September 16, 2019
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Climate Change and Infectious Disease

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ECOSOC: World Health Organization

Topic: Climate Change and Infectious Disease

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change defines climate change as a change in climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. The most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment, published in 2021, has found that each of the last four decades has been successively warmer than any decade that preceded it since 1850. Infectious diseases are defined by the World Health Organization International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems as diseases generally recognized as communicable or transmissible.

The World Health Organization, in resolution WHA61.19 passed in May of 2008, noted that the net global effect of projected climate change on human health is expected to be negative, putting particular focus on the damage climate change has caused and potentially will cause on global health infrastructure as well as the ability of health systems to deal with arising challenges. The World Health Organization has not recognized the link between climate change and infectious diseases in a formal resolution, however, the effects climate change has on the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases is well-documented. It is noted in a report published by the World Health Organization in 2003 titled Climate Change and Human Health that elements of climate change such as increasing temperatures, increasing humidity, and idealized climates for disease spreading vectors such as mosquitoes will all worsen the effects of infectious diseases, both in the near-term and the long-term. Many infectious diseases, such as Encephalitis and Malaria, have likely had their spread contributed to by climatic factors. Climate change may exacerbate current diseases, lead to the rise of new diseases, and even possibly reactivate long-dormant diseases frozen in the arctic permafrost.

With many of the effects climate change bears on infectious diseases being felt today, the World Health Organization has reason to act at the current moment. Consider the effects climate change has on health infrastructure and the ability to provide care, the extent to which climate change affects the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases, the extent to which the exacerbation of infectious diseases ought to be addressed, and whether to address the causes of climate change or merely its effects. Regardless of the sorts of solutions to some of the challenges faced in the present day, it is important that the World Health Organization recognizes the significant connections between the spread of disease and climate change.

Useful Links:

Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses:
https://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/climchange.pdf.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change:
https://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/pdf/conveng.pdf.

World Health Assembly resolution WHA61.19:
https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/climate-change/climate-change-and-health-resolution-wha-61-19.pdf?sfvrsn=63295783_2

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Submitted Position Papers

Matt Sunderlin 11/28/2021 20:38:13 67.149.112.212

Country: Kenya
Delegate Name: Will Allen

Climate Change and Infectious Disease is major problem in Kenya. Much of Kenya has experienced floods which is to blame for the spread of infectious diseases. Many of which have been lethal, such as malaria, dengue fever, cholera, and typhoid. Spreads and outbreaks of these diseases have been reported in lower-lying areas, notably in Western Kenya.

First of all, how is climate change affecting Kenya? Climate change in Kenya impacts the lives of Kenya’s citizens as well as Kenya’s natural environment. Climate change has led to more frequent extreme weather events, as well as increasing temperatures and unpredictable rainfall. Those events in question have been increasingly more severe. Take floods for example. Floods in the past few years have been killing hundreds of Kenyans. Rivers, especially in western Kenya, have been flooding. This is very crucial because Kenya is only around 7% forest, and every year over 5,000 hectares of forest is lost. This directly correlates with infectious diseases. As people migrate away from the flooding, so do animals. Most dangerous mosquitoes. Mosquitoes can infect people with deadly diseases that can spread quickly in densely populated areas which will lead to death.

I propose an idea that can help us fix this. It will not immediately change but will set us up better for the future. What I propose is that we mainstream climate change acclimation in the school system. Teaching our children about climate change, what its causes and effects are, as well as how we can prevent it is crucial to the future of not only our country, but the entire world in terms of our climate. If we change the curriculum on climate change as necessary, the youth will be educated on the subject and will know how to prevent things that can cause climate change. According to the Public National Library of Medicine, education has been found to promote behavior change. This can be backed up by the students who took the COMM 168 course at San Jose State University. A majority of course graduates reported pro-environmental decisions that they gained from experiences they had while taking part in the course. A carbon footprint analysis claims that the average course graduate reduced their individual carbon emissions by 2.86 tons of CO2 per year after completing the course. Surveys identify that course graduates developed a personal connection to the effects climate change has and find solutions to help fix it.

Our specific goal in this is to help educate the future generation on the subject. Furthermore, we want to provide insight into climate change and how it affects us, and most importantly, how to help stop it. It has been an issue for many, many years prior, and is getting worse every single day. Our only hope is the future generations, and it is our responsibility to teach them how to help us.

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FHCDelegates 11/25/2021 00:00:51 68.56.182.0

Country: Niger
Delegate Name: Thomas Laidlaw

WHO— Niger— Laidlaw

Delegate Thomas Laidlaw
Forest Hills Central
The Republic of Niger
World Health Organisation: Climate Change and Infectious Disease

In Niger, climate change has severely affected the spread of infectious disease on a mass scale. Starting back in 2015, the spread of ebola showed imminently that climate change plays a factor in infectious disease. The diseases are able to exist for extended periods of time due to the warmer temperatures and favorable climates. The country of Niger would look favorably upon a solution that works to stop the warming of the climate and therefore puts an end to the proliferation of infectious diseases.

In our country, many diseases have been worsened by the extreme climate that is caused by climate change. It has heated up our temperatures and allowed diseases to survive in times where the conditions previously would not allow them. This can be seen by the spread of ebola and malaria between our citizens. The diseases are able to survive longer due to the rising temperatures.

