September 16, 2019

Situation in Sudan

Specialized: United Nations Security Council

Topic: Situation in Sudan

The situation in Sudan is the result of a military coup that overthrew the power sharing government that replaced the Omar al-Bashir regime in 2019. The coup replaced most of the civilian members of the Sovereign Council, and placed General Abdel-Fattah Burhan of the Sudanese military as Chairman and Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) as Deputy Chairman.  The Rapid Support Forces are a paramilitary group formed out of the Janjaweed, a coalition of militia groups used by the Bashir government to violently put down an armed rebellion in Darfur during the 2000s. The actions taken by the Sudanese military and Janjaweed in Darfur led the International Criminal Court to charge Omar al-Bashir with genocide. Dagalo felt deceived by Burhan as plans originally made to dissolve the RSF and integrate it under the regular Sudanese army over a decade were accelerated to two years or less. This paired with Dagalo claiming that Burhan sought to reinstate much of the old Bashir regime has led to the outbreak in fighting on April 15.

The fighting between the Sudanese army and RSF have spread from the capital of Khartoum to several other cities in the Kordofan and Darfur regions, forcing millions to flee from the fighting. Some three million people have been displaced inside of Sudan and another million have fled neighboring states, including South Sudan. Over four thousand civilians have been killed in the fighting so far. Fighting in South Kordofan is also threatening to spill over into the Jazira province, the heart of Sudan’s food production. Food stocks in Kordofan and Khartoum are already depleted and fighting has blocked many of the routes used by aid agencies. The United Nations has called for peace talks and ceasefires since April, however, ceasefires have not lasted and as long as both sides feel there is a chance of victory, there will be no peace talks. The International Criminal Court has begun investigations into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by both sides.

The situation presents a threat to the stability of the region as refugees flee in search of safety and aid. In some cases, the situation in Sudan is the second conflict refugees have fled, as is the case for the 93,000 Syrian refugees who reside in Sudan. Some 240,000 Sudanese and South Sudanese refugees have fled to South Sudan where refugee camps offer limited supplies. The United Nations Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan continues to attempt to bring the Sudanese military and the RSF to the negotiating table, having suspended most of its other functions after the outbreak of fighting in April. The mission has evacuated most of its staff from Sudan and those remaining in country have moved to Port Sudan to continue limited operations. Port Sudan, some 417 miles to the northeast of Khartoum has become a refuge for those fleeing the conflict in the capital. However, it is a long journey, those fortunate enough to have a car have over 500 miles of road to cross, possibly exposed to fighting, landmines, and unexploded ordinance. This route is equally dangerous for those that would distribute aid out of Port Sudan. Although Port Sudan is far from the fighting, it has not been untouched. The Sudanese Sovereign Council has prioritized fighting the RSF, leaving Port Sudan with rolling blackouts and doctors who have gone months without pay. Port Sudan with a population over 500,000 has seen over 100,000 refugees flood every aspect of the city and push it to its breaking point.

The United Nations Security Council, if it cannot resolve the conflict must at least reduce the impact of the crisis on the surrounding region. The conflict has not yet spread to the entire country, so there is time to contain it and secure routes for humanitarian aid. The council should consider how two warring political factions may be brought to the negotiating table without favoring one side or the other. The council must also consider how humanitarian aid may be distributed without putting aid workers at additional risk in fashion that will give an advantage to one of the two factions.

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Submitted Position Papers

Gregory Poole 11/29/2023 20:23:17

Country: Ecuador
Delegate Name: Adam Harake

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Ecuador
Delegate Name: Adam Harake
Ecuador expresses deep concern over the unfolding crisis in Sudan, particularly stemming from
the military coup in 2019 that disrupted the power-sharing government established after the
overthrow of the Omar al-Bashir regime. This coup, which saw significant changes in the
leadership of the Sovereign Council, has triggered a conflict between the Sudanese army and
the Rapid Support Forces (RSF).
The RSF, originally formed from the Janjaweed, played a role in suppressing armed rebellion in
Darfur during the 2000s under the Bashir government. The actions in Darfur led to charges of
genocide against al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court. The recent coup and accelerated
plans to dissolve the RSF have resulted in internal conflicts, with General Abdel-Fattah Burhan
and Deputy Chairman Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo now at the forefront of the leadership.
This internal strife erupted on April 15, leading to widespread fighting that has not only engulfed
the capital, Khartoum, but also spread to other regions, particularly Kordofan and Darfur. The
conflict has forced millions to flee their homes, resulting in significant internal displacement and
creating a complex humanitarian crisis. The city of Port Sudan, situated northeast of Khartoum,
has become a refuge for those fleeing the violence, although it is not untouched, experiencing
rolling blackouts and strained resources.
The impact of the conflict extends beyond Sudan’s borders, with over a million refugees fleeing
to neighboring states, including South Sudan. The situation is particularly dire for refugees who
had initially sought safety in Sudan, making the crisis a secondary conflict for some, such as the
93,000 Syrian refugees currently residing in Sudan.
The United Nations Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) has been actively
involved in attempting to initiate peace talks and ceasefires since April. However, ceasefires
have been short-lived, and the situation remains volatile. The International Criminal Court has
initiated investigations into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by both
sides, acknowledging the severity of the crisis.
Ecuador recognizes the critical role of UNITAMS in the efforts to bring the conflicting parties to
the negotiating table. However, challenges persist, leading to the relocation of mission staff to
Port Sudan. The city, already strained, faces additional challenges due to an influx of refugees,
with over 100,000 people seeking refuge in a city of 500,000.
In light of the complex situation, Ecuador proposes that the United Nations Security Council
takes immediate and effective measures. These include prioritizing containment of the conflict
within the current affected regions, advocating for neutral international mediation efforts, and
developing a strategic plan for the secure and equitable distribution of humanitarian aid.

