September 16, 2019

MONUSCO - Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC

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Security Council

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC

The current situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has its roots in the 1994 Rwandan genocide, during which ethnic Hutus – some of whom had participated in the genocide against Rwanda’s Tutsi population – fled that conflict to resettle to the west in the DRC (then Zaire). In addition to facing obvious friction with the Congolese Tutsis who were their new neighbors, some of the Hutu refugees initiated plans to retake power in Rwanda. Rwanda in turn backed The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL), and its leader, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, in a rebellion which deposed Mobutu in May 1997. The relationship between Kabila and backers in Rwanda, Uganda, and Burundi quickly soured, with those countries backing a new rebel group, the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD).

In the decades since, there has been near-constant conflict in the eastern part of the DRC. UN peacekeeping forces have been there for most of that time, beginning with the authorization of the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) in early 2000. Kabila was assassinated in January 2001 and replaced by his son Joseph, who quickly consolidated power and jailed his political rivals, ruling until 2019. Despite the ongoing presence of MONUC forces, conflicts in the Ituri province and particularly the North and South Kivu provinces continued to fester. The mission was renamed the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) in 2010, and given broader authorization to assist the Kinshasa government with stabilization and peace consolidation efforts using “all necessary means.” After increasing the presence of peacekeeping forces through an “intervention brigade” in the mid-2010s, the UNSC has gradually called for a reduction in UN-authorized forces in the conflict region, as it has become more and more clear that the mission is failing to accomplish its objectives. In recent years, the DRC conflict has become tied into the broader international conflict centered on the Islamic State (IS), with elements of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), an Islamist rebel group based in Uganda and the Kivu provinces, merging with IS’s Central Africa Province.

In the last few years, anti-MONUSCO protesters have at times violently attacked Congolese and UN-authorized forces. Rather than being opposed to MONUSCO’s presence in principle, most protesters are dissatisfied with the mission’s inability to pacify a region that is home to more than 120 armed groups of varying sizes and allegiances. The situation in the eastern DRC remains, as of late 2022, a roiling international conflict, and it is unclear whether MONUSCO’s presence is aiding more than undermining a long-term resolution to the underlying disputes and resulting humanitarian disaster. Tens of millions have been displaced from their homes in a conflict that has now spanned more than two decades. Millions more have died, either as a direct result of conflict-related violence or due to a deficit of food, water, and medical resources. Sexual violence and the conscription of child soldiers are rampant, and none of the many parties to the conflict – including the government of the DRC – is likely free from blame in terms of human rights abuses. It is the UNSC’s responsibility to determine the way forward. Would a reconfigured peacekeeping mission finally be able to help bring an end to this conflict? What would that reconfiguration look like? And how can the UN alleviate the worst parts of the humanitarian crisis – not just in a hypothetical future where the conflict draws to a close, but in the interim, which at minimum will be a period of years?

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Submitted Position Papers

VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 10:55:46

Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Olivia Ahrens

The ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has claimed over 6 million lives, and Brazil believes this is one of the deadliest conflicts in history. If the United Nations Security Council were to ignore this conflict more, this could lead to severe chaos in Central and East Africa. We must discuss the ongoing origin of the DRC conflict, as this will reinstate the main issue at hand. Brazil will focus on the history of the DRC and the Rwandan Genocide of 1993-1994. Eastern DRC has been flooded with a variety of armed forces, which have subjected the DRC civilians to sexual violence, violations of their human rights, and severe poverty. Over 370,000 civilians have been forced out of their homes and placed in the streets. Civilians are being forced to pay taxes to the armed forces for their safety. Eastern DRC must be taken into account, or their future may not be upheld.
As a very active member of the United Nations Security Council, Brazil takes pride in having a strong commitment to international peace and security. Through our leadership in the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti, we deployed over 1,200 soldiers and equipment to Haiti, and we are still contributing via development programs and long-term investment. Brazil has participated in the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola. We supported the people of Angola and, during a conflict, wanted to bring them hope. We have provided support and humanitarian aid to the citizens of Angola. Another example of our aid is when we led the UN Maritime Task Force to restore peace and security in southern Lebanon, where we deployed over 4,000 troops. Our aid shows our dedication to our policy of providing international peace and security.
The people of the Democratic Republic of Congo deserve to live peacefully, and Brazil plans to provide for them. Foremost, we must cut off the armed forces from the peaceful civilians of the DRC. The UNSC should plan to provide peacekeeping troops to prevent violence by disarming the armed forces and preventing their access to resources. Furthermore, developed countries need to provide humanitarian aid, which will include access to shelters for those left homeless by armed nations, portable medical aid for those injured or sick, food and water for the hungry through meal centers run by the World Food Programme, and access to a portable shower and a clothing donation center. The UNSC must also study the area within the DRC to understand where nations must implement peacekeepers. We plan to create a conflict prevention plan, which involves arranging a meeting between the DRC and all other nations on how to reform their government system to be more effective and fair to the citizens of the DRC. Brazil believes these solutions will provide a fast-paced solution to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and prevent future conflict.