The blame for this issue lies upon the economically stable world. They have paved the way for their financial upturn by ruining our climate through emissions coming from their factory sectors. We want to increase regulations on production and greenhouse gasses for the survival of our great country.

As we said, we would like to see serious reparations from the developed world because of their pollution of our environment and therefore the pollution of our world. They have caused danger to our people and we wish to see extreme counter-measures taken by these countries to correct their wrong-doings. They have created a world in which our citizens are in danger of infectious disease and refuse to recognize their responsibility.

We want to write a plan that includes reparations for the African world and sees a plan for climate change. This needs to be taken as an utmost priority because of what it has done to our people.

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FHCDelegates 11/24/2021 23:46:53 68.56.182.0

Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Cooper Dlugos

Delegate Name: Cooper Dlugos
Country: Argentina
Topic: Climate Change and Infectious Diseases
Committee: World Health organization
School: Forest Hills Central

Argentina, for many years has been a substantial exporter in many fields of agriculture, its climate provides a great location to produce and export many crops such as wheat, cotton . barley, flax, and many other renditions of agricultural production. However our prosperity in this field of production is being threatened by a malevolent foe us delegates have contributed since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Ever since the 1960s climate change has had a prevalent effect on our country in regards to precipitation and annual temperature change. Though temperatures have increased at a slower rate than the global average, nonetheless these impacts have occurred in many areas. Higher temperatures can reduce winter snowfall, causing river flow to decrease (less water available), which can reduce hydroelectric energy production; losses of up to 40% had been observed. If these trends continue, it is predicted that climate change will exacerbate existing natural disasters such as increasing the intensity and frequency of floods or create new ones. In the north and central parts of the country, the higher temperatures projected for this region leads to higher evaporation.  Combined with little precipitation change for this region, it is probable that it would become more arid, leading to desertification.  In areas that normally have a dry winter, a higher evaporation would intensify droughts which would disfavor agriculture. The effects of climate change in Argentina do not only affect the agriculture outputs and the average temperatures it also affects the public health of the people of Argentina. The direct relation between temperature change and malaria outbreaks are uncanny. Malaria, along with many infectious diseases such as Chikungunya (Mosquito Borne) and Andes virus. More than 5 Million citizens have contracted an infectious disease and well over 200,000 have died as a result of contact.
Both, Climate Change and the ravaging diseases scourge the River of Silver. Our time spent here should be used wisely, each delegate must consider each factor in their decision making and how it will not only affect their country but this world we live in. Argentinias hope is to cooperate with any nation to fabricate a series of procedures to mutually benefit and protect the world around us. Thank you.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 23:45:49 107.77.194.36

Country: Ukraine
Delegate Name: Jeb Cazer

World Health Organization
Climate Change and Infectious Disease
Ukraine
Joseph (Jeb) Cazer
Forest Hills Eastern

Climate change includes both global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on the environment. The current changes in average temperature and regional climate are more rapid and drastic than any recorded event in Earth’s history. The primary known cause of climate change is the emission of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and methane. Another is deforestation. Many of the emissions are created by burning fossil fuels for energy. Some of the main direct effects of climate are rising sea levels, forest fires, high intensity hurricanes, and glacial melting. In the U.S., public health can be affected by disruptions of physical, biological, and ecological systems, including disturbances originating here and elsewhere, for example, climate change. Ukraine’s mission is to identify in itself where it sees climate change having negative effects on health and attack it.

Ukraine is one of the poorest nations in Europe and has seen the deadly effects of climate change. Most strikingly, the temperature in December exceeded 15 degrees celsius (59 degrees fahrenheit) for the first time ever recorded. Since 1990, the Ukraine has lowered its climate emissions from 690 thousand tons of carbon emissions, to 190 thousand. While trying to fight climate change, Ukraine is also trying to grow its economy. Ukraine wants to attack climate change because it is drastically affecting its air quality, and in turn damaging the lungs and eyes of its people. An additional hazard of climate change in relation to infectious diseases is that the warmer, wetter and more variable conditions brought by climate change are making it easier to transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, Zika virus, West Nile virus and Lyme disease in many parts of the world. COVID

What Ukraine wants from the United Nation is for other member states to put in the same effort that Ukraine has in order to stop this ongoing crisis. Its people are suffering from the devastating effects of a problem that most nations pretend to care about, but in reality turn a blind eye to in order to make a profit.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/24/2021 23:44:11 50.107.72.183

Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Delaney Parkin

Country: United Kingdom
Committee: ECOSOC
Topic: Climate Change and Infectious Disease
Delegate: Delaney Parkin
School: Williamston High School

