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Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention

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Economic and Social Council: World Health Organization

Topic: Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised questions about the global community’s preparedness for future pandemics, as well as how pandemics may be prevented. The first COVID-19 case was identified in December of 2019. In January of 2020, researchers mapped the virus’s DNA sequence and made that data publicly available. The COVID-19 vaccine was developed much more quickly than other vaccines because it built upon pre-existing science and research. COVID-19 is part of a trend of increasing outbreaks of infectious disease which has been driven by factors including globalization, urbanization, and climate change.

Disease surveillance is essential for responding to epidemics and pandemics; public-health decision makers need accurate and timely information to assess an outbreak (or potential outbreak) and begin appropriate countermeasures. Establishing systems for collaboratively sharing health information across borders is an area of ongoing work. In addition, inequalities in access to healthcare continues to be a problem; half of the world’s population lack access to essential health services. Responding to disease outbreaks can require a wide variety of resources from laboratories to study disease, medical staff to test for and treat disease, as well as personal protective equipment, medications, and vaccines. Vaccine equity is the principle that every should have access to vaccines and that vaccine distribution should be based on need rather than economic status. In the rollout of the COVID-19 vaccine, the vaccine was distributed more widely and quickly in high-income nations while many low-income nations lacked access. Efforts to address this have included the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) initiative.

In December 2021 the World Health Organization decided to convene an intergovernmental negotiating body to draft a new international accord or convention on the topic of pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response. Adding shared principles to international law in this way is one tool within a broad range of strategies to address this issue. One model for pandemic preparedness is the 100 Days Mission, which sets the goal that within 100 days after the identification of a pandemic threat, vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic tests should be available, safe, effective, and affordable. Another strategy is to identify and research “prototype pathogens,” i.e., viruses and viral families which pose a significant threat. In addition, since a majority of viruses have an animal origin, interventions addressing the context and frequency of contact between humans and animals may reduce the chance of new diseases emerging; this perspective is part of the “one health” approach. Given the international nature of pandemics, it is the task of the World Health Organization to determine the most effective and equitable methods prevent pandemics and increase preparedness for pandemics.

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Submitted Position Papers

Gregory Poole 11/29/2023 20:27:19 64.136.227.206

Topic:
Country: Bangladesh
Delegate Name: Chase Richards

Committee: The United Nations General Assembly & Crisis
Topic: Pandemic Preparedness and Preparation
Country: Bangladesh
The People’s Republic of Bangladesh acknowledges the critical importance of
pandemic preparedness and prevention in ensuring global health security. Bangladesh
has been actively engaged in international efforts to address health crises and remains
committed to collaborative strategies to mitigate the impact of pandemics.
Bangladesh recognizes the severe consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and
acknowledges the need for comprehensive preparedness measures. Our nation has
implemented various public health interventions, including widespread testing, contact
tracing, and vaccination campaigns, to curb the spread of the virus.
Vaccination Campaigns: Bangladesh is committed to global vaccine equity and has
actively participated in vaccine-sharing initiatives. We call upon the international
community to support developing nations with adequate vaccine supplies to ensure
universal vaccination coverage. Health Infrastructure: Bangladesh is investing in
strengthening its healthcare infrastructure, ensuring that it is resilient in the face of
future pandemics. We advocate for increased international collaboration to enhance the
capacity of healthcare systems in developing countries. Research and Development:
Bangladesh supports initiatives that promote research and development in the field of
infectious diseases. We encourage increased funding for research on emerging
pathogens and the development of innovative medical technologies.
Data Sharing: Bangladesh emphasizes the importance of transparent and timely
information sharing among nations to facilitate a swift response to emerging health
threats. Capacity Building: Bangladesh calls for increased international support to
enhance the capacity of developing nations in pandemic preparedness, including
training healthcare professionals and establishing emergency response teams. Global
Health Security Framework: Bangladesh supports the development of a robust global
health security framework that ensures the equitable distribution of resources,
expertise, and technologies to address pandemics effectively.
The People’s Republic of Bangladesh believes that a collective and coordinated
international response is essential to address the challenges of pandemic preparedness
and prevention. We remain committed to actively contributing to global efforts to build a
resilient and responsive global health system.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 23:25:47 69.14.167.131

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Algeria
Delegate Name: Leah Milligan

11/22/23
Submitted to: World Health Organization
From: Algeria
Subject: Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention

Both aspects of Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention are crucial to maintaining a healthy, peaceful and economically stable world. Pandemic preparedness means having the plans and equipment to eradicate a disease as soon as it is noticed. Pandemic prevention is having equipment and plans to reduce the risk of even having a pandemic. And while Algeria believes both aspects are crucial, we believe that the most benefit comes from pandemic prevention. When we work to prevent, we ultimately save resources and lives.
Algeria has a past of struggling with outbreaks, but dedication to eradicating diseases has been worth it, as seen by the accomplishment of being the second country in Africa to eliminate malaria(1), a deadly and heartbreaking virus. And while Covid-19 has created quite a few challenges to pandemic prevention, we still continue to work to prevent diseases.
Algeria is one of the few African countries that provides free healthcare to all of its citizens(2), which has improved our ability to prevent diseases. This provides easier access to prevention equipment, specifically vaccines, which is possible because free health care means citizens don’t have to go out of their ways, and paychecks, to prevent an outbreak, therefore contributing to pandemic prevention.
Another important subtopic is access to a well trained health workforce. According to the Africa CDC, “Prevention and reduction of Malaria transmission can be done by vector control strategies which include insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying.”(3) If this were to be done, there would be no need to continuously spend money on getting rid of mosquitos, when we can spend less to make sure mosquitos never come; ultimately saving lives and money. There is no way to prevent a disease without a well trained workforce, though. This is why, for this committee, Algeria is suggesting that the World Health Organization develop a WHO-sponsored disease prevention and preparedness training program. This would involve a month-long course that would train any citizen how to do things such as setting up mosquito nets and teaching how to safely use mass bug spray safely. The cost would pay off because after the disease is eradicated, there will be no need to spend so much funding on supplies to end a never ending disease , and funding could be used to better improve healthcare systems elsewhere. .Algeria looks forward to collaborating with other nations to find feasible methods of pandemic preparedness and prevention

(1)WHO. Algeria.pdf. 2021, www.ghsindex.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/Algeria.pdf.
(2)“A Guide to the Healthcare System in Algeria for Expats.” Expat Financial – Global Insurance for Expats, expatfinancial.com/healthcare-information-by-region/african-healthcare-system/algeria-healthcare-system/#:~:text=Algerian%20Healthcare%20System%20for%20Expats. Accessed 23 Nov. 2023.
(‌3)Malaria. (n.d.). Africa CDC. Retrieved November 23, 2023, from https://africacdc.org/disease/malaria/#:~:text=Prevention%20and%20reduction%20of%20Malaria

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/22/2023 20:04:37 172.58.121.169

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Spain
Delegate Name: Will Allen

WHO
Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Spain
Will Allen

Spain, like most other nations, had a severe outbreak of COVID-19. As of November 20, 2023, Spain has had close to 14 million cases. Although our health care infrastructure is strong, we still faced unprecedented challenges, esspecially at the beginning of the pandemic, as we were among the most affected countries. Citizens in rural areas of Spain were the most vulnerable, due to their higher median age and lack of availability to resources. This emphasizes the need for a more comprehensive healthcare system, not just here, but globally.
We are also not alone in our beliefs that thre is a need for a unified, global action against this pandemic and preventing furtue ones. The World Health Organization in 2021 establshed an international negotiating body, emphaszing the global collaboration needed to attack such an issue.
Some specific goals that Spain belives are, Improving disease surveying capabilities, globally sharing information related to disease breakouts and medical advancements, and equitable vaccine distribution.
Spains belifes in managing any future pandemic are rooted in a global commitment to solidarity in information sharing and assisting those who need it most.

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Trevor Riley 11/22/2023 16:31:23 174.162.60.153

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Canada
Delegate Name: Arpita Das

Climate change has been an issue since the dawn of time, specifically in the 1800s. However I think the issue with being able to combat isn’t necessarily solving it, it’s more so trying to figure out where the main source of the problem is coming from, which can be daunting to think about when it’s a worldwide problem. (Iberdrola) states that out of all the countries in the world, Canada is one of the 24 countries in the world most affected by climate change.

Now regardless of the fact whether or not countries have taken a big hit to such an impact that indirectly affects us whether we know it or not, climate change is still among us, and it’s not going anywhere. It’s been said since the beginning of time that the world would come to an end in 2000 and then now it’s predicted in 2050 that trees are going to burn down and no wildlife will be prevailing on the streets of earth. But who’s to say that all of this information is ethical, and where is the evidence coming from? Because clearly, it was a myth when it was predicted that the world would end in the year 2000. We are still living, and as of November of 2022, the world population reached 8 billion.

Obviously, there are many contributing factors to climate change such as air pollution, a commission from factories, industrial smog, Volatile Air Compounds, toxic greenhouse gases, and so much more. As you’ve now just seen here, it’s easy to identify the sources, but how can we resolve them?

