Topic: The Situation in Sudan

Country: The Republic of Peru

Delegate: William Mathias, Forest Hills Northern

 

After the secession of the Republic of South Sudan in 2011, the citizens of the Republic of Sudan experienced socio-political turmoil under the reign of President Omar al-Bashir. A sense of unrest began to grow amongst the citizens as they faced conditions of financial austerity in Sudan’s failing economy. This unrest grew into the coup of President al-Bashir by the Transnational Military Council (TMC) in 2019. Today, there is a tense power struggle between the TMC and the civilian government, the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), which has led to violence, such as the massacre on June 3rd. On top of that, the people of Sudan still need to deal with worsening economic conditions.

The Republic of Peru believes that it is important to the recovery of the Republic of Sudan that the UN Security Council continues to provide aid in the form of UN peacekeeper missions. Sudan has already been grappling with economic sanctions from other countries and human rights violations against its people, so removing or restricting aid to Sudan during what is perhaps its most precarious state of existence would be ludicrous.

 

At the conference, there are many factors that need to be considered to most effectively restore peace within the region, but the increase and continued use of peacekeepers in the region would be a good solution to some of the issues facing Sudan. In these missions, it’s important to promote the protection of human rights and urge both the Sudan governing bodies to do the same. In addition, economic stability is necessary for quelling civil unrest and establishing peace in any country. As such, we should encourage countries to lift sanctions on Sudan as the first step to economic stability.

 

  • : Peru
  • : William Mathias

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  Since April of 2019, the political situation Sudan has lain in murky waters. Yes, the dictator al-Bashir has been deposed, but the citizens of the country are no more free or safe than they were before April 11th. Civil war and unrest still ravage the nation, the economy is no better off, if not worse than it was before.

 

            The Federal Republic of Germany is, however, appreciative of many of the efforts that have been made by both the people and the government of Sudan, as well as the rest of the world. Germany is foremostly thankful for the compromise between the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of Freedom and Change organization in creating their July 17thagreement, especially regarding the drafting of a new constitution and the set transitional period of 3 years and 3 months, terminating on October 17, 2022. The Federal Republic of Germany is also pleased to see the transfer of the case former president al-Bashir to the ICC, where he will be tried on many counts of crimes of war and crimes against humanity. In order to ensure that he is held accountable, Germany calls for his immediate arrest by UN peacekeeping forces.

 

            There is also the issue of the current wave of protests, which started on September 12 of this year and have continued since. Germany implores the new Sovereignty Council formed in the July 17thagreement to engage in formal talks with these organized protesters in order to address their goals (such as that of the employment of a new chief justice) and dialectically approach solutions. In respect of national sovereignty, Germany urges the UN Security Council to not involve ourselves in these meetings but supports the continuation of the current peacekeeping mission (UNMIS) until a Sudanese national stability is achieved. 

 

  • : Federal Republic of Germany
  • : Alex Calderwood

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The Transitional Military Council (TMC) of Sudan has been faced with the daunting tasks these last few months. The trying situation in Sudan has shown us that many violent radicals are scourging the Sudanese representation and have hence skewed the political affiliation in Sudan. Many radical and terrorist groups have since tried to work against the TMC violently while blending in with the Sudanese population. While this situation has masked itself as something needing outside influence to intervene, the Russian Federation will not accept this notion.

The TMC currently in place has shown to be competent, and will deal with these efforts in due time. The authorized action we must implement will be that of support, ushering our gracious efforts to aid them in securing peace against the radicals. The situation in Sudan is a difficult one to ascertain properly, as the Security Council is no doubt aware of. What we must pride ourselves in at this time of crucial turmoil is not that of ignorance, but of a rapturous alignment with the TMC in order to correctly protect their State as well as their citizens. While the radicals have donned military outfits and publicly displayed acts of violence, the Security Council is urged by the Russian Federation to seek clarity in an opaque glass that is the situation in Sudan. 

 

  • : Russian Federation
  • : Matt Catchick

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Committee: Security Council

Topic: Situation in Sudan

Country: Kuwait

 

Sudan has undergone a great deal of turmoil since Omar al-Bashir took over in 1989 and ushered in a dictatorship that would last until he was deposed and arrested in April of 2019. His regime was marked by human rights abuses and economic turmoil, the worst being when the oil rich southern half of the country split away in 2011 and was recognized as an independent state. Despite the intervention of UN peacekeepers since 2005, the conflict has killed thousands. While negotiations between military and civilian representatives have taken place, the state of Sudan is ultimately quite fragile and is desperate for assistance.