Climate change and infectious disease are two of the World’s most widespread, and critical crises. These are topics that have affected the world for hundreds of years, and yet they remain some of the world’s most debated topics. Climate Change is defined as the effect of humankind over the years on the climate, causing the atmosphere to change due to human activity. In the past few decades, Climate Change has greatly increased, and the global temperature is the warmest it has been since 1850. Climate Change can be correlated to the spread of infectious disease, For example the natural disasters caused by climate change tend to move people into crowded areas, where disease is more likely to spread. Especially in situations like natural disasters, hygiene becomes less important to those involved. Disease is prone to spread in locations like help centers, where workers/volunteers will neglect their personal hygiene, leading to breakouts in diseases.
Climate change and infectious disease have a very negative effect on the world. Flooding from the change in climate contaminates the water with bacteria that should not be consumed. The amount of mosquitoes has sharply risen due to climate change, which contributes to infectious disease. As the temperature in the north increases, the mosquitoes will move North, and the diseases they carry spread further across the globe. Climate change is constantly creating more natural disasters, warming the world temperature, and worsening the air quality. Infectious disease spreads rapidly all over the world, and has caused over 17 million deaths per year, and sickness for billions of people.
The United Kingdom has signed the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. The UK has pledged to penetrate emissions 68% by 2030. For about the past 10 years, the UK carbon footprint has decreased rapidly. The UK has also developed the COP26 climate talks, and the flagship international climate conference to complement the Paris Agreement. Countries have to bring pre-made plans to address climate change, and the conference also makes sure wealthy countries give funding to poorer countries. The UK is the host country this year, which means the government has to set a good example for other countries to follow. The UK has also created a legally binding national commitment to cut greenhouse gas emissions, along with creating a climate change committee to create government budgets relating to the topic. As for infectious disease, the UK has been a “force for good” in global health for a long time. The UK has supported the World Health Organization, and the Contingency Fund for Emergencies through generous funding.
The UK is taking many actions to improve its status on climate change and infectious disease. With the COP26 climate talks, the UK makes sure that the included wealthy countries are providing funding for poorer countries. The UK government has committed to reducing state funding of fossil fuel projects abroad, and has intended to meet its goal of getting rid of all coal usage by 2024. As for infectious disease, the UK has created a better response protocol for pandemics, along with being better prepared for future pandemics. The Prime Minister has created a Five-Point Plan for pandemics, and pledged to work with health partners around the globe to implement his Five-Point Plan globally. The UK is prioritizing ending the COVID-19 pandemic, supporting vaccine roll-outs, and strengthening global health security. For this conference, the UK will most likely work with France, and New Zealand.

Sources:
https://www.who.int/about/funding/contributors/gbr
https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2019/09/uk-health-officials-launch-new-infectious-disease-strategy
https://glica.org/glimun-2021-conference/glimun-2021-committees/climate-change-and-infectious-disease/
https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/news/what-is-paris-climate-agreement-and-why-does-it-matter/
https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/challenges/climate-change/what-is-the-uk-doing-about-climate-change/
https://www.un.org/press/en/2007/ga10618.doc.htm

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 23:39:17 68.37.102.249

Country: Tunisia
Delegate Name: Shriya Reddy

Climate change is a large problem to address because it has the ability to alter the composition of the global atmosphere. Climate change, through rising temperatures, shifting rain patterns, increased storm intensity, and rising sea levels, will impact human health significantly. Climate change impacts are projected to increase the frequency of droughts and flooding, water scarcity, and increased transmission of diseases from warmer temperatures. These impacts negatively affect human health and livelihoods. Climate change became an important determinant of many vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria.

Tunisia is highly vulnerable to climate change and it will be severely impacted. Tunisia became the third country in the world to incorporate the need to protect against climate change in its constitution. Tunisia plans to implement adaptation strategies for the health threats of climate change. This includes monitoring vectors and vector-borne diseases. Tunisia has also approved a national health adaptation strategy and has conducted a national assessment of climate change impacts on health. Additionally, Tunisia is taking action to build institutional and technical capacities. Tunisia has climate information included in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system, including the development of early warning and response systems for climate-sensitive health risks.

Effective climate change adaptation will not occur without strong leadership. International communities should raise awareness of climate change. There is a need to reinforce the public’s knowledge of the concept, issues, and risks related to climate change. Vulnerability assignments (VAs) are important in order to determine the extent of the threat that climate change brings upon a person. Access to quality weather and climate data is essential because without reliable data on temperature, it would be extremely difficult to find the effect it has on the environment and people.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 23:36:17 68.37.102.249

Country: Tunisia
Delegate Name: Shriya Reddy

Vaccines are important because they have the ability to improve immunity of a disease without exposing anyone to the danger of the disease and the access of them are equally as important because it can insure better protection for vulnerable populations. There is a severe increase in death rates because wealthier countries have access to the vaccine and are not sharing the access to the impoverished countries. July 2021, many officials warned people that the health system was close to collapse due to an acute wave of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Government officials suspended all travel, imposed mandatory confinement, and banned public gatherings. The World Health Organization is tasked with expanding vaccine education, data-sharing, and vaccine distribution.

Tunisia is suffering tremendously from the Covid-19 outbreak because of the lack of access to the COVID-19 vaccine. Tunisia has reported Africa’s highest per-capita infection rates.
The vast majority of the Tunisian population remains unvaccinated and individuals with a high risk of contracting COVID-19 are left unprotected. By placing health workers and people above the age of 60 in the first priority group, people who didn’t fit the requirement suffered immensely. For example, people below the age of 60 who are extremely vulnerable because they suffer from chronic diseases, people who live in poverty, people who have disabilities, homeless people or prisoners, and people who don’t have access to healthcare services have higher risks of experiencing death or severe illness as a result from contracting COVID-19. Furthermore, there was a serious problem with public trust regarding the distribution of vaccines equally. In April 2021, Mofdi Mseddi, the advisor to the Prime Minister in Tunisia, admitted that several ministers had been vaccinated without being eligible, and in order to be eligible at that time, people had to be older than 60 years of age or they had to be a healthcare worker. This made the public start to question the government’s motives. They wondered if they would distribute the vaccines fairly without political interference. They also called into question the government’s commitment to prioritize those most at-risk and to guarantee all people’s right to health.