And because we are now in the generation of saving turtles by not using plastic straws and caring about the environment, just because it’s a trend that you see on social media doesn’t mean it’s still important. The severity of Climate Change isn’t a trend, and it shouldn’t ever have to be. But because of the way human destruction has changed the nature of our world, it’s hard to believe whether people actually care if we’ll even have a planet to call Earth tomorrow. Although Canada is not the most environmentally friendly country in the world, it’s up there.

According to (Canada.ca) as of 2021, Clean Energy Canada released a statement with the following goals that the nation hopes to accomplish. From 2015 to 2019 Canada has invested over 100 billion dollars towards Canada’s green recovery since October 2020. And by 2023, Canada hopes to reduce is greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 40 to 45 percent. And because of this plan they created, they have created sources for funding to support such a large project. The Canada Greener Homes Grant has provided close to a million households in Canada alone with grants up to $5,000 dollars to make housing more eco-friendly. And if that wasn’t already enough they have started to implement housing inspections within their plans, specifically 10 million dollars have been apportioned towards homeowners to make sure the evaluation of the house are up to date with Health standards. And this is just a tiny percentage of what Canada hopes to accomplish in the future with it’s plans for revolutionizing Climate Change. Just from this evidence alone, it is evident that Canada has lot of actions being set in action to combat the crisis, but this is only possible if other nations as well as countries work around the world to make this plan both more sustainable and consistent with the world.

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Trevor Riley 11/22/2023 16:27:14 174.162.60.153

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Saudi Arabia
Delegate Name: Khai-Thi Pham

6,978,175 confirmed deaths from COVID-19. Additionally 771,820,937 confirmed cases of COVID-19. This devastation raged across the world with rapid speed and has shown the dangers of epidemics, now more than ever. These travesties have highlighted the need for readiness, action, and interception of any other disease that begs to plague the human race. Failure to fulfill these needs is a gateway to disaster. While the problem may be resolved, for now, the fear has stayed, and now the delegates of the WHO must employ solutions.

COVID-19 spread across the world, and Saudi Arabia is no exception. Nonetheless, unlike other nations, COVID-19 was acknowledged as a national priority right from the start of the pandemic. Saudi Arabia had a strong commitment from the nation’s highest authorities. We believe care should be accessible regardless of who you are. In turn, we provided free COVID-19 services, testing, and treatment to everyone, including individuals with irregular residency status. Even before the first case was reported on March 2, 2020, Saudi Arabia was organizing services and arranging supplies, as well as putting social and public health precautions in place to stop the virus’s spread. As for current preventative measures, “Vision 2030” this mission covered 6 priority pillars of the COVID-19 response: partnership and coordination; laboratory diagnostics; infection prevention and control (IPC); health information management and surveillance; risk communication and community engagement (RCCE); and vaccination.

Saudi Arabia emphasizes the need for an enhanced global surveillance system, utilizing advanced technologies and data-sharing mechanisms to detect and monitor potential outbreaks promptly. The Kingdom supports the WHO’s role in coordinating international efforts to establish a comprehensive and real-time global surveillance network. Saudi Arabia underscores the importance of investing in the capacity-building of healthcare professionals, first responders, and community health workers. The Kingdom supports initiatives that provide training and resources to enhance the readiness and resilience of healthcare systems in the face of pandemics. The Kingdom advocates for increased funding and collaboration in research and development to accelerate the discovery of vaccines, treatments, and diagnostics for emerging infectious diseases. Saudi Arabia supports the establishment of a global research and development fund to ensure equitable access to medical advancements. Saudi Arabia encourages the development and implementation of policies that strengthen national and regional health systems, ensuring their ability to cope with increased demand during pandemics. The Kingdom supports international partnerships for the exchange of best practices in health system strengthening. The Kingdom underscores the importance of international cooperation and solidarity in addressing pandemics. Saudi Arabia calls for a collective commitment to sharing information, expertise, and resources to ensure an effective and coordinated global response. The Kingdom reiterates its dedication to collaborative efforts within the World Health Organization to enhance pandemic preparedness and prevention. By working together, the international community can build a more resilient and responsive global health system capable of addressing the challenges posed by current and future pandemics.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 16:13:05 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Italy
Delegate Name: Sophia Mahajerin

COVID-19 has had a major impact on the entire world. Originating in China, COVID-19 infected a tremendous number of Italian citizens, with 26,257,548 reported cases, resulting in 192,554 deaths. Globally, however, there have been 771,820,937 confirmed cases, and 6,978,175 deaths, according to the World Health Organization. The magnitude of this pandemic necessitates a global response. Italy has been quite negatively affected by this virus, with an especially damaged economy that was impacted more than other European countries. The United Nations has addressed the pandemic through three main plans- the Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan to address immediate health needs, the Global Humanitarian Response Plan to ease the impacts in the 50 most vulnerable countries, and the UN framework for the immediate socio-economic response to deliver rapid recovery.

Italy recognizes the detrimental impact COVID-19 has had on citizens both domestic and abroad. Italy is one of the countries that was hit the hardest by COVID-19, being one of the first European countries to experience the pandemic. 26,257,548 cases were reported in Italy overall. Italy underwent a lockdown of the entire country as an effect of the first outbreak in 2020. With progress in pandemic control, those original travel restrictions have since been lifted. The National Library of Medicine says that even though COVID-19 policies were decided at the national level, the Italian provinces participated in roundtables with the central government during policy decision-making. Italy is a part of the United Nations, World Health Organization (WHO), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/ World Trade Organization (WTO), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Council of Europe, all of which have addressed this global issue. Through their involvement with the World Health Organization, Italy is supporting their COVID-19 prevention plan. WHO plans to provide global coordination and member state support on vaccine safety monitoring. WHO is also working to improve global capacity, and access to oxygen production, distribution, and supply to patients.

The Italian Republic proposes the implementation of effective healthcare systems throughout the international community. Resources should be available to anybody, anywhere. Poorer countries should be assisted by wealthier countries who are willing to fund other countries’ healthcare systems and hospitals. Treatments like vaccinations should be an option for every country, and every citizen, as pandemics like COVID-19 are global issues. We would like to see an overall increase of vaccination rates globally. Italy will commit to helping fund resources for the effective delivery of pandemic preparedness in other countries. A pandemic by definition is a global event, that therefore requires a global response, which is why Italy will commit to working with others, to address any future worldwide health crisis.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 16:05:44 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: India
Delegate Name: Xindy Jiang

COVID-19 has affected the entire global community throughout a widespread virus that has originated in Wuhan, China. Over the past few years, 760 million cases and 6.9 million deaths have been recorded since December of 2019. This pandemic has been spread through physical contact and airborne transmission such as being too close to an infected person, coughing, and sneezing. India has been largely affected by this widespread virus with 44.70 million cases and more than 500,000 deaths. With a plethora of diseases and new possible variants of COVID-19, we face many new outbreaks of new viruses throughout the world as time progresses. According to WHO’s Disease Outbreak News (DON) there have been more than 60 reports of outbreaks worldwide starting from Janurary of 2023. Common airborne diseases that still present a huge health concern to many countries are still impacting us, with examples like Influenza, Measles, and the most recent, COVID-19.

As a country who is ranked second on the worlds most populated countires, India has a population of approximately 1.4 billion people (since 2023), therefore, widespread diseases can be easily transmitted throughout the daily lives of many people and can place a heavy burden on the countries economic and social infrastructure. Additionally, India plays an important part in the global supply chain, so if any of the regions near or in South Asia becomes affected by a widespread virus, then the global economy of the world would collapse. Even first world countries would be presented by many problems such as inflation, scarcity, unemployment, loss of income, and many more. As of today, the United States Center for Disease and Control (CDC) has collaborated with the goverment of India and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and has been very sucsessful with addressing their public health priorities. CDC and many other national partneres are prepared to facilliate global health security capabilities.