Works Cited
“Brazil and the UNSC.” UKnowledge, Accessed 16 February 2023.
“Brazil’s contribution to UN peacekeeping.” Portal, 9 February 2022, Accessed 16 February 2023.
“Despite Peacekeeping Mission’s Efforts, Security Situation Worsening in Democratic Republic of Congo, Special Representative Tells Security Council – Democratic Republic of the Congo.” ReliefWeb, 10 December 2022, Accessed 16 February 2023.
“Instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo | Global Conflict Tracker.” Council on Foreign Relations, Accessed 16 February 2023.
Moury, Taciana. “Brazilian General Leads UN Peacekeeping Mission in Congo – Diálogo Américas.”, 24 August 2018, Accessed 16 February 2023.
Parens, Raphael. “Conflict in Eastern Congo: A Spark Away from a Regional Conflagration.” Foreign Policy Research Institute, 8 September 2022, Accessed 16 February 2023.

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GrovesDelegates 02/17/2023 21:45:06

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: China
Delegate Name: Iara Jones

The DRC is the second largest country in Africa, but within its borders, there have been multiple conflicts in the past decades; this has led to civilians being violated of their international human rights and being in dire need of help. As of June 2022, there is 18,278 personnel in the MONUSCO peacekeeping mission. In the DRC, there are 27 million people who need humanitarian assistance, 5.6 million internally displaced people, and more than 1 million refugees from the DRC in neighboring countries, according to the European Commission. China has diplomatic relationships with the DRC and has had a win-win approach where both nations benefit from established commercial relations, which may help the DRC establish itself economically as a nation while it navigates conflict.
As the conflict rose in the DRC, the UNSC first deployed MONUC by resolution 1279. Initially, the mission to oversee the ceasefire and maintain peace within the parties of the ceasefire agreement soon expanded to more tasks. On 1 July 2010, the UNSC passed resolution 1925; it renamed MONUC to the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) because of its new role in the country by authorizing the use of all necessary means to carry out its mandate. China has contributed 218 troops to MONUSCO. China would also like to note the UNSC decision to renew an arms embargo for the DRC.
China believes in making peacekeeping missions like MONUSCO more effective by streamlining the process and having precise guidelines. Currently, peacekeeping guidelines are broad and need to be clarified. Comprehensive reviews of peacekeeping mandates like those outlined in MONUSCO will make peacekeeping missions more efficient and of the best use of the UN’s resources.

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BayCityDelegates 02/17/2023 21:03:37

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: Albania
Delegate Name: Brayden Beson

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has suffered immense physical and economic losses due to conflicts and violence, such as those perpetrated by groups like M23. Despite the efforts of the United Nations peacekeeping force (MONUSCO), the lack of meaningful progress has caused many Congolese to become disillusioned and support anti-MONUSCO efforts. This has resulted in millions of deaths, tens of millions of people displaced from their homes, economic turmoil, and a catastrophic humanitarian crisis, including a shortage of medicine, food, and clean water. These events not only affect the DRC, but also neighboring countries such as Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda, as well as the rest of the world. The DRC is the world’s largest producer of cobalt, which is used in the production of batteries, and a decrease in cobalt production and exportation due to conflict could have global repercussions.