Tunisia was one of the first countries in the Middle East and North Africa to successfully contain the coronavirus outbreak. Tunisia’s success in dealing with the pandemic can be attributed to a combination of factors including an effective government response, citizens’ trust in the government, a relatively strong healthcare system, and public awareness of the dangers of the virus. Tunisia wants all countries to be given the same vaccine and they should all have equal access. Tunisia should publish data that is disaggregated in a transparent and accessible manner because the lack of transparency of vaccination prioritization makes citizens perceive it as favoritism. A deficit of public trust can turn into increased vaccine hesitancy.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/24/2021 22:54:07 69.14.115.243

Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Meg Gierula

Russian Federation
ECOSOC
World Health Organization
Climate Change and Infectious Disease
Meg Gierula
Royal Oak High School

The Russian Federation would like to touch on the definition of climate change stated in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This definition states that climate change is “attributed directly or indirectly to human activity”. This definition from the UN is the basis for all arguments or ideas on this topic. However, this is only applied to the general ness of climate change meanwhile we are focusing on a sub-effect.
The Russian Federation signed the Paris Climate Agreement and has been working towards keeping the agreement since 2019. The Russian Federation acknowledges the increase in cases of certain diseases due to the increasing degree of the Global Warming crisis.
One of the biggest diseases being impacted by climate change is malaria. Malaria is extremely sensitive to climate. Drought and changes from more severe El Niño’s can cause a rise in cases. The Russian Federation would like to help prevent malaria cases by working with the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme. The Russian Federation would also consider looking into other similar programmes to prevent against additional diseases that could worsen with climate change.
The Russian Federation does prioritize the needs of our citizens. We have greatly been affected by climate change and are wary of the health effects. The biggest threat to the Russian Federation is flooding and the melting of permafrost. These can lead to contamination of water causing a greater spread of disease. The Russian Federation has tried to help prevent these impacts but with a small budget, it is hard. We would be open to working with other nations and/or programmes to address this issue better.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 21:59:27 68.43.36.43

Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Andre Stoll

World Health Organization
Climate Change and Infectious Diseases
The United States Of America
Andre Stoll
Forest Hills Eastern High School

The UN (United Nations) defines climate change as a change in either the local or global climate due to humans, be it directly or indirectly. The issue of climate change has been rapidly expanding over the past decades, with an ever-increasing amount of research showing the numerous negative effects of global warming. In 2003, research conducted by the WHO (World Health Organization) demonstrated the effects climate change has on infectious diseases. It found that the worldwide increase in temperatures was creating an ample climate for mosquitos and other disease-spreading vectors to spread harmful illnesses. In 2021, the WHO has been tasked by the UN to evaluate the extent to which climate change and its effect on infectious diseases pose a problem, and propose and discuss potential solutions to that problem.

The United States has had varying standpoints on the effect and prevalence of climate change over the past decades, typically experiencing a shift in policy after a new president’s election. During the presidency of Barack Obama, the U.S. joined and was a signatory of the 2015 Paris Climate Accords. During his presidency, the U.S. also banned all offshore drilling and mining in the U.S.-owned waters of the Atlantic and Arctic. However, after President Donald Trump took office in 2016, the U.S. began to roll back environmental restrictions and left the Paris agreement. The U.S. is hesitant to completely ban major climate warming products, such as oil and other fossil fuels and gas emissions, in the next few decades due to the perceived major negative effects it would have on its economy. Nevertheless, after President Joe Biden was elected in 2020, the U.S. once again experienced a shift in policy, reinstating many Obama-era policies and sanctions on oil companies, and re-joined the Paris accords. The U.S. was a major part of COP-26 and was committed to making it a turning point in international efforts to confront the climate emergency. The U.S. recognizes the importance of reducing global warming and protecting the environment and sees the current climate situation as a crisis. The U.S. government-run organization, the NCBI(National Center for Biotechnology Information), acknowledges that climate change will result in an increased incidence of disease-causing vectors. The U.S. is committed to protecting its nation from potential threats and views climate change and the new diseases it will bring as a serious threat to the wellbeing of not just its people, but to people worldwide.