India proposes to launch a global initiative on strengthening and providing better healthcare systems throughout the world, especially second and third-world countries. Every country should be supplied healthcare technology, including a sustainable amount of medical devices, doctors, and scientists in the fields of medicine and epidemiology. India also believes that a secure quarantine system should be established in every country or region in case of any outbreak. We can learn from COVID-19 that early detection of diseases and viruses are essential to prevention of outbreaks. Therefore, we promote safe quarintine practices, depending on the intensity of the disease. For example, if the outbreak is spreading rapidly, quarintines should be set firmly within the area or city of origin until the disease has been detected or contained. People should practice social distancing as well as wearing masks, and even limiting social gatherings and events. If there is no virus present, then everyone can take causal precautions. In addition, airports and shipping ports should have strict policies of detecting viruses and a better cleaning system to prevent the transmission of diseases. The stronger these systems become, the better chances we will have to prevent and prepare for a pandemic.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:46:47 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Sudan
Delegate Name: Rachel Hyun

The Republic of Sudan finds itself at the intersection of a global health crisis, facing the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. As a nation, we recognize the gravity of the situation and are committed to charting a course that prioritizes public health, economic stability, and international cooperation. Sudan is acutely aware of the strain the pandemic has placed on our healthcare system. Despite inherent challenges, the government has implemented robust public health initiatives aimed at raising awareness, educating the populace on preventive measures, and dispelling misinformation. We acknowledge the importance of a well-informed public in the collective effort to combat the spread of the virus. The vaccination campaign in Sudan stands as a testament to our dedication to public health. Recognizing the critical role vaccines play in curbing the transmission of the virus, Sudan is actively working to ensure equitable access to vaccines for all citizens. However, challenges such as vaccine distribution, availability, and global supply chain issues persist, highlighting the need for sustained international collaboration.
Sudan understands the economic ramifications of the pandemic, especially for vulnerable populations and small businesses. In response, the government has implemented targeted economic support measures to mitigate the impact of lockdowns and restrictions. We acknowledge that a comprehensive recovery requires not only national initiatives but also global solidarity and support. Sudan recognizes that the fight against COVID-19 knows no borders. As such, we actively engage with international organizations and neighboring countries to share information, resources, and best practices. We believe that a united front is essential in tackling this unprecedented global challenge. While Sudan is committed to navigating the COVID-19 storm, we face challenges that require international support. Economic constraints and the need for enhanced healthcare infrastructure are pressing issues that demand collaborative solutions. We call on the international community to provide financial and logistical assistance, ensuring that no nation is left behind in this global effort.
In conclusion, Sudan acknowledges the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and stands committed to a multifaceted approach that prioritizes public health, economic stability, and international cooperation. The journey ahead is challenging, but with collective effort and solidarity, we believe we can overcome the current crisis and emerge stronger and more resilient. The Republic of Sudan remains an active participant in the global fight against COVID-19, working towards a healthier and safer future for all.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 14:55:58 99.24.174.246

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Nigeria
Delegate Name: AidenFraleyburgett

In Nigeria’s history there has been many pandemics that have affected our country and Nigeria has suffered to those pandemics so we must work to prevent them. Pandemics affect Nigeria very negatively because they always have bad economic impacts on our country the country had its worst economic state since the 1980s during the COVID-19 crisis which is why we must work to prevent them.
Nigeria believes we should take pandemics more seriously when they’re reported and move faster to shut down global travel.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:54:35 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Eve Orban

In the year 2020, the world faced the biggest global health disaster of the century: the COVID-19 pandemic. This pandemic has had devastating economic and societal effects. The world’s collective GDP fell by 3.9 percent, the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression. More than 50% of households in emerging and advanced economies were unable to sustain basic consumption for more than three months due to income loss in 2020. The world output by the end of 2021 was more than 4 percentage points below the pre-pandemic trend. It created unrest in society and unusual changes in lifestyle- the amount of employees working remotely prior to the pandemic was 30%, compared to 48% at present. In quarantine, there was an increase in domestic violence and feelings of isolation and depression due to lack of outside contact. Most importantly, the virus has claimed over 6 million lives. The world simply was not ready for a calamity like this.

Brazil faced heavy struggles during the COVID-19 pandemic. The nation’s case count- the second highest globally- is 30 million with over 700,000 calculated deaths. Their GDP went down by roughly 4.3 percent during 2020. Brazil’s former president, Jair Bolsonaro, expressed skepticism about the preventative procedures that were being implemented worldwide and also generated conspiracy theories regarding the disease. This led to a slower governmental response and clashes between himself, others within the government, and the Brazilian people, leading to what many consider a “failure” to correctly combat the disease. After this crisis, Brazil, under the office of Luiz Inácio Lula de Silva, who has criticized Bolsonaro’s handling of the pandemic, is committed to bolstering their Unified Healthcare System (SUS) and preventing another such disaster. Brazil is involved with the Pan American Health Organization, which monitors the performance of the health sector, facilitates learning, fosters the improvement of methodologies and technologies, and encourages sustainability and the exchange of successful experiences. In 2022, Brazil signed a 2022-2027 Country Cooperation Strategy with the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, in which one of the points was the goal to recover, improve and strengthen health services and priority programs impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Bolsa Family Grant and The Auxílio Brasil Program aim to address impoverished parts of the country and provide them with equitable care.

The Federative Republic of Brazil encourages the United Nations to bolster and create more initiatives to increase pandemic preparedness, such as equitable access to vaccinations and healthcare, regional collaboration, technology to provide healthcare services, and the implementation of necessary measures to reduce the spread of disease. Countries should join initiatives like the Preparedness and Resilience for Emerging Threats (PRET) in order to support programs that aim to solve pandemic related problems. Brazil is willing to donate money and resources to lower-income nations in order to help the strengthening of global healthcare.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:23:55 24.127.84.79

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Brianna Christenson

In light of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, preparedness and prevention actions are pivotal to ensure that communities, governments, and all sections of society are better prepared to develop adequate responses to future pandemics. Pandemics are large disease outbreaks that affect several countries and pose major health, social, and economic risks. Pandemic preparedness constitutes that activities have to be undertaken to the health facility levels to be able to respond effectively to disease outbreaks.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain’s pandemic preparation was inadequate. Major reforms to the United Kingdom’s public health structures, and a decade of underfunding, meant public health systems across the United Kingdom entered the pandemic without the resources, workforce, or structures they needed to successfully shape and influence governments’ responses to COVID-19. However, the United Kingdom is committed to doing what it can to help strengthen health systems. Prime Minister Andrew Mitchell issued a statement declaring that the United Kingdom is committed to doing what it can to help strengthen health systems. And to work with partners to ensure that safe and effective vaccines, medicines and tests are available during pandemics to all who need them, when they need them. Also, The United Kingdom is on their way to championing a new reform to their international financial institutions, in order to release more finance to lower- and middle-income countries. The United Kingdom is delving into investing in the Pandemic Fund and other funds to strengthen preparedness and to ensure that when the next pandemic strikes, faster funding is available.

In 2022, Prime Minister Boris Johnson declared that the United Kingdom will give £25 million to fund a new World Bank fund to prevent, prepare for and respond to future devastating pandemics. The new fund will help fill some of the financing gaps exposed by COVID-19, distinctly insufficient financing for preparedness in national health systems and disease surveillance at country, regional and global levels. The United Kingdom also has announced that over £370 million is being donated to strengthen global health security. This will help tackle deadly diseases in Africa while expanding the United Kingdom Vaccine Network programme. This has been put in place to establish research and technical partnerships in Africa and the Indo-Pacific.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 13:23:52 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Jordan
Delegate Name: Arya Aggarwal

Pandemic preparedness and prevention are essential functions of any government. Individual countries must be prepared to maintain their organization under epidemic circumstances, and this has been made even more apparent by the COVID-19 pandemic, which ravaged many unprepared nations. The delegation from The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, or just Jordan, recognizes this and emphasizes the importance of pandemic preparation on the part of both individual nations and the United Nations as a whole. Jordan’s consistently high amount of medical tourism, estimated at around 250,000 foreign patients per year, proves that Jordan’s medical care is extremely high in quality. The delegation of Jordan believes that other nations should follow in Jordan’s footsteps and invest more in their medical fields.

Many tourists are attracted to Jordan’s medical care and healthcare due to the decreased wait times and affordable care that one receives. In recent years, with the COVID-19 pandemic, Jordan handles things swiftly and effectively. Around 15% of the population, or 1.7 million people were affected by coronavirus. Of this, 99.2% of people made full recoveries. Only 0.8% of people passed, which is 0.1% of the population in general. Globally, about 1.1% of recorded covid cases resulted in deaths, which is a larger amount than Jordan as a nation. With COVID-19 as well as other pandemics, Jordan has demonstrated the ability to efficiently take precautions and safety measures that help to minimize the deadliness that can leave other nations in shambles. For example, the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework was utilized. The goal of this was to better the nation’s communication in terms of protection, data, and prevention.

In case of another pandemic or health crisis in the future, Jordan is in favor of continuing to maintain a good communication system in terms of public health. This includes collaboration with other countries, such as the United States, to share and obtain information about a situation that can benefit the nation at large. If nations can go into a future pandemic with an effective shutdown plan, an array of preventative measures/protocols, and a common consensus of how to handle the situation, another catastrophic, worldwide disaster such as COVID-19 can be avoided.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 13:13:24 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Rwanda
Delegate Name: Adam Bonde

Following the devastating coronavirus pandemic that surfaced throughout the whole world, it has become evident that Rwanda must prepare and combat another potential virus. In the past 20 years, Rwanda’s medical system has been on a major uprise, leading it to be the leader in healthcare in the East African Region. However, as 2020 struck hitting Rwanda with the coronavirus, new challenges in controlling an infectious disease emerged for them. To combat this issue, they utilized methods such as case counts – counting how many cases of corona there were, prevention and screening protocols – checking for the disease and testing, treatment and facility practices – facilities for treatment of the virus, and behavioral guidelines for the public – essentially spacing from one person to another like the 6-foot rule.
Consequently, after these protocols were engaged Rwanda recorded 8,383 coronavirus cases, 6,542 recoveries, and 92 deaths just shy of a year post-first case. From January to December the Ministry of Health, the Rwanda Biomedical Centre, and the Epidemic and Surveillance Response Division collaborated on preparative measures. Following this 12-month excursion between these organizations; the formation of a joint task force for the Coronavirus National Preparedness and Response Plan happened. This led to an extensive 6-month plan that involved a national incident management system detailing four comprehensive segments; being dissemination of public information through drones, robots for screening and inpatient care, and official communications using social media to stop the spread of misinformation.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 13:10:59 76.192.146.195

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Cosmo Steffke

When COVID-19 started spreading on a global scale, countries scrambled to control the virus. Even though COVID had global attention, it still took over a year to develop and start administering vaccines. As a result, over three million people died in 2020 alone. COVID-19 serves as an important reminder to the world that pandemic planning will save lives, and that it should take priority. A combination of infection control, proper vaccination, and emphasis on public health can easily stop a pandemic in its tracks.