As a nation that supports the DRC, Albania stands with MONUSCO in promoting civil change and bringing peace to the region. We are committed to finding long-term solutions to the conflict, and to address the humanitarian issues and poverty that have been exacerbated by the violence. Albania is open to various means of assisting families who have been displaced from their homes and have lost loved ones due to this conflict. Our goal is to push for a violence-free resolution to the conflict, particularly with groups like M23. Albania also supports resolutions for the growing poverty rate and humanitarian issues.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/17/2023 20:18:40

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: Ecuador
Delegate Name: Colin Zaremski

Committee: UNSC
Country: Ecuador
Delegate: Colin Zaremski

In the D.R.C. The UN has made efforts to help the government stabilize the country and help give aid to the needy. MONUSCO was made to help support the government and it took over from a different peacekeeping operation in the region which was known as the United Nations Organization Mission in Democratic Republic of the Congo or MONUC to make the name shorter. The main reason the UN has had to do this is because the government of the D.R.C. was struggling with rebellious groups and the severe poverty among the citizens in the country. The UN has made significant progress in helping the government reduce poverty in the country and help reduce the violence in the country as well.
Ecuador at the current moment has not given any support to MONUSCO. Ecuador has helped with other peacekeeping operations and humanitarian aid programs that were made by the UN. Ecuador does find the support of the government in the D.R.C. very important and the aid to the citizens as something the international community should work towards. Ecuador has not had enough time to organize a group of people to send to the D.R.C. to give humanitarian aid to people of the country.
Ecuador does plan to send some humanitarian aid forces to the D.R.C. when Ecuador has enough time to organize a group of people to help with the aid that the D.R.C. needs to help its people and help to try and stop the violence happening in the country. Ecuador plans to send humanitarian aid to help the citizens who are in extreme poverty and those or are severely ill. Ecuador will help give aid in any way Ecuador needs to.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/17/2023 20:15:14

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: France
Delegate Name: Blake Beckhorn

The matter of internal security and stabilization is of utmost importance to every member state in the United Nations. The very purpose of the United Nations is to maintain and strengthen the security of every nation, as well as the bond between nations, and as this council is its principle organ, this council must work together in order to come to an agreement on how to proceed on our actions in The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), as is our job. The history of the DRC is long and filled with turmoil. Modernly, such history began during the colonization of the area that would then become DRC by Belgium; and thus began a period of political instability post-colonialism. Corruption by those in power, by former president Joseph Kabila who jailed his political opponents, most recently by the chief of staff to the current president, Félix Tshisekedi with bribery and embezzlement. In opposition to such figures, there exists over 120 armed groups. MONUSCO’s goal has been to provide stability to DRC, as to promote the safety and security of the Congolese people.

France has recognized the successes of MONUSCO, but also the failures of the operation. The DRC still faces instability in its eastern provinces, as well as humanitarian issues as a result of this conflict. The lack of food and clean water, the lack of medical access, sexual violence and child conscription are all prevalent, even with continued UN peacekeeping. France supports humanitarian aid through the UN as well as individual governmental action. France has promoted the end of child soldiers through the Nairobi Process, as well as peace agreements made in the Luanda Roadmap, including the normalization of diplomacy between DRC and Rwanda.

France wishes to improve the efficacy of MONUSCO, in order to promote stability in the DRC. Such changes would include the cooperation of the government of the DRC with MONUSCO, along with the African Union, along with an increase in resources at MONUSCO’s disposal. France does not believe in persuading individual sovereign nations to provide funding, but rather promote an increase of funding to the mission by all areas. Only in unity will MONUSCO succeed, and thus the preservation of stability and peace in the DRC. France looks forward to cooperating with all, but especially with countries in proximity to DRC, such as Gabon, in harmony with the rest of the council, in order to have global diplomacy.

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FitzDelegates 02/17/2023 15:16:12

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: Mozambique
Delegate Name: Tiana Gentry

Helping the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to establish itself as a strong country with a well-built government is a priority of Mozambique. As African nations, both geographically and politically, we are still experiencing the aftereffects of colonialism. Mozambique sees the situation in the DRC as one that should be dealt with with the humanity of the people in mind.

Keeping the committee centered on both the people of the DRC and UN-authorized forces safe, Mozambique asks: “How can we center resolutions to put the best interest of humanity first?”; “How can this room continue the works of previous Security Council’s mission, like that of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo released on the 30th of November 2022, and continue developing the DRC?”