The U.S. supports efforts to limit Earth’s total increase in temperature over the next 100 years to 1.5 degrees celsius, and it acknowledges that one of the most effective ways to do this would be to limit emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the fossil fuel industry. The U.S. wants to reach global net-zero emissions by 2050 through a gradual shift away from fossil fuels and towards cleaner methods of power, such as nuclear, solar, or wind. The U.S. wants to limit the economic impact of shifting to clean energy and ensure that these new clean power methods create enough jobs to substitute for the jobs lost in the fossil fuel industries. The U.S. has the resources to provide aid to other countries impacted by climate changes effects, and it can assist other nations in the process of reaching net 0 emissions by 2050.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 21:09:33 67.39.250.5

Country: Nigeria
Delegate Name: Emma Martin-Sharples

Climate change and infectious diseases have become increasingly dangerous threats to the world. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change discovered that over the last four decades, Earth has been becoming progressively warmer since 1850. The damages of changes in climate will potentially have negative effects on global health systems in handling issues such as malaria, cholera, and encephalitis. In a report from 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that the rise in temperature, humidity, and climate for disease carrying mosquitoes will make the effects of infectious disease worse. With the ever growing problem of climate change and its negative effects on disease control, the World Health Organization must create a solution in order to provide care for countries hurt by the rise of new infectious diseases.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria has been experiencing flooding in it’s capital, Abuja, displacing families and damaging health facilities. Nigeria has been facing social and economic issues originating from these conditions worsened by the beginning of COVID-19 in 2020. This includes trying to rebuild houses destroyed by the floods while also managing the pandemic. The National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) reported that around two million Nigerians have been affected by displacement in 2012, this number continues to rise each year. WHO expects climate change to be the cause of about 250,000 more deaths per year from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat in the years 2030-2050. Cholera and lassa fever have also been escalating with climate change as well as injuries and fatalities following extreme weather events such as heat waves and floods. Other water borne diseases have been appearing due to Nigeria’s worsening environment. This has put the country at a standstill causing difficulty controlling the floods and leading to an upsurge in fatal infectious disease cases.

Countries affected by climate change issues that directly contribute to disease related deaths are in need of a solution to improve the care provided to their citizens. The Federal Republic of Nigeria suggests implementing policies to monitor and reduce the negative impacts of the climate change and infectious disease crises. To mitigate these conditions, Nigeria must seek assistance in building more foundations to replace those demolished in the floods as well as more people to care for those who have fallen ill. By receiving help in attending sick and homeless people, Nigeria could focus its actions on finding training, better transportation, and food and water resources that result in health improvements. Doing so would prevent further social and economic crises and protect citizens’ health from climate fluctuations in the future.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/24/2021 19:02:35 76.112.60.148

Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Delaney Parkin

Country: United Kingdom
Committee: ECOSOC
Topic: Climate Change and Infectious Disease
Delegate: Delaney Parkin
School: Williamston High School

Climate change and infectious disease are two of the World’s most widespread, and critical crises. These are topics that have affected the world for hundreds of years, and yet they remain some of the world’s most debated topics. Climate Change is defined as the effect of humankind over the years on the climate, causing the atmosphere to change due to human activity. In the past few decades, Climate Change has greatly increased, and the global temperature is the warmest it has been since 1850. Climate Change can be correlated to the spread of infectious disease, For example the natural disasters caused by climate change tend to move people into crowded areas, where disease is more likely to spread. Especially in situations like natural disasters, hygiene becomes less important to those involved. Disease is prone to spread in locations like help centers, where workers/volunteers will neglect their personal hygiene, leading to breakouts in diseases.
Climate change and infectious disease have a very negative effect on the world. Flooding from the change in climate contaminates the water with bacteria that should not be consumed. The amount of mosquitoes has sharply risen due to climate change, which contributes to infectious disease. As the temperature in the north increases, the mosquitoes will move North, and the diseases they carry spread further across the globe. Climate change is constantly creating more natural disasters, warming the world temperature, and worsening the air quality. Infectious disease spreads rapidly all over the world, and has caused over 17 million deaths per year, and sickness for billions of people.
The United Kingdom has signed the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. The UK has pledged to penetrate emissions 68% by 2030. For about the past 10 years, the UK carbon footprint has decreased rapidly. The UK has also developed the COP26 climate talks, and the flagship international climate conference to complement the Paris Agreement. Countries have to bring pre-made plans to address climate change, and the conference also makes sure wealthy countries give funding to poorer countries. The UK is the host country this year, which means the government has to set a good example for other countries to follow. The UK has also created a legally binding national commitment to cut greenhouse gas emissions, along with creating a climate change committee to create government budgets relating to the topic. As for infectious disease, the UK has been a “force for good” in global health for a long time. The UK has supported the World Health Organization, and the Contingency Fund for Emergencies through generous funding.
The UK is taking many actions to improve its status on climate change and infectious disease. With the COP26 climate talks, the UK makes sure that the included wealthy countries are providing funding for poorer countries. The UK government has committed to reducing state funding of fossil fuel projects abroad, and has intended to meet its goal of getting rid of all coal usage by 2024. As for infectious disease, the UK has created a better response protocol for pandemics, along with being better prepared for future pandemics. The Prime Minister has created a Five-Point Plan for pandemics, and pledged to work with health partners around the globe to implement his Five-Point Plan globally. The UK is prioritizing ending the COVID-19 pandemic, supporting vaccine roll-outs, and strengthening global health security. For this conference, the UK will most likely work with France, and New Zealand.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 17:52:44 73.18.181.219

Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Aubrey Winczewski

The negative effects of climate change have recently been studied and are expected to become exponentially more severe if climate change continues. One specific effect is the increasing spread of infectious diseases. For example, unnatural precipitation levels have led to more water pools for mosquito breeding, which directly contributes to a higher prevalence of rift valley fever. Also, when years are warmer than average, it enables mosquitos to survive longer in areas where they would normally die during the winter. This greatly contributes to increasing rates of malaria. Thawing permafrost is another concern. Several disease-causing microbes may be lurking frozen underground, able to reactivate if the land thaws. The two main concerns are anthrax and pox diseases. With the increasing human activity in the arctic, once revived, these diseases may find hosts in which to multiply, potentially sparking future pandemics. The United Nations states that “Climate change is a global emergency that goes beyond national borders. It is an issue that requires international cooperation and coordinated solutions at all levels.” The UN has taken steps to combat these effects of climate change by addressing the root cause. 191 countries signed the Paris Agreement, which went into effect in 2016, and set long-term goals for carbon emissions reduction that will limit global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, while encouraging countries to limit this even more. In addition to this, the United Nations should enact specific programs or projects to help struggling nations harness sustainable energy sources.

Germany recognizes the need for immediate action on climate change, Germany signed the Paris Agreement in 2015, and has since implemented their own national laws with even more ambitious goals. Germany enacted a national climate law in 2019, which was updated in 2021. As of the 2021 update, the law states the 2030 target is to cut emissions by 65% of 2008 emissions. One way Germany (with the EU) is doing that is by their “cap-and-trade” approach for businesses. The European Union sets a cap on the amount of greenhouse gas pollution that may be emitted each year, and allocates and sells permits to companies, allowing them to emit a certain number of tonnes of CO2. These permits can be traded, but if a company emits more CO2 than they have permits for, they face a fine of 100 euros per extra tonne, (about $115 USD). Statistically, Germany’s progress is one of great examples. In both 2019 and 2020, Germany contributed to less than 2% of the carbon emissions worldwide. In the past 50 years, Germany’s annual emissions from coal and oil have decreased from 603.23 to 199.08 tonnes. Additionally, in 2020, over 46% of the country’s power consumption was covered by renewable sources, far exceeding the 35% goal for that year. This led to the aforementioned update to their climate law. Germany is also a member of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, which provides additional focus on reducing short-lived climate pollutants. Germany is not only working within its borders to combat climate change, they are also working to support developing countries. Germany was the first country to pledge money to the Green Climate Fund, and regularly pays into the Adaptation Fund. Both these funds are UN initiatives to support developing countries to become prepared for the future. This means expanding renewable energy and protecting forests.

The Federal Republic of Germany urges the United Nations to take a more specific approach to tackling the human causes of climate change in order to reduce the risk of increasing prevalence of infectious disease. Germany recommends creating a sub-committee that will focus on building sustainable energy sources in developing countries, like wind farms throughout Africa. This would provide the developing country with reliable electricity that could be used in hospitals and other areas to assist healthcare. Countries who are willing should provide funds for these projects. It is prominent that actions to counteract climate change occur now, and Germany is well on its way to achieving these goals, and is willing to help other countries combat climate change as well.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 17:36:58 73.145.5.136

Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Sreejay Ramakrishnan

World Health Organization
Climate Change and Infectious Disease
United Mexican States
Sreejay Ramakrishnan
Forest Hills Eastern

Over time, the Earth has been brought with an evident average increase in temperatures, causing climate change. Effects of climate change include intense drought, storms, heatwaves, rising sea levels, destruction of animal habitats and environments, and much more. As climate change increases, these effects become more and more severe. This catastrophe affects not only Mexico but rather every single country in the UN and the world as a whole. As of 2008, the World Health Organization the net global effect of projected climate change on human health is expected to be negative, putting particular focus on the damage climate change has caused and potentially will cause on global health infrastructure as well as the ability of health systems to deal with arising challenges in resolution WHA61.19. Additionally, infectious diseases are plaguing our world, infectious disease defines as any communicable or transmissible disease. Infectious diseases kill around 17 people around the world yearly. Climate change is defined as increasing temperatures, increasing humidity. All of which is the prime climate for disease-spreading bugs and bacteria such as mosquitoes. Climate change can also produce new diseases, or defrost old diseases that are frozen in glaciers or ice. Climate Change and Infectious disease go hand in hand, which is why it is paramount that the UN addresses this topic. The UN has adopted a 10 Year Climate Action Plan which aims to reduce carbon emissions, electricity consumption, commercial air travel emissions, and promote renewable energy, sustainability standards for events, operational efficiencies, and sustainable developments. The UN must further find ways to decrease the threat of climate change as well as the spreading of infectious diseases.