The current situation in Sudan is dire. The 2019 revolution threatens an already fragile economy and a transitional government faces many challenges, including an inability for South Sudan to establish a unity government and the need for billions of dollars to prevent the economy from collapsing. Kuwait sympathizes with the population of Sudan, given that they have also experienced a near-collapse due to poor government, when Iraq invaded. Because of this sympathy, Kuwait would support economic and humanitarian aid, including asking the US to remove Sudan from the list of state sponsors of terrorism, allowing more financial aid to enter the country. Kuwait also supports healthcare aid, as Sudan has struggled with disease and starvation following years of war.

 

Kuwait, as a regional partner with Sudan, supports the use of peacekeeping troops to ensure the survival of the legitimate, transitional government. Kuwait believes that once the government is able to establish domestic stability and safety, peacekeeping forces can be withdrawn and can be more focused on helping to train police and maintain a far more subdued presence. Kuwait supports humanitarian aid, in the form of food, medicine, and basic goods to help rebuild the infrastructure after decades of conflict. Kuwait, as a country that is not that far from Sudan, has an interest in seeing that Sudan does not suffer a total collapse. As both countries are producers of oil, Kuwait shares a common economic resource. Kuwait also supports the lifting of sanctions against Sudan and helping to ensure an influx of economic aid to bolster a stable economy.

  • : Kuwait
  • : Katherine Sundeen

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Forest Hills Central

Dominican Republic

Security Council: Situation in Sudan

 

             The Sudan is in the midst of a crisis. Following the violent fracturing of the country in 2011, Sudan experienced almost a decade of political turmoil, which crescendoed in April of this year with the overthrow of long-time dictator Omar al-Bashir. Though encouraged by tentative agreements between the TMC and FFC, the Dominican Republic is deeply concerned that Sudan is teetering on the brink of economic and political collapse, and believes that any such occurrence would be disastrous not only for Sudan, but the region as a whole. Though the Dominican Republic was inducted onto the Security Council for the first time this January, we have worked tirelessly to uphold to principles of this committee, which are to maintain global peace, contain aggression, and foster transparent and stable governments in the most volatile regions of the world. We in the security council have a chance to redeem a failed state and stabilize a region plagued with violence, which is a task and responsibility we cannot shirk.

             There are many current roadblocks to a full Sudanese recovery, but perhaps the most pressing is the low-intensity warfare and potential human rights abuses in Darfur, South Kordofan, and the Blue Nile. While the Dominican Republic firmly backs UNSC Resolutions 1556 and 1564, which called on Sudan to disarm militias, threatened sanctions and condemned their human rights violations, we are also encouraged by the new civilian government’s plan to reach a peace deal in Darfur within the first six months of the military to a civilian transition period. We believe that if this peace deal can be reached, the UN has an obligation to end the UNAMID mission. However, until then, we believe that the mission’s mandate should continue to be extended, while steadily drawing down the UN’s military presence, and ratcheting up humanitarian support and aid. Drawing down peacekeeping operations would put the UN on good terms with the new government, while humanitarian aid would help stabilize the country and calm the wave of discontent sweeping the country. Once the violence and abuse of human rights are halted, the committee can address another major obstacle Sudan faces: crippling economic sanctions. The Dominican Republic believes that these economic restrictions should be gradually reduced on a case by case basis, in which sanctions would be reduced as Sudan takes concrete actions to reduce human rights violations, sponsorship of terrorism and religious freedom violations. This could foster a sustainable economic recovery and a more positive relationship between the new Sudanese government and the international community. This new, more amicable relationship would allow capital and investment to flow into the nation, stimulating economic growth and trade, bringing prosperity to a people desperate for hope.

 

            To solve this crisis, the Dominican Republic believes that this council must take action. In order for the Dominican Republic to support a resolution In any resolution that the Dominican Republic would support, it must first call for a ceasefire and peace deal in each of the three aforementioned regions of Sudan. At the same time, we should renew the UNAMID mission, while drawing down present forces in the region, in accordance with measurable progress made with any peace deal. Simultaneously, the UNSC should call on nations to reduce economic sanctions on Sudan on a case-by-case basis, and step up humanitarian aid to the nation. This council has an opportunity to reverse the course of this failing state, and since these chances seldom come, we must act with courageousness and decisiveness for the greater good of Sudan and East Africa.

  • : Dominican Republic
  • : Alex Shier

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