During COVID-19, Japan had one of the lowest disease incidence rates worldwide while having an urbanization rate of 91.8%. From the start, Japan has implemented strategies to curb the pandemic, including a declaration of a national emergency, lockdowns, and increased cluster-based transmission tracking. These measures combined with their high-quality health-care system made for incredibly low transmission. Japan’s healthcare has one of the highest budgets out of any country currently, with 11.5% of GDP going to it. This emphasis on public health allows diseased patients to have access to care that also mitigates the severity of the virus, drastically lowering the mortality rates. Japan’s population is also incredibly healthy and receptive to government mandates. Japan had much more lax lockdowns compared to global procedures, with no mandatory “stay at home” mandates, but many citizens still stayed at home when given the option.

Japan has shown its ability to mitigate pandemics with ease. However, countries with little to no plans for pandemic prevention and less developed healthcare systems need to address this. Japan advocates for budget allocation to poorer countries with a focus on increasing access to healthcare and vaccinations and global transmission tracking infrastructure to prevent future pandemic spread. This cannot be done without cooperation, and we as a nation will help to achieve this goal as much as we can.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2023 13:05:56 98.97.2.135

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: China
Delegate Name: Liz Schafer

Liz Schafer
Williamston High School
People’s Republic of China
Economic and Social Council: World Health Organization
Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention

COVID-19 has devastated the entire world since the first identified case in December of 2019, leaving millions of people dead, disabled, and severely disadvantaged. It is fortunate that a vaccine was quickly developed and distributed, however the fact remains that many did not have access to the vaccine or effective healthcare and suffered extensively as a result (Poole). Countries that have had over thirty million cases of COVID-19 include the United States of America, India, France, Germany, Brazil, Republic of Korea, and Japan. Countries that have had over two-hundred thousand deaths due to COVID-19 include the United States of America, Brazil, India, Russian Federation Mexico, the United Kingdom, and Peru (Countries Where COVID-19 Has Spread). COVID-19, however, is not the only pandemic the world has battled. The world has had an outbreak of monkeypox, chickenpox, avian influenza, measles, bubonic plague, swine flu, and much more. By observing the effectiveness and efficiency of past preventive measures, there is a lot to improve.
Within the first 50 days of known COVID-19 cases, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were aware of the increasing amount of cases that were quickly evolving into a pandemic. The known origin of COVID-19, Wuhan’s Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, was identified and swiftly closed to prevent further cases. By January 1st, 2020, China’s neighbors were notified of the outbreak and strongly advised to screen any individuals traveling from China for flu-like symptoms. Unfortunately, people who had visited Wuhan and its seafood market traveled within China and internationally. During this time, China introduced the “dynamic clearing” method of which has three main aspects: the swift detection of the sources of infection, quickly intervening by restricting public gatherings, and effective treatment. However, this method does not come without risks and may severely effect the economic growth of a country (Wang, Quansheng, Huang).
China plans to further improve the dynamic clearing method and urge other countries to practice this method as well. Furthermore, China strongly urges quicker communication of information relating to genomic sequencing data and pathogens, an “One Health” line of attack, and efficient and equitable access to preventive care and treatment (Cullinan, Fletcher). Countries that China would like to help include the United States of America, Thailand, and Japan.
Works Cited
Allam, Zaheer. “The First 50 Days of Covid-19: A Detailed Chronological Timeline and Extensive Review of Literature Documenting the Pandemic.” Surveying the Covid-19 Pandemic and Its Implications, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 24 July 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378494/.
“China.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/china/. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.
“China: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard With Vaccination Data.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, covid19.who.int/region/wpro/country/cn. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.
“Countries Where COVID-19 Has Spread.” Worldometer, www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/countries-where-coronavirus-has-spread/. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.
Cullinan, Kerry, and Elaine Ruth Fletcher. “China Nixes Proposal to Grant Who Rapid Access to Outbreak Sites in Critical Talks about Pandemic Response .” Health Policy Watch, 11 Jan. 2022, healthpolicy-watch.news/china-nixes-who-access/.
Poole, Gregory. “Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention.” GLICA.Org, GLICA.org, 7 Oct. 2023, glica.org/glica-conferences/glimun-2023-conference/glimun-2023-committees/pandemic-preparedness-and-prevention/.
Wang, Quansheng, and Lansong Huang. “China’s ‘Dynamic Clearing’ Epidemic Prevention Policy: Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects.” Frontiers in Public Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 14 Sept. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9516291/#:~:text=Faced%20with%20this%20major%20public,have%20been%20promptly%20and%20effectively.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 11:52:39 99.36.129.201

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Ukraine
Delegate Name: Allison Edwards

Ukraine
Allison Edwards – Forest Hills Northern High School
Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention

Pandemic preparedness is a global issue that has been brought to light by COVID-19. Ukraine has been put in a unique position as the nation tries to prioritize the health of its people while being at war with Russia.

Before COVID-19 Ukraine was not prepared to fight a pandemic. In order to combat this, Ukraine worked alongside the EU to mitigate the unpreparedness in many ways. Ukraine developed a new healthcare structure by following the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement which helped put new regulations in place to ensure the safety and health of citizens.
The Ukrainian Public Health Center (UPHC) was responsible for the handling of COVID-19 and other transmittable diseases.

Ukraine did not have a National Preparedness Plan regarding any pandemics, which caused issues during COVID-19. The UPHC was responsible for the handling of the pandemic as well as the Ministry of Health.
Ukraine plans to enact stronger measures regarding pandemic preparedness and still has a long way to go in preparing for pandemics.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 11:50:09 99.36.129.201

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Ukraine
Delegate Name: Allison Edwards

Ukraine
Allison Edwards – Forest Hills Northern High School
Climate Change and Public Health

The Nation of Ukraine is recognized by the Climate Change Knowledge Portal as an at-risk country for many hazards. Such as floods and natural disasters, which can harm the daily lives of many in Ukraine. Additionally, the conflict between Ukraine and the nation of Russia has exacerbated the climate problems the nation of Ukraine has been facing.

The carbon impact of the war along with the multitude of greenhouse gas emissions is a cause for concern. It can have many effects on public health such as higher temperatures, longer periods of heat, and increased rainfall.
Ukraine has created the National Recovery Council for Recovery and one of the goals of the council is to mitigate the climate change impact due to the war. Additionally, a third of Ukraine’s post-war spending will be spent on “green” energy.

Although the nation of Ukraine has just emerged from the war, they are taking proactive steps to ensure the safety and well-being of its people.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 10:04:52 99.36.130.186

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Cuba
Delegate Name: Harriet Ogilvie

Committee: World Health Organization
Topic: Pandemic Preparedness
Country: Cuba
Delegate: Harriet Ogilvie, FH Northern HS
Pandemics are constantly threatening the health of people around the world. With the most recent being the COVID-19 Pandemic. When the COVID-19 Pandemic hit we saw astounding impacts on trade and economic fluctuation, and it created financial instability. Throughout the world, researchers are constantly looking for ways to prevent the spread of diseases and develop effective countermeasures as well as ways to prepare economically for pandemics.
On March 11, 2023, COVID-19 arrived in Cuba. Throughout the next few years, Cuba was able to productively combat COVID-19. Cuba’s health care system follows a system of equity. This allowed Cuba’s response to COVID-19 to be effective. Most of their resources first went to help those in the lower socioeconomic strata working their way up to the higher strata. Cuba created a plan to combat COVID-19 beginning with preventive measures in the communities. Cuba also creates laboratories to research the virus. Case tracking, their research, and the pandemic protocols allowed the virus to be controlled. Out of Cuba’s 1,115,150 cases, there were a total of 8,530 deaths. Despite having a productive medical response to the pandemic, Cuba’s economy suffered. Just before the pandemic, President Trump increased economic sanctions, and Venezuela Cuba’s benefactor went into crisis, finally due to COVID-19 the tourism industry failed.
Cuba did little during this unfortunate economic point during the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, Cuba is slowly rebuilding the tourism industry, but Cuba’s economic status is still struggling. There are limited efforts to help rebuild the economy. Regarding medical preparedness, healthcare workers took training courses and created the plan for the Ministry of Public Health. When the first cases of COVID-19 came to Cuba the healthcare workers had a protocol. Additionally, Cuba wanted to be independent when it came to creating vaccines. Cuba had a well-prepared platform for vaccination medicine. They were able to create vaccines fast due to their previous vaccination research happening before the pandemic hit.
Cuba understands the significant impact pandemics have on a country’s being. Cuba believes that in the case of another pandemic, Cuba will be able to have an effective medical plan. On the other hand, the impending hardships of another pandemic will greatly shake Cuba’s economy. Cuba needs to increase its efforts to build the economy, but due to Cuba’s reluctance to work with other countries, it will be difficult to rebuild the economy. However, it is necessary to handle another possible pandemic.