Mozambique is looking to support resolutions that want to uphold the DRC’s integrity, but also condemn the actions of anyone furthering violence of any kind. Mozambique wants transparency from resolutions, problems have been known to be sourced inside the UN. Such as a situation with the Central African Republic where many individuals were taken advantage of by UN peacekeepers. “In the spring of 2014, allegations came to light that international troops serving as peacekeepers had sexually abused a number of young children in exchange for food or money.” (UN News Center). Resolutions Mozambique wants to support show no favoritism to any party and focus solely on making sure innocent civilians are cared for.

Mozambique looks forward to working with other countries that seek to use the abilities of the Security Council to stop the conflict that is affecting the people in the DRC.

Works Cited

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 13:47:13

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: Gabon
Delegate Name: Taha Ibrahim

United Nations Security Council
MONUSCO – Peacekeeping efforts in the DRC
Gabonese Republic
Taha Ibrahim, Forest Hills Northern HS

The current conflict that has grasped the Democratic Republic of the Congo since the early 2000s still rages on. Stemming from the aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide, Militias have been formed in its eastern regions, each being supported by nations such as Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, who each use these militias as proxies to support their respective nation’s interests. Conflict still continued even after the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) was authorized in early 2000. The Rwandan Backed leader, Laurent-Désiré Kaliba who headed The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo, was assassinated and replaced by his son Joseph. Joseph would use his newfound power and jail his political opponents. Conflict still occurs in the Ituri and both North and South Kivu Provinces. In 2010, the mission was renamed to the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) and given greater authority in peace-keeping efforts. Over time, UN-authorized Forces are being reduced.

The Gabonese Republic wishes to see an end to this prolonged conflict in the DRC. The long-term instability of such conflicts endangers all nations in the Central Africa Region. Gabon wishes to see a solution reached through sustained dialogue. Gabon wishes to once again become a mediator in the region we have historically been for decades. As well, Gabon wishes to see the expulsion of Terrorist organizations like the ADF (Allied Democratic Forces) and the Islamic State (IS). Gabon also wants to assist the 3.3 million people who’ve become displaced as a result of these conflicts. It’s clear to see that MONUSCO is failing at its peacekeeping efforts. Because of this, we believe there is a need for greater cooperation between MONUSCO and the Congolese government. We also urge the Congolese government to take responsibility for protecting its citizens as well as being fully engaged in the peacekeeping process.

Furthermore, we believe The United Nations Security Council should consider expanding the MONUSCO mandate to include the protection of civilians and ensure that human rights violations are investigated and perpetrators are held accountable. In addition, Gabon calls for the DRC government to cooperate with MONUSCO in the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of armed groups. We acknowledge the need for a long-term and extensive solution to this conflict. This requires addressing the root causes of the conflict, which include governance, security, economic challenges, and disputes over resources. Gabon believes that the UN, The African Union, and regional organizations should collaborate to support the DRC in addressing these challenges, including through the provision of technical and financial challenges.

To conclude, the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a serious threat to the stability and safety of the region, requiring a comprehensive approach to address the numerous root causes. We believe that a negotiated settlement, based on the principles of dialogue and diplomacy is the most viable approach. We call on the international community to provide greater support to MONUSCO and the DRC in their efforts to maintain peace and security, protect citizens, and promote greater respect for human rights. Gabon is ready to work with any nation willing to see an end to senseless violence to achieve lasting and sustainable peace in not only the DRC but the entire region.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 12:50:23

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: United Arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Connor Argenzio

United Nations Security Council
United Arab Emirates
Connor Argenzio, Forest Hills Northern High School