Climate Change and infectious disease are prominent issues in Mexico because, in order to control both problems, the world community must act as a collective. The Government of Mexico has been avid in the support and investment in renewable energy, therefore, reducing carbon emissions and greenhouse gases. Mexico has several goals in order to counteract Climate Change. Mexico aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22% and black carbon emissions by 51% by 2030; Reach a net-zero deforestation rate by 2030; Prevent and manage the negative impacts of climate change, especially among communities facing the most significant social inequalities; Promote sustainable and resilient food production systems; Conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services; Protect strategic infrastructure from the effects of climate change. With US AID, the Government of Mexico has made task forces to combat this issue. The Sustainable Landscapes Ventures (Conservation International Foundation) supplies $10m from 2020-2025 which will mobilize investment capital to enable smallholder farmers to implement solutions that reduce deforestation, forest degradation and grow local economies. Mexico has supported UN resolutions involving the reduction of climate change. In order to ensure a weaker impact from infectious diseases, Mexico has been working with the United States in The Division of Global Migration and Quarantine US/Mexico Unit (USMU) which works to control infectious disease outbreaks, diseases associated with product importation and distribution, and ensures the identification and referral of people with suspected and confirmed infectious conditions traveling between countries. 3 main aspects of the USMU are disease surveillance, CureTB, and Latino Migrant Health. For disease surveillance, the USMU coordinates the Binational Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) program to improve disease prevention in the border region. The BIDS network has helped identify H1N1 influenza, dengue, rickettsia, measles, hepatitis A, rubella, and foodborne outbreaks. The CureTB program works with health authorities across borders to assist in linking patients with tuberculosis to care as they move between countries. For Latin Migrant Health the USMU works to enhance scientific evidence and awareness on health disparities affecting Latino migrants in the United States and effective interventions to address them, and specializes in outreach and health education approaches for Spanish-speaking and mobile populations.

Mexico proposes that the UN consider resolutions that: reduce carbon and greenhouse gas emissions, promote renewable energy, help manage and decrease the spread of infectious diseases, and allow for equal health treatment of all people if plagued with an infectious disease.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/24/2021 10:26:55 107.77.194.233

Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Madison Gruber

Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts can be natural, but since the 1800s, human activities have been the principal driver of climate change, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. Global warming and climate change have several influences on human health. Infectious diseases are ailments caused by organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Many microorganisms live in harmony in and on our bodies and are typically harmless. However, in some circumstances, microorganisms can cause disease. Water/foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are most affected by climate change. Even with expansive and robust mitigation procedures, global warming has been inevitable for decades and will continue to progress. Although the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not yet impacted the entirety of the globe, these consequences will appear everywhere if climate change continues to advance. Further research on the correlation between climate change and infectious diseases should be administered to counteract additional spread.

Climate change is an issue that requires immediate action from the international community. Based on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Conference of Parties has been a pivot for active discussions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the global level. Japan has emphasized the importance of extending support on climate change to developing countries. Since there are no national borders for climate change, it is essential that each country works through mitigation and adaptation. The responsibility of developed countries to support developing countries is stipulated in international frameworks and we must work together to face these challenges.

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FHEDelegates 11/24/2021 01:28:22 98.209.170.205

Country: Colombia
Delegate Name: Aayush Sule

World Health Organization
Climate Change and Infectious Disease
Republic of Colombia
Aayush Sule
Forest Hills Eastern High School

According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, climate change is a change in the contents of the global atmosphere caused by human activities over time. An assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that the last four decades have been the warmest decades since 1850. In short, climate change, along with average global temperature, has been rising over the last few dozen decades. Carbon dioxide emissions are responsible for 80% of global warming. According to the IPCC, 89% of global CO2 emissions come from fossil fuels and their related industries. If you do the math, that means that approximately 71% of all global warming and climate change is a direct or indirect result of burning fossil fuels. The United States National Center for Science Education states that various effects of this trend include the changing of annual amounts of precipitation, the melting of polar ice caps, and the rising of sea levels, to name a few. On top of this, climate change disrupts weather patterns, leading to the contamination of water supplies as well as unpredictable water availability in rural communities. A lesser-known, but possibly more dangerous effect of climate change is its potential to contribute to the spread of infectious diseases in the future. As stated by the World Health Organization, an infectious disease is a disease that is generally considered communicable or transmissible. As per the United Nations, rising temperatures caused by climate change can idealize conditions for disease-spreading creatures such as mosquitoes, and could even cause long-dormant diseases frozen in the arctic permafrost to be revived. The rise of these diseases would subsequently overwhelm global health infrastructure. While this is not a threat as of now, it could be a serious one in the future. Therefore, it is imperative that the United Nations should develop a plan to stop or at least slow the rate of climate change. It is not enough to wait until the temperature rises even more – this issue needs immediate attention. If we wait until infectious diseases’ spreads are heightened by rising temperatures and dormant diseases escape from the arctic permafrost, coming to a solution then will prove difficult.

Colombia is a country that understands all of the risks of climate change. The majority of Colombians live in cities located in the Andean Mountain range and the Caribbean coast. In the mountain cities, water shortages are common; climate change would only worsen this situation with added unreliability of water sources. The cities and communities on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts would also be devastated by rising sea levels caused by climate change. These symptoms of climate change would force many people to migrate to other regions, furthering poverty. Additionally, Colombia’s vital agriculture industry would be greatly harmed by the changing amounts of rainfall climate change can cause. Although our healthcare is ranked 22nd in the world by the World Health Organization, Colombian hospitals and clinics would undoubtedly feel the strains of any infectious diseases enhanced by rising temperatures. To combat climate change and prevent these future scenarios from happening, the Republic of Colombia has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 51% in 2030. Additionally, Colombia has an initiative in place to plant 180 million trees by 2022 in order to help reach net-zero deforestation by 2030. The Republic of Colombia has signed the Lecitia pact with various South American countries to preserve the Amazon rainforest. Colombia has also signed the Paris Agreement. In addition, Colombia is making transportation carbon neutral through various means. For example, Colombia is looking into electrifying our bus fleet instead of having them run on oil. Colombia’s Active Transport and Travel Demand Management program has a goal of having bicycles account for more than 5% of all trips made in the Republic of Colombia. Colombia’s capital, Bogotá, already has 13% of all trips made by bicycle. Furthermore, Colombia is the second country in the world to cut back on black carbon pollution, also known as soot. The Republic of Colombia has taken various other measures to decelerate climate change and its symptoms. However, Colombia alone cannot solve this problem; it requires extensive international cooperation.