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GRCityDelegates 11/22/2023 10:29:02 73.191.230.3

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Poland
Delegate Name: Divyana Varma

Country: Republic of Poland
Committee: World Health Organization (WHO)
Topic: Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Delegate: Divyana Varma
School: City High Middle School
The republic of Poland recognizes the importance of being prepared in terms of global health security. This issue is important in not just protecting those who are already sick, but those who are already at risk. Because of the extremities Covid 19 posed to all countries, it is crucial to outline a plan of preparedness should it happen again.
In 2020, a series of precautions was taken by the Ministry of Health in Poland to help counteract the effects of the virus. Temporary restrictions were made, and basic safety rules were encouraged. All in all, Poland has had a total of about 119,000 deaths, with over 55% of the population having received at least one dose of the vaccine.
During Covid, the Polish government implemented a series of regulations under the name of the Anti-Crisis Shield. This is a set of acts that were used to negate some of the numerous effects that Covid had on social and economic issues. Poland worked toward decreasing the harm to the economy, and the anti-crisis shield consisted of benefits for workers. Just a few aspects of this act include the government providing financial support for employers in case of wage stoppage, care for parents who might be forced to care for kids due to the closing of schools, and healthcare protection. Compared to other European countries, Poland early on had far-reaching solutions to help mitigate Covid. On March 9th of 2020, Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki decided to impose a border sanitary control at its border with Germany and Czech Republic. Poland was initially very strict on the issue. Just 6 days after the first case of the virus was confirmed, all mass events were banned, and schools were closed shortly after. Social distancing measures were also put into place. Poland did very well during the first phase of Covid, but had some regulations that could have been more tightly measured.
The response of the previous Polish government was notably inaccurate in some areas. The new Polish government believes in adapting more of a scientific view in case of another outbreak. Compared to other parts of Europe, Poland had poor enforcement of regulations. This was in accordance with Poland’s old coalition. The pandemic was not really prevented, restrictions were rather adopted. Going forward with measures taken by the EU, the Civic Coalition believes that all countries should foster an approach that is in correlation with objective scientific research. Poland believes that availability of vaccines is important, as well as establishing clinical trials. The UN should hope to increase people’s vaccination status. Being communicative is also a priority, by providing the public with information and updates; this is in conformity with the UN. The administration of vaccines to certain groups is also incredibly vital. By doing this, it ensures the safety of groups that might be more at risk. Overall, Poland is in agreement with terms underlined by the UN, and hopes to reach a solution that can and will effectively alleviate the effects of both present and future pandemics.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 23:33:12 67.149.62.43

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Venezuela
Delegate Name: Maddox Podmokly

11/21/2023
Delegate name: Maddox Podmokly
Submitted To: WHO
From: The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Subject: Climate Change and Public Health

Climate change has significantly impacted Venezuela, which was once known as a land of beauty and wonders with warm and friendly people. However, this is changing as people have faced difficult times with increased natural disaster frequency, rising temperatures, and melting 4 out of 5 glaciers. Climate change has also contributed to many droughts affecting the agricultural income that Venezuela mainly relied on, forcing reliance on fossil fuels, and further worsening the situation.
Though the topic of climate change is a heavy one, and Venezuela recognizes the adverse effects of climate change, the economy of Venezuela comes first. This economy relies heavily on agriculture and oil production and storage, with oil being Venezuela’s largest international export market. Venezuela trades oil with China, the US, and India. However, the latter of the two have placed sanctions on oil trade with Venezuela in an attempt to oust President Nicolás Maduro.
In 2015, Venezuela joined the Paris Agreement and pledged to reduce emissions by at least 20% by 2030. In addition, the Government of Venezuela signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in June 1992 and in December 1994. This convention seeks to mitigate and prepare for the inevitable effects of climate change. These effects would be similar to already seen developments such as increased natural disasters, rising sea levels, and increases in climates.
Venezuela’s current President, President Nicolás Maduro, believes that climate change is the result of greed and dreams of seeking happiness in accumulating possessions, according to a quote from the New York Times. This, however, is in contrast to the actions of the President promoting the oil market along with deforestation, to support the country’s economy, which takes priority to help our people, despite the adverse effects on the environment contributing to climate change. This also follows the belief that the Global North is responsible for most global warming and should have to pay reparations for damages caused by the release of large amounts of CO2.
Some solutions to the issue of climate change that Venezuela supports would be to make the businesses and countries responsible for the majority of CO2 emissions pay for the damages of their emissions instead of smaller, less impactful nations. This would require countries like the US and China to pay and contribute more to reducing emissions compared to struggling nations whose primary goal is not necessarily to preserve the environment. Venezuela, for example, has its priorities set on fixing an economy decimated by sanctions on oil from these big CO2-emitting powerhouse countries such as the US and India. Venezuela is eager to collaborate with other countries on the topic of climate change along with its impact on economies.

Bibliography:
– Analysis, Mitigation. “Venezuela and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change:” Unfccc.Int, 2023.
– “Maduro Faults Capitalism for Causing Climate Change, but Doesn’t Mention Venezuela’s Historic Role in Oil.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 8 Nov. 2022.
– Muggah, Robert, et al. “The Climate Crisis and Displacement in Venezuela.” Humanitarian Practice Network, 27 Apr. 2022.
– Staff, Carbon Brief. “Paris 2015: Tracking Country Climate Pledges.” Carbon Brief, 2 June 2017.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/21/2023 21:32:38 68.55.54.147

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Jan Timek

Country: Russian Federation
Committee: World Health Organization (WHO)
Topic: Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Delegate: Jan Timek
School: East Grand Rapids High School

The Russian Federation, as a working country from the World Health Organization (WHO), sees the fundamental meaning of strong pandemic preparation and evasion gauges in safeguarding overall general prosperity. The new hardships introduced by the COVID pandemic have featured the necessity for intensive and helpful frameworks to let the impact free from overpowering diseases. Russia is centered around working with the overall neighborhood update the overall pandemic status and sustain security measures.
Russia perceives the progress set forth in overall pandemic availability endeavors anyway sees the ongoing openings that need thought. Outlines acquired from the nonstop COVID pandemic element the requirement for strong early notification ahead-of-time structures, useful coordination among nations, and fair induction to vaccinations and clinical resources. Russia underlines the meaning of addressing these lack to build a more grounded overall prosperity structure.
The Russian Federation has tracked down a way huge ways of invigorating its public pandemic status and neutralization limits, since its beginning of lockdown in early 2020. Interests in clinical consideration establishment, imaginative work, and the underpinning of quick response bunches show Russia’s commitment to tending to emerging well-being risks. Russia successfully shares its authority and resources with various nations, adding to overall undertakings to fight powerful sicknesses.
Russia advocates for the overhaul of early notification ahead-of-time structures to distinguish and answer potential pandemics rapidly. The WHO should lead the improvement of an exhaustive overall perception association, utilizing state-of-the-art development and data-sharing frameworks. Russia proposes the underpinning of a worldwide group to orchestrate tries in checking and uncovering anticipated episodes, ensuring helpful and direct correspondence.
Russia sees the necessity for additional coordination among nations in noting pandemics. The WHO should work with the development of a helpful framework that streamlines information sharing, and resource segment, and works with response tries. Russia encourages part states to successfully take part in joint exercises, limit building drives, and information exchange ventures to strengthen overall courage amidst prosperity crises.
Russia underlines the meaning of fair permission to vaccinations and clinical resources in thwarting the spread of compelling afflictions. The WHO should try to spread out parts for fair appointments, ensuring that all countries, paying little brain to monetary status, have ideal induction to life-saving antibodies and central clinical supplies. Russia maintains the groundwork of an overall resource for help low-pay countries in building their vaccination creation limits.
The Russian Federation is centered around working helpfully with the World Health Organization and the worldwide local area to redesign pandemic preparation and expectation attempts. By supporting early notification ahead of time structures, dealing with overall coordination, and ensuring fair permission to inoculations and clinical resources, we can look at structure as a more grounded and responsive overall wellbeing framework.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 21:08:55 76.112.65.77

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Eddie Wuerthele

Committee: World Health Organization
Topic: Pandemic Preparation
Country: Argentine Republic
Delegate: Eddie Wuerthele
School: Forest Hills Northern High School

Since the end of the 1800s, there have been 7 Major Pandemics that have affected large parts of the World, the most recent being COVID-19. Some regions become more affected by pandemics due to their population and the environment. The treatment countries received, including vaccines, unfortunately greatly depended on how much access countries had to the supplies, and whether they could afford it or not. The effect of this was that nearly 7 million people died of COVID-19, many of which because they were unable to get vaccinated.