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and even Africa as a whole, has been plagued by incessant conflict and instability since the cessation of Western colonialism. It all began in Rwanda when the ethnic conflict between the Tutsis and Hutus led to the Rwandan genocide, in which Hutu forces carried out efforts to eradicate the Tutsis. After the worst events of the conflict had subsided, some Hutu groups fled to the neighboring DRC. These Hutu emigrants formulated plans to retake Rwanda, which incurred retaliation from the Rwandan government in the form of subversive support for the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL). The AFDL, with the support of various countries, initiated a successful rebellion and supplanted Mobutu with Lauren-Désiré Kabila. Fittingly, the backing countries soon became dissatisfied with the AFDL and backed the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD). These successive insurrections have laid the groundwork for near-constant conflict in the eastern DRC. The international community, not being one to let things be, quickly mobilized peacekeeping forces in the Congo under the MONUC mission. Of course, this UN mission pathetically failed in its mission, like all before it. Not having anything else to do, the mission was renamed MONUSCO and given a greater amount of latitude to assist the Kinshasa regime. Unsurprisingly, MONUSCO would fail like its predecessor and lead to reductions in UN forces present in the Congo.
The UAE is an Islamic state; however, it will not allow the ties of religion to hinder its judgment when addressing the Congo crisis. Independently of all this, the UAE has begun to work with the DRC to facilitate the trade of gold and eliminate illicit gold. This partnership is mutually beneficial, and in addition to the UAE’s insistence on national sovereignty, the UAE sees no reason to oppose the present regime despite its apparent faults.
Ultimately, the UN has demonstrated itself to be supremely incompetent when dealing with matters of even moderate gravity. Thus the UAE has begun to wonder why the world trusts the UNSC to handle issues as delicate as the Congo crisis. If the citizens of the Congo can see through the pathetic charade that is the MONUSCO mission, then so should the rest of the world. While no clear solution to the Congo crisis is evident nor likely exists, what is clear is the ineptitude of MONUSCO. Any assistance provided by MONUSCO is greatly outweighed by its damage. The only thing the UNSC can do to assuage the Congo crisis is to withdraw all UN forces from the Congo at once.

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SASADelegates 02/17/2023 00:37:24

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: United States
Delegate Name: Unmun Kaur

The United States fully supports the democratic republic of Congo and its fight to stop the mass genocide as well as help to increase peace and safety for all of its citizens. The United States and the DCR have had relations since 1960, and since then Congo has gone through devastating losses, including the Rwandan genocide, as well as many other humanitarian crimes caused by many different reasons. The United States is determined to help out the DCR by helping to provide humanitarian aid, as well as helping its citizens, be safe from many different viruses, like ebola, which the United States had provided around $569 million to the DCR to help battle emboli, as well as many other different diseases, like polio. We also have helped many refugees and citizens of DCR are helped get humanitarian resources like food and water. We believe that our relationship with DCR is incredibly important not only to help the citizens of DCR but also believe that DCR is an incredibly important country to us as it provides a lot of copper. We have also started many different programs to help with many different. Regular needs like education and health care to the citizens of DCR are the democratic republic of Congo is incredibly important to America, and we believe that they are an essential part of the world which needs a lot of help through this difficult time.

Works Cited

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/16/2023 19:15:27

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: Malta
Delegate Name: Ethan Ellis

Following the signing of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement in July 1999 between the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and five regional States in July 1999, the Security Council established the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) by its resolution 1279 of 30 November 1999, initially to plan for the observation of the ceasefire and disengagement of forces and maintain liaison with all parties to the Ceasefire Agreement. Later in a series of resolutions, the Council expanded the mandate of MONUC to the supervision of the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement and assigned multiple related additional tasks. In accordance with Security Council resolution 1925 of 28 May 2010, MONUC was renamed as of 1 July the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) to reflect the new phase reached in the country. The new mission has been authorized to use all necessary means to carry out its mandate relating, among other things, to the protection of civilians, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders under imminent threat of physical violence and to support the Government of the DRC in its stabilization and peace consolidation efforts. Many people of the DRC are forced to flee their homes because of fighting between the Congolese army and the M23 armed group around North Kivu. Humanitarian workers have given water and healthcare to displaced people Nyiragongo territory. Food was distributed to 50,000 people. MONUSCO continues to protect civilians and to work alongside the Congolese army to deter the M23 movement. The UN Spokesperson said that to maximize civilian protection, peacekeepers are “maintaining multiple positions, where possible, in the zone of hostilities. Following consultations with national partners, the Mission withdrew peacekeepers from its base in Rumangabo, in North Kivu, an area where the Congolese army is no longer present, he added.
The members of the Security Council strongly condemned the attack against a helicopter of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) that occurred on 5 February in North Kivu. The members of the Security Council reaffirmed their strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They reiterated their full support to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Bintou Keita, and for the stabilizing action of MONUSCO, in line with the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, and its mandate as reflected in Security Council resolution 2666 (2022), and expressed their deep appreciation to MONUSCO’s troop- and police-contributing countries. Malteser International has helped DRC by providing health care, access to healthy nutrition, clean water, and hygiene. Malta is in support of independence for DRC.
Malta will continue to supply support through the means of supplies to the displaced people of DRC. Malta can also give peacekeeping troops to help MONUSCO in getting rid of hostile armed forces in the area. Malta’s allies could be anyone in the UN and EU that wants freedom and peace in DRC.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/15/2023 15:47:59