Because the majority of climate change is caused by the burning of fossil fuels, Colombia believes that the most effective way to solve climate change is to eliminate fossil fuels and replace them with nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is scalable and can produce large amounts of energy from a very small footprint. Additionally, new designs for nuclear reactors ensure more affordability, safety, and less pollution than the previous generations of reactors. The Republic of Colombia proposes that to cross the money and technology hurdle, various countries such as the United States and China, who are experienced in dealing with nuclear power, could give money to developing nations to fund nuclear energy expeditions and train foreign nuclear engineers. To ensure that countries whose economies rely on oil and fossil fuels don’t have their economies crumble, all laborers who currently work in the fossil fuel industry should be transferred to the nuclear industry. Colombia believes that it is not enough to wait until the temperature rises even more and attack the symptoms of climate change later – this issue needs immediate attention. If we wait until infectious diseases’ spreads are heightened by rising temperatures and dormant diseases escape from the arctic permafrost, coming to a solution then will prove difficult.

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9218

Country: Viet Nam
Delegate Name: Allison Bennett

Climate change is said to affect the temperature, the frequency in extreme weather events, and sea level rise. Extreme weather events and sea level rise are projected to be more severe in upcoming decades, which, without action, will increase the amount of people at risk of climate sensitive illnesses. This will challenge and put pressure on health care systems, especially in low and middle income countries. The effects of change in health can be direct and immediate such as drownings, injuries, and heat related illness, or indirect and delayed, such as waterborne infections, vector-borne diseases, air-borne diseases, mental health consequences, and food shortages.
Viet Nam has signed The Paris Agreement on Climate Change. The agreement’s main goals are to substantially reduce countries’ greenhouse gas emissions to limit the global temperature increase and provide financing to developing countries to strengthen resilience, mitigate climate change and to enhance abilities to adapt climate impacts, while reviewing countries’ commitment every 5 years. Viet Nam introduced legislation to further advance its greenhouse gas reduction goals. The four main strategies are: cap and trade, a ban on chemicals that destroy the ozone layer, corporate emissions reporting rules, and a database of both emissions and the measures to decrease them. The Vietnamese government and the Vice President of the United States agreed on the importance of combating the climate crisis, increasing resilience and collaborating towards a clean energy future. For infectious diseases the USAID Vietnam Health Program aims to help Vietnam’s efforts to plan, finance and implement systems to increase prevention and control of infectious disease by building sustainable health systems.
Viet Nam plans on reducing coal power from 34 percent to 27 percent and increasing wind power from zero percent to 8.1 percent of total power generated by 2030, while solar power makes up almost 24 percent of the country’s power capacity. In April 2021, the Government of Viet Nam and other representatives from the United Nations signed the Vietnam One Health Partnership for Zoonoses (OHP) Framework. One Health, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach to infectious disease prevention that recognizes the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment. Development partners including the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organizations, European Union, United Kingdom and United States were invited to share statements on potential cooperation within the One Health Partnership Framework.

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8966

Country: Pakistan
Delegate Name: Teague Ott

Climate change has been a problem for the entire planet for generations as well as infectious diseases. Infectious diseases have been changing constantly and sometimes they have viral mutations due to global warming. Diseases like Encephalitis and Malaria, have spread throughout countries due to global warming and climate change heating up the planet. Pakistan feels that climate change and infectious diseases are a very important problem that needs to be fixed. Climate change has melted glaciers and created droughts for Pakistan. As a developing country, Pakistan feels that climate change and infectious diseases are a serious problem and needs to be fixed.
Pakistan has established a policy in 2012 making a climate change council. The goal of this was to prepare and supervise the implementation of projects to help Pakistan adapt to climate impacts. At the current time, Pakistan has not passed any mandates or laws regarding infectious diseases. The policy established in 2012 has helped Pakistan prepare for climate changes in the atmosphere for the past few years. This policy has done little to nothing to help Pakistan since it is rated one of the top 5 most affected countries by climate change and diseases. Pakistan has had a steady climate change over the past 50 years along with the rise of diseases like covid 19. The United Nations feels that climate change and infectious diseases are a very important problem. considering that because of human activities, temperatures have risen on the planet 1.1 C. so far, the UN has put in a 10-year climate change plan to reduce the costs of greenhouse gases which currently has not affected Pakistan at this moment.
Pakistan is one of the most affected by global warming on the planet, but it has a plan of action. Pakistan is planning the ten billion tree tsunami program. The TBTTP is a plan set out to plant 10 billion trees by 2023. In the case of infectious diseases, Pakistan’s plan to deal with the disease is to limit travel and initiate a mandatory lockdown to minimize civilians being at risk of sickness or death. Pakistan is a very vulnerable country to diseases and climate change. However, due to its policies and precautions put into place, Pakistan will be able to counter climate change and save its country from a climate catastrophe.

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