Argentina strongly believes that strict pandemic preparation is vital to the wellbeing of all its citizens. When COVID-19 hit, Argentina acted rapidly and decisively to implement protocols to keep its citizens safe, and to prevent a surge in cases of the disease. On March 3rd 2020, Argentina had their first COVID case. On March 19th, only 16 days after that, Argentina had a national lockdown to prevent the traveling in and out of the country. The lockdown lasted until July 17th, that same year. A second lockdown took place in 2021 for 10 days starting May 22, due to a spike in COVID cases.

Argentina has put full support towards the UN Declaration on Pandemic Prevention, which advocated for pandemic product availability in all countries, and for said products to be distributed both quickly and evenly among regions. The Argentine Republic supports this because collaboration is imperative in order to stop the spread and turmoil of pandemics.
Funding must be brought to low-income countries so that they do not suffer. Argentina has been working to allow resources to expand to such countries.

The delegation of Argentina proposes that all countries follow a specific plan to ensure the wellbeing of its citizens should another pandemic strike . Step 1 includes having strong governmental leadership that can act quickly and can consult with public health experts, trade unions, governors, among other figures of higher stature. In Step 2, Countries should use an evidence-based approach and work together with the WHO while also keeping in mind the technological abilities of their own. In Step 3, countries need to keep effective communication with the public in order for them to stay cooperative with the government. In Step 4, Social Protective Measures should be implemented to help the demographic of the most vulnerable populations and prevent social tensions. And finally, in Step 5, countries must be willing to adapt to circumstance that arise. These steps are a major reason why the Argentine Population was so cooperative with the government when COVID-19 hit the region. Argentina believes that transparency is a requisite for dealing with pandemics and would be more than willing to work together with other nations to come up with ingenious solutions to curtail the effects that pandemics cause.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 16:16:23 67.149.106.91

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Ethiopia
Delegate Name: Josi Hetherington

Committee: World Health Organization
Country: Ethiopia
School: Royal Oak High School
Delegate: Josi Hetherington
PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS AND PREVENTION
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has severely highlighted the lack of protocols in place for virus outbreaks. Over four years, COVID-19 has accumulated nearly seven million deaths around the world (1). Many of these deaths can not be attributed to a lack of technology, but instead a lack of resources and health infrastructure. Due to scientific advancements, trials of vaccines were able to take place as early as 2020, and two vaccines were authorized by the FDA for emergency usage. A year later, both vaccines were authorized for public usage, Pfizer being authorized for children as young as five years old (2). And yet, a shocking number of people faced various complications when trying to receive the necessary vaccination. In 2021, “fewer than 3% of people have been vaccinated” in low-income countries (3). While high-income countries can stockpile vaccines to prepare for possible outbreaks, lower-income countries are unable to address the current needs. Even worse, this pattern has also been seen historically. Before COVID-19, between 2010-2018 an estimated 182 million children were not able to receive their first vaccination of measles. This trend is seen in many other diseases such as diphtheria as well as polio (4). The lack of vaccinations has led to countless outbreaks and will pose a continuous threat if not addressed.
This equality issue stems from the lack of resources many countries are dealing with but also falls largely due to the lack of health infrastructure. As of 2017, over half the world’s population had not been able to attain essential health care. As seen in vaccinations, this problem is prominent in low-income countries. A highlighted region with limited access is Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that only 17% of mothers and children in low-income households were able to receive rudimentary health interventions. Additionally, many citizens lack adequate infrastructure, with many buildings lacking electricity, medicine, and water (5). Both of these issues have brought great strain to the country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has struggled with poverty, and currently, 68.7% of the population faces poverty(6). As such, the high price of necessary healthcare and emergency vaccinations has been a prominent issue in increasing access to healthcare. Because of this, Ethiopia looks to address the lack of resources and infrastructure in the committee to come.
In the past, the United Nations has worked to create Universal Health coverage. In 2019, they hosted a general assembly where they implemented the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, intending to reach universal health care by 2030. In the plan, the UN addressed both equality in healthcare as well as increased global awareness on the subject. One of their main goals is to increase vaccination rates for all, which falls in line with this committee’s agenda. Additionally, they have reaffirmed efforts made by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Doha Declaration. This declaration recognizes that incentives will need to be made to work on developing more health products, which has been a beneficial step forward (7).
The 2019 conference held by the UN mainly builds on the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 3, good health and well-being. Through this SDG, the UN has been working to eliminate and target under-treated diseases, and they have even eliminated tropical diseases in 47 countries (8). However, this progress as well as the progress for equal healthcare has been effectively halted by COVID-19. This serves as a serious problem because to be prepared for any future pandemics, progress must continue. To get back on track, the UN has requested further investments to be made.
The COVID-19 pandemic served not only as a wake-up call for countries but for the UN as a whole. During 2020, the UN recognized the need for world collaboration in the fight for pandemic preparedness. They released a statement urging for open science, where all advancements in vaccinations and new news of the virus be shared across all countries to promote equality. However, the statement was received badly by many countries. In the struggle to secure vaccinations, governments prepared to put their countries first at all costs. The UN has outwardly denied the effectiveness of this method and warned that “vaccine nationalism” is only a short-term solution. Moving forward, the UN declared that “No one is secure until all of us are secure” (9).
As previously stated, the majority of Ethiopia’s population falls under the poverty line. Even more so, Ethiopia holds the second largest population in Africa, which creates a struggle in trying to reach 100% vaccination (10). However, to better the lives of Ethiopia’s citizens, the country is working towards implementing solutions for vaccine and healthcare equality. To start, Ethiopia created the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1980. This program included a list of antigens to focus on vaccinations for. Due to the program, substantial strides have been made in immunization. However, Ethiopia has not yet reached its national health target of 80% vaccinated, and as of 2021 sits at 59% for diseases such as measles. Just 10 countries (Ethiopia included) make up 60% of the world’s unvaccinated children (11).
To reach the goals laid out by the national health target, Ethiopia must allocate more funding towards vaccination. In 2022, Ethiopia increased its overall budget for the fiscal year by 16.6% (including inflation growth) (12). While this has been allocated for general expenditures, Ethiopia now can increase its spending towards vaccinations. In addition to the possibility of an increase in budget, Ethiopia has worked closely with the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). GVAP, created by WHO, worked to monitor and track vaccination progress and helped to adjust vaccination strategies. Additionally, the program has helped to create sustainable financing for lower-income countries, which has helped make progress toward Ethiopia’s national health target (13).
Finally, Ethiopia has received substantial support from Gavi, the Global Vaccine Alliance. Gavi is currently in its fifth phase which is a five-year strategy oriented to increase access to vaccinations. The strategy has four goals all working to better the healthcare in underdeveloped countries. Firstly, the vaccine goal works to provide 18 vaccines according to a country’s priorities. Additionally, the Alliance hopes to continue upscaling vaccination operations by supporting countries through integrated approaches. Most importantly, the alliance is working to ensure that countries will have access to vaccines for diseases that are prone to outbreaks. The Gavi Alliance can implement this all whilst ensuring equality, one of their other goals is the equity goal. Through this, they are working to ensure that children who have not received any vaccines will not be left behind. Additionally, the Alliance is working to break barriers between genders in immunization. Ethiopia’s participation in the Alliance has made it much more possible for the country to achieve its health goals (14).
A key deterrent in overcoming both vaccine equality and early response to pandemics is global collaboration. Ensuring that research and advancements are distributed across all countries no matter if they have fewer resources is vital to halt the spread of viruses. So, to create vaccine equality, Ethiopia believes it would be beneficial to create a global virus protection program. This program must address 3 main things, and will only work if participating countries opt for transparency. Firstly, the program would create a forum accessible for government-led researchers, where updates and advancements could be shared to aid further progress. To not disrupt the scientific economic market, the forum would strictly work on initiatives chosen by the participating countries, and any profit made from discoveries would be distributed among scientists and back into the program. Additionally, the program would hold a yearly summit to publicly share advancements made. Using this program, vaccine production would accelerate at a much faster rate, and it would foster cooperation between countries.
The second focus of the program would be equal distribution of vaccines. A large issue in vaccinating efficiently was that high-income countries could stockpile vaccines, while smaller countries did not have enough resources to vaccinate their population. The program would solve this by creating a database that would track the amount of vaccines a country is holding at a time. That way, if one country has a surplus, it could go to another country in need. The country giving the vaccines would receive monetary compensation, but would also have the assurance that the program would supply them with vaccinations should an outbreak occur.
Finally, the program would focus on increasing healthcare infrastructure. In collaborating with other countries, elected representatives could survey the hospital-to-citizen ratio, and deem the regions most in need of new hospitals. Then, the resources of countries as well as NGOs could go to the specific region. This would efficiently use resources and ensure that hospitals are built where the most people can benefit from them. This program could be in partnership with previously mentioned organizations such as Gavi and Gvap. Using the knowledge from these organizations as well as the newly found knowledge from uniting countries’ efforts, Ethiopia believes that this program would be able to majorly improve the state of vaccination equality and healthcare infrastructure.
Overall, Ethiopia is hopeful that this conference will make way for substantial healthcare improvements. Our country has struggled time and time again with vaccination distribution, and recognize that this is a severe problem that needs to be addressed. Utilizing global cooperation is the key to a brighter future, and Ethiopia urges other countries to participate in transparency. Moving forward, Ethiopia is looking forward to supporting and contributing to efforts of continued scientific research, monitoring of potential outbreaks, and vaccine distribution so long as low-income countries are included in further efforts. We as a nation recognize the weight this topic holds and believe that together we can strive for improvements no one could reach on their own.