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Alexander Vogel

Japan is dedicated to the United Nations Charter and resolutions brought about by the efforts of all member nations in the effort to preserve and maintain peace. As a member of the United Nations Security Council for the duration of this conference, Japan recognizes the great responsibility it has in addressing the issues set before the Security Council. Developing a solution for the displaced citizens, terrorism fears and human rights violations observed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is a major priority for the country of Japan. Consistently and most especially since the terror attacks on United States soil in 2001, Japan has been dedicated to the eradication of terrorism across the globe. To site a document on Japanese foreign policy published in 2015- “It is necessary for each and every person to cooperate to prevent terrorism, recognizing it as a challenge to civil life … [Japan’s] stance that terrorism cannot be justified nor tolerated in its any reasons …”. And to quote the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan in a publication from 2020- “While advocating the perspective for building bridges in Asia and protecting the socially vulnerable, Japan will contribute to improving the human rights situation around the world”. Japan is dedicated to cooperating with the member nations present in this endeavor to solve the issues brought before us today, but remains an ardent supporter of national sovereignty and preserving the dignity of any nations involved in these conflicts. In light of the known violations of human rights occurring in both the civilian life in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as those occurring in the shadows of the government, Japan will continue to dedicate itself to the people affected by these infringements, as both an act of compassion as well as a recognition of responsibility that all members nations present hold, as outlined in the United Nations Charter, something we are all subject to, as it would do us well to remember as we continue to proceed in the coming hours and days.
To further strengthen the position Japan observes in this issue, Japan would like to firmly encourage a resolution that focuses most on the protection of the inhabitants of the Democratic Republic of the Congo as well as surrounding areas of conflict, rather than something borne of vengeance or misplaced duty. It is the duty of all member states present today to serve and protect the people we find in our care, even if that requires turning away from grudges long-held. We have gathered here to bring peace, not destroy our chance at it.
As well, Japan would go so far as to demand an examination of the efficacy of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the mission that has lead the United Nations Security Council to convene several times in recent years, not just to make sure the mission is remaining up-to-date with all diplomacy knowledge available at the time, but also ongoing renovations to the very structure of the mission, in light of the many criticisms of its use and efficacy that have been brought to the Council again and again in recent memory. If this mission has become obsolete, it is time for the esteemed delegates of the Council that I see before me to evaluate where these resources can be best reestablished.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/13/2023 10:37:56

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Maya Comer

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Maya Comer, Greenhills School

The situation in the eastern provinces of the DRC is dire. Dozens of militant groups, both Congolese and Rwandan, control large swaths of territory. Neither the Congolese government nor the Security Council’s specialized MONUSCO mission have made significant gains in the decades-long conflict. A shocking 5.7 million civilians have been internally displaced, with an additional 1 million who have fled to neighboring countries. Additionally, MONUSCO has reported an average of 400 human-rights abuses per month, with indiscriminate killing of civilians, arbitrary arrests, and sexual abuse the most common violations. Despite MONUSCO training programs, roughly 15% of recorded human-rights abuses are committed by Congolese police forces. Many of these are the result of the arrest and detainment of peaceful protesters. Programs to provide humanitarian aid to affected civilians have floundered due to chronic underfunding. The United Nations reported that only 43% of the requested $1.88 billion fund was provided in 2022. Additionally, the government of the DRC was only able to provide $1.5 million for its Disarmament, Demobilization, Community Recovery, & Stabilization Programme.

The nation of Ghana stands with the other members of the UNSC to call for an immediate end to the violence. During Ghana’s stint on the Security Council, the resolutions it has co-wrote have addressed issues ranging from ecological preservation to free and fair elections. However, similar past resolutions have failed to implement meaningful change. There are multiple reasons for this. Most glaringly, as stated above, the scale of the humanitarian crisis vastly outweighs the funding provided for aid. Additionally, anti-MONUSCO protests have broken out among civilians who mistrust the mission. Some protesters appear concerned with a lack of transparency regarding the mission’s goals, while others think the United Nations’ efforts to ensure free and fair national elections have, paradoxically, lessened their legitimacy. UN-backed peacekeeping forces and Congolese military action have not made significant territorial gains against rebel groups, leading to deadlocked bloody stagnation. While the MONUSCO mission has faced many shortcomings, it also has reported small-scale success. 44 armed groups have signed a declaration to ban child soldiers. The Tanganyika province is back in the hands of the Congolese government. UN programs to train business owners and agricultural workers have contributed to an improved economy. More and more women are directly participating in peace negotiations or serving as soldiers and police officers.