Works Cited
(1)”WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard.” World Health Organization, covid19.who.int/. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.
(2)”2020 COVID-19 and related vaccine development and research.” Mayo Clinic, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/history-disease-outbreaks-vaccine-timeline/covid-19. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.
(3) Aizenman, Nurith, host. “Why Low-Income Countries Are so Short on COVID Vaccines. Hint: It’s Not Boosters.” Infectious Disease, 10 Nov. 2021. NPR, www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2021/11/10/1052078529/why-low-income-countries-are-so-short-on-covid-vaccines-hint-its-not-boosters. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.
(4) Sidhu, Sabrina. “Over 13 million children did not receive any vaccines at all even before COVID-19 disrupted global immunization – UNICEF.” UNICEF, 24 Apr. 2020, www.unicef.org/press-releases/over-13-million-children-did-not-receive-any-vaccines-all-even-covid-19-disrupted. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.
(5) Yoshizu, Mamiko. “World Bank and WHO: Half the world lacks access to essential health services, 100 million still pushed into extreme poverty because of health expenses.” World Health Organization, 13 Dec. 2017, www.who.int/news/item/13-12-2017-world-bank-and-who-half-the-world-lacks-access-to-essential-health-services-100-million-still-pushed-into-extreme-poverty-because-of-health-expenses. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.
(6) “Multidimensional Poverty Index 2023 Unstacking global poverty: data for high impact action.” UNDP, hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/Country-Profiles/MPI/ETH.pdf. Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.
(7)”Universal Health Coverage.” United Nations, 23 Sept. 2019, www.un.org/pga/73/event/universal-health-coverage/#:~:text=As%20part%20of%20the%202030,and%20affordable%20essential%20medicines%20and. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.
(8) “Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.” The United Nations, www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/health/. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.
(9)”Statement by UN Human Rights Experts Universal access to vaccines is essential for prevention and containment of COVID-19 around the world*.” The United Nations, 9 Nov. 2023, www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2020/11/statement-un-human-rights-experts-universal-access-vaccines-essential-prevention. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.
(10) Memirie, Solomon T. “Cost-effectiveness and equitable access to vaccines in Ethiopia: an overview and evidence synthesis of the published literature.” Journal of Global Health Reports, 4 Mar. 2021, www.joghr.org/article/19354-cost-effectiveness-and-equitable-access-to-vaccines-in-ethiopia-an-overview-and-evidence-synthesis-of-the-published-literature. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.
(11)”Immunization coverage.” World Health Organization, 18 July 2023, www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.
(12)”Ethiopia’s parliament passes budget for next fiscal year.” African News, 7 Aug. 2022, www.africanews.com/2022/07/08/ethiopias-parliament-passes-budget-for-next-fiscal-year//. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.
(13)”Global Vaccine Action Plan.” World Health Organization, www.who.int/teams/immunization-vaccines-and-biologicals/strategies/global-vaccine-action-plan. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.
(14) Gavi The Vaccine Alliance. www.gavi.org/our-alliance/strategy/phase-5-2021-2025/equity-goal. Accessed 19 Nov. 2023.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/21/2023 15:41:16 75.134.107.87

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Jonah Mechtenberg-Berrigan

Model UN Position Paper
United States of America
GLIMUN
WHO Pandemic Preparedness

Pandemic Preparedness is an issue becoming continually more essential as more time passes. As we all know, the COVID-19 pandemic 2 years ago severely changed the world, killing millions and showing how truly unprepared many countries were for a major pandemic. As global warming, population growth, and urbanization continues, it is expected that more pandemics will take place. To be prepared for these pandemics, the UN needs to come together to discuss possible solutions or improvements for pandemic response systems. Goals and guidelines need to be set, and systems should be in place for early warning and response to pandemics.
During the COVID pandemic, there were over 771 million cases of COVID-19, and almost 7 million deaths attributed to the disease. When the disease began to spread in late December of 2019, global response was quick after the WHO was informed. Many countries, including the United States, began research around the disease. In early January of 2020, Chinese scientists in a Beijing university harvested the viral DNA of the Coronavirus. 5 days later, Chinese scientists made DNA sequences of the virus publicly available in the NIH Genbank (a U.S. based genetic bank that stores many amino acids for public use), allowing scientists of other countries to begin developing vaccines. The United States, and many other countries, began developing incident management structures and guidelines to move forward. Mid-January was the first lab-recorded case outside of China, and COVID was declared a pandemic by the WHO in March of 2020.
Stricter guidelines were placed as the situation continued to evolve, and it was mostly left up to individual countries to make laws and regulations around the virus, along with producing vaccines. The WHO helped to create a global organization to develop and distribute vaccines worldwide called the COVAX (COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility). Notably, the U.S. and China, 2 major producers of vaccines, were absent from COVAX. However, over 170 other nations joined. Although a vaccine was produced quickly in several countries, difficulties undercut usage. Some vaccines had to be stored in extremely cold temperatures, and needed to be transported far from factories. It could cause health difficulties for those vulnerable to COVID, including the young and the elderly.
However, vaccine production and implementation did begin. The European Union shared a vaccine, and the United States led the vaccination charge with almost a billion vaccines donated, majorly to lower income individuals in developing allies. Another issue quickly began to emerge: vaccine dissenters. 15% of United States citizens abstained from a COVID vaccine, and 45% admitted to not trusting the COVID vaccine. Although America does believe in the freedom to choose if the vaccine is administered, this statistic needs to be drastically reduced.
In the event of another pandemic, world countries must be prepared. The UN should put in place plans to shut down travel to reduce the spread of COVID. A research team to catalog genetic information of all potentially dangerous viruses should be created, and individual countries should make plans to deal with potential pandemics. Larger, production-oriented countries like the U.S. will likely lead the next charge to find a vaccine, but production systems and transport systems for vaccines should be reviewed and improved. The world is expecting another pandemic, and likely, will be ready for one.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 14:46:08 136.228.39.188

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Macie Minor

Macie Minor
Williamston High School
Republic of Ghana
World Health Organization
Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention

The Republic of Ghana, as one of the more politically stable countries within Africa, plans to expand itself with greater resources for future issues caused by current COVID-19 variants and other possible widespread diseases. Since the emergence of the COVID-19 and its more recent variants SARS-Cov-2 and Delta, the Republic of Ghana has launched multiple campaigns aiming to encourage citizens to receive vaccinations, easily understood public education on COVID-19, and restrictions reflective of the World Health Organization’s recommendations. With multiple research institutes and allies who are willing to fund such research, the Republic of Ghana is open to learning more from other countries.

Formally addressed on March 11th 2020, Ghana’s president Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, approved an equivalent of one-hundred million towards a prep and response plan towards the virus. Following the funding, the Republic of Ghana would experience around three substantial waves of the virus within 2020; in 2023 the cumulative amount of cases sits around 171,000, and the total number of deaths sits around 1,300 as of November. From the start of the pandemic to now, only 0.0005% of Ghanians were officially diagnosed with COVID-19, and 0.00004% of the population sadly passed away. The Republic of Ghana has stayed, and will continue to stay, on top of whatever the pandemic may bring. Unlike other countries, Ghana has achieved such low statistical rates of widespread infection by a multitude of actions. One action being the push for public education campaigns on how the virus works, another being framing the guidelines as something that is to be considered for your community rather than the country as a whole. Since the beginning, Ghana has had preparations dealt out efficiently and with little backlash or resistance through friendlier means of communication. Even now, the Republic of
Today, the Republic of Ghana still looks forward to improving future campaigns and research aimed towards the most efficient prevention plan possible. Though already successful, in order to further explore greater medical options, Ghana does require greater financial assistance. With greater financial assistance, Ghana could help to branch out to struggling neighboring countries (such as Togo, Côte d’ivoire, and Burkina Faso) who lack proper resources in addressing a global pandemic. Financial assistance would also mean the greater spread of stable healthcare for COVID-19 needs nationwide. The Republic of Ghana would be open and proud to collaborate with any country interested in helping.