The first order of business for the UN is to raise more funding for MONUSCO. Many of the active crisis responses are limited by budget. Most countries’ monetary contributions to UN peacekeeping efforts are roughly proportional to their GDP. However, India, the world’s 5th-largest economy, does not even make the top 10 for contributions. Persuading India to increase its donation is essential to expand MONUSCO programs. Additionally, the military situation in rebel-occupied provinces may benefit from re-evaluation. The current hybrid strategy of holding land by force while attempting peace talks does not work. With the discretion of the Congolese government, Ghana proposes either an expanded military operation to re-take occupied land or a concerted de-escalation effort with peace talks and deradicalization programs. The current financial situation of the crisis has prevented MONUSCO from simultaneously tending to the harm (militant group conflict) and the symptoms (the resulting humanitarian crisis). An expanded budget will allow a multifaceted approach to easing the crisis. Ghana supports outreach campaigns to educate the public on MONUSCO efforts, which will ideally increase collaboration between citizens and peacekeeping personnel. Ghana firmly believes that the crisis in the DRC can be alleviated through collaboration with the Congolese government and the United Nations Security Council.

Works Cited
Agyeman, Harold Adlai. “Security Council Press Statement on Situation in Democratic Republic of Congo.” United Nations Meeting Coverage and Press Releases, United Nations, 22 Nov. 2022, Accessed 15 Feb. 2023.
“MONUSCO Fact Sheet.” MONUSCO | United Nations Peacekeeping, Accessed 15 Feb. 2023.
The Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations. Fabweb, Accessed 15 Feb. 2023.
“Resolution 2666 (2022).” 20 Dec. 2022. PDF.
“United Nations Digital Library System.” United Nations Digital Library, United Nations, Accessed 15 Feb. 2023.
“United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Report of the Secretary-General.” 30 Nov. 2022. PDF.
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GRCityDelegates 02/15/2023 13:37:01

Topic: MONUSCO – Peacekeeping Efforts in the DRC
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Stephen pellathy

United Kingdom Model United Nations Position paper
Topic: Conflict in DRC

The United Kingdom (UK) is gravely concerned about the continuing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which has had severe humanitarian, security and economic impacts on the region. As a member of the United Nations, the UK is committed to upholding international peace and security, and we believe that a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the DRC is essential.
The UK recognizes that the situation in the DRC is complex and multifaceted, involving various armed groups, regional actors and transnational actors. The UK strongly believes that the root causes of the conflict must be addressed in order to achieve a sustainable and lasting peace. These root causes include but are not limited to governance, human rights, economic development, and regional security.
The UK believes that the government of the DRC has a crucial role to play in addressing the root causes of the conflict. We urge the DRC government to prioritize good governance and accountability, to respect human rights, and to promote sustainable economic development. The UK is committed to supporting the DRC government in these efforts and stands ready to provide assistance as needed.
The UK is also deeply concerned about the involvement of neighboring countries in the conflict, particularly Rwanda and Uganda. We call upon these countries to respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the DRC, and to refrain from supporting or engaging in any actions that may exacerbate the conflict. The UK calls upon the international community to support diplomatic efforts aimed at reducing tensions and encouraging constructive engagement between the DRC and its neighbors.
The UK recognizes the importance of the UN Peacekeeping Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) in providing security and protection to civilians, and in supporting the DRC government in its efforts to promote peace and stability. We commend the important work of MONUSCO and call for its continued support by the international community. The UK also believes that it is important to explore ways to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of MONUSCO in order to better respond to the evolving situation on the ground.
The UK emphasizes the importance of inclusive and participatory peace processes that involve all stakeholders, including women, youth, and marginalized groups. We urge the DRC government to engage in meaningful dialogue with all stakeholders, and to ensure that their views are reflected in the peace process.
In conclusion, the UK remains committed to working towards a peaceful and sustainable resolution to the conflict in the DRC. We stand ready to work with the international community, the DRC government, and all stakeholders towards this end.

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