Sources

Ampomah, Samuel. “‘$100 Million Provided to Enhance Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Plan’ – President Akufo-Addo.” Ministry of Health, 12 Feb. 2020, www.moh.gov.gh/100-million-provided-to-enhance-coronavirus-preparedness-and-response-plan-president-akufo-addo/.
BBC. “Ghana Country Profile.” BBC News, 1 May 2018, www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13433790.
Community, Healthcare and Nursing. “Dynamics of Imported SARS-CoV-2 Variants across the COVID-19 Waves in Ghana.” Healthcare and Nursing Community, 5 May 2022, healthcommunity.nature.com/posts/dynamics-of-imported-sars-cov-2-variants-across-the-covid-19-waves-in-ghana. Accessed 16 Nov. 2023.
“Coronavirus Update (Live): 133,279,062 Cases and 2,891,099 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Pandemic – Worldometer.” Www.worldometers.info, www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/?%22%20%5Cl%20%22countries.
“Ghana: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard.” Covid19.Who.int, covid19.who.int/region/afro/country/gh.
Office, Commonwealth. “Ghana Travel Advice.” GOV.UK, 20 Mar. 2013, www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/ghana.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 10:02:26 136.228.39.188

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Jennasee Hollingworth

As seen with the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the level of strength and efficiency within a nation’s public health infrastructure, disease surveillance, and overall government response has a massive impact on a pandemic’s damage. Strength and efficiency in these systems are especially important due to scientists’ belief that COVID-19 is just the beginning of an increase in widespread outbreaks. The development of the COVID-19 vaccine was unprecedentedly quick, but its distribution methods left many people without access. Division within nations and distrust of authorities also kept many people from getting vaccinated, prolonging the rapid spread of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that the estimated death toll of the COVID-19 pandemic is almost 7 million people, 3 million in the year 2020 alone. As infectious outbreaks become more common, our global response must be streamlined.

Denmark experienced a relatively low rate of infection and death from COVID-19 compared to nations with similar populations and governments and also became one of the first European nations to come out of lockdown. The most obvious reason for this is the speed and intensity of Denmark’s regulations, as our government made decisions very swiftly. Denmark was one of the first European countries to close borders, close major venues, and ban large gatherings. Next, Denmark’s healthcare system is very well organized and accessible to all. High-quality healthcare is a core value of Denmark, which made treating COVID-19 patients extremely efficient there compared to other nations. Patients were easily isolated, there was a sufficient number of healthcare workers, and the system was effectively reorganized as the pandemic progressed. Another important factor in the decreased severity of the pandemic in Denmark is the trust that Danish citizens have in their government and health authorities. A majority of the population started following the government’s sudden regulations before they were even put into action officially; they started adapting as soon as regulations were announced. In the event that another pandemic emerges, Denmark will likely respond with even more efficiency.

If infectious disease outbreaks are to become more common, the United Nations must take action to ensure limited damage. Denmark is in favor of encouraging more organized, accessible healthcare systems and speedier government action. Gaining trust from citizens has proven to be important in reducing the spread of infectious diseases, but Denmark understands that this is difficult to achieve for many nations. Due to the differing levels of trust in authorities and many other factors, it is important that nations consider their unique qualities when implementing pandemic prevention strategies. For example, higher tourism and population density call for more speed and firmness in government action. Denmark is willing to collaborate and share information with nations that are also known for their efficient reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Works Cited

Fitzpatrick, Meagan, et al. “Lessons from COVID-19 Can Help the U.S. Prepare for the next Pandemic.” Www.commonwealthfund.org, 5 July 2023, www.commonwealthfund.org/blog/2023/lessons-covid-19-can-help-us-prepare-next-pandemic#:~:text=We%20need%20to%20make%20a. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.

Olagnier, David, and Trine H. Mogensen. “The Covid-19 Pandemic in Denmark: Big Lessons from a Small Country.” Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, 13 May 2020. National Library of Medicine, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217796/, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.05.005. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.

World Health Organization. “The True Death Toll of COVID-19: Estimating Global Excess Mortality.” World Health Organization, 2021, www.who.int/data/stories/the-true-death-toll-of-covid-19-estimating-global-excess-mortality. Accessed 14 Nov. 2023.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 08:04:25 136.228.39.188

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Belgium
Delegate Name: Vivienne Grzelak

Delegate: Viv Grzelak
School: Williamston High School
Country: Belgium
Committee: WHO
Topic: Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention

When it came to pandemic preparedness in Belgium, things went pretty well. With the 5th best healthcare in Europe, Belgium implemented a series of measures to mitigate the effects of COVID-19. When observing Flanders, Belgium (the Flemish, Dutch speaking, Northern region of Belgium) the main groups most susceptible to a pandemic were the elderly and the uneducated. In 2009 during the Influenza pandemic in Belgium only 141 out of 100000 residents went to the doctors to get a consultation for Influenza. Compared to other countries the mortality rate of this Pandemic was only 3% of the population, no more than the yearly average.

A major help when dealing with the recent COVID-19, Coronavirus, pandemic was having an extremely good healthcare system. Belgium spends the most money on healthcare in the European Union. Spending so much on healthcare and being the home base of the European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance gives us many ways of communication with other countries to see how they were also dealing with the pandemic.

Although Belgium did significantly better than most nations when it came to COVID preparedness, especially because of its links to the EU and NATO. Belgium’s close connection with several European countries has made it so that Belgium was able to make several good connections with other European nations and nations overseas.

He, R., Zhang, J., Mao, Y., Degomme, O., & Zhang, W.-H. (2020, October 30). Preparedness and responses faced during the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium: An observational study and using the National Open Data. MDPI. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/21/7985
Guerrisi, C., Thomas, B., Diez, A. O., Cauteren, D. V., Alonso, J. E. L., Moreels, S., Falchi, A., Alonso, T. V., Bonmarin, I., Raude, J., Vilcu, A. M., Hanslik, T., Debin, M., Rossignol, L., Colizza, V., Souty, C., & Blanchon, T. (2022, January 23). Initial risk perception and feeling of preparedness of primary care physicians regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium, France and Spain in February 2020 – BMC primary care. BioMed Central. https://bmcprimcare.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12875-021-01588-5
Niesters, H. G., Miller, E., & Loeb, M. (2011, January 7). Hospital preparedness and clinical description of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in a Belgian Tertiary Hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0195670110004524
Mortelmans, L. J. M., Cauwer, H. G. D., Dyck, E. V., Monballyu, P., Giel, R. V., & Turnhout, E. V. (2012, June 28). Are Belgian senior medical students ready to deliver basic medical care in case of a H5N1 pandemic?: Prehospital and disaster medicine. Cambridge Core. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine/article/abs/are-belgian-senior-medical-students-ready-to-deliver-basic-medical-care-in-case-of-a-h5n1-pandemic/629C64BEDBA79B92CD0E369D18B3B9E2
Nguyen, T., Ronse, M., Kiekens, A., Thyssen, P., Nova Blanco, J. R., Van den Cruyce, N., Craps, M., & Vandamme, A. ‐M. (2022, April 1). Learning for the future: A case study of transdisciplinary collaboration to improve pandemic preparedness. Latest TOC RSS. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/leuven/ti/2022/00000005/00000002/art00003
De Coninck, D., d’Haenens, L., & Matthijs, K. (2020, July 1). Perceived vulnerability to disease and attitudes towards public health measures: Covid-19 in Flanders, Belgium. Perceived vulnerability to disease and attitudes towards public health measures: COVID-19 in Flanders, Belgium. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886920304098
Nicoll, A. (2010, December). Pandemic risk prevention in European countries: Role of the ECDC in preparing for pandemics. development and experience with a national self-assessment procedure, 2005-2008. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079977/
“Numbers.” Sciensano.Be, www.sciensano.be/en/node/464
“What Are the Current Measures?” What Are the Current Measures? | Coronavirus COVID-19, www.info-coronavirus.be/en/faq/
“Uitbraak Coronavirus COVID-19.” Uitbraak COVID-19, www.zorg-en-gezondheid.be/per-domein/infectieziekten-en-vaccinaties/coronavirus/uitbraak-coronavirus-covid-19
Ostbelgien Live – Coronavirus, ostbelgienlive.be/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-6711/
“Belgium: Health System Summary | European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.” World Health Organization, eurohealthobservatory.who.int/publications/i/belgium-health-system-summary
“Belgium COVID.” Worldometer, www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/belgium/

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Celia Kaechele 11/20/2023 13:56:58 173.167.18.97

Topic: 2023-Pandemic Preparedness and Prevention
Country: Turkey
Delegate Name: Rocco Morrow

The COVID-19 pandemic hit the world hard, and caught many off guard. With this horrible sickness landing, and many people scared, pandemic preparedness was on everybody’s mind. In December of 2019, the first reported case of COVID-19 was reported. A year later, the first official COVID-19 vaccine was produced. As fast as this was, the speed was mainly due to the vaccine being built upon pre-existing scientific research. Looking to the future, pandemic preparedness needs to be made a priority. With all the pain and devastation that the COVID-19 pandemic caused, we must look to measures of pandemic prevention that were taken in the past in order to fine tune those measures in the future.
The first reported COVID-19 case in Turkey was on March 10, 2020. After this, COVID-19 cases in Turkey skyrocketed. Turkey quickly became one of the top 10 countries with the highest number of COVID-19 cases globally. According to the Nation Library of Medicine, “Daily death numbers ranged between 1 and 126, with a total number of 3174 deaths, on April 30, 2020. The case-fatality rate showed a steady increase, ranging between 1.02% and 2.43%, yet, have been relatively low compared with that in other countries with similarly high case numbers”. With this in mind, Turkey urges all countries to think about improving global coordination. Turkey believes that if all countries tackle a pandemic head-on, proper prevention and preparedness protocols could be put into place, and would grant every country a better chance at combating future pandemics.

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