Furthermore, Ecuador emphasizes the need for international investigations into alleged war
crimes, crimes against humanity, and regional collaboration to manage the impact of the crisis
on neighboring states. The overarching goal is to find diplomatic and impartial solutions that
respect Sudan’s sovereignty and prioritize the well-being of its people. The international
community, led by the United Nations, must collectively work to prevent further escalation of the
humanitarian crisis in Sudan.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 21:11:59

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Daniel Hernanz

Conflict in Sudan with the RSF has led to a decrease in the security and stability of the lives of the Sudanese people, spreading from Khartoum to regions such as Kordofan and Darfur. Millions have already fled, but the situation is complicated as 93,000 Syrian refugees have to flee again. More than 200,000 Sudanese and South Sudanese people have already evacuated, but refugee camps have limited supplies. For many others, fleeing the situation is almost impossible due to the limited transportation options that they have, but even for those that do escape, they never do so completely. Because of the prioritization Sudan is giving to the fighting, other places such as Port Sudan are not capable of facilitating the help that the people need. Unwillingness of both the RSF and Sudan makes ending this conflict even harder.

The delegation of Japan promoted the petition for ceasefire in April from UNTAG, but that was not successful. Japan along with other G7 and like minded-countries has supported civilian rule in Sudan, however given the current situation, Japan has asked for a ceasefire and negotiations towards peace to occur. Japan has cooperated with the United Nations and the UNSC, as the safety of the people is what matters most.
In this conference, the delegation of Japan will continue to support a peaceful end to the fighting after negotiations are made between the two parties. The delegation calls on Sudan to fully cooperate with the UN in finding a peaceful way to end this conflict and bring back the safety to the people. Lastly, Japan looks forward to negotiating and creating ways to find peace and safety in the upcoming conference.

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Trevor Riley 11/22/2023 16:34:29

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Mozambique
Delegate Name: Saniya Mishra

“There is not a chance for protesting physically on the street, even with graffiti, because the militia’s occupying all the houses,” said Tariq, a Sudanese woman with a baby who was forced out of her house by militia that robbed her of all of her belongings. So, Tariq joined a group of activists, protesting against the widespread violence plaguing the Sudanese population. Especially afflicted are the women and children, with many of their husbands, fathers, uncles, and brothers killed. In these dire situations, measles and malnutrition has plagued the children and spread rapidly in overcrowded camps, where many die due to the lack of medicine and doctors. This is the unfortunate reality for nearly six million people.

The people of Mozambique have endured comparable sufferings in their past during the civil war from 1977 to 1992. In that time, the nation was divided between the communist government and the anti-communist forces, just as Sudan is divided between the warring factions of Burhan’s ruling army and Hemedti’s challenging Rapid Support Forces (RSF), both claiming to offer transition to a democratic state, but neither following through. The state of Mozambique, on the other hand, resolved its internal conflict with a peace agreement and is now led by a democratically elected president and legislature, both of which serve five-terms, allowing citizens to regularly participate in choosing trustworthy policymakers. As a fellow African country, the Republic of Mozambique looks to aid Sudan in the establishment of a democratic system and urges other nations to add their support to this effort. In addition, having faced similar turmoil in Mozambique’s past, which left many transportation and sustenance resources in ruin, the delegation of Mozambique would like to see additional humanitarian aid efforts for the people caught in the crossfire of the Sudanese conflict.

In order to accomplish this, the delegation of Mozambique proposes to increase funding for healthcare and sustenance to be supplied to people across Sudan. In addition, troops and volunteers from other nations should be utilized to aid Sudanese people in escaping the violence by establishing modes of accessible transportation by way of teams in vehicles or aircrafts so that they may find refuge in surrounding nations. Such operations should be funded by UN member nations with more extensive means and who are not facing their own internal conflicts. To resolve the issue with Sudan’s opposing leaders, Mozambique would like to have Burhan and Hemedti meet to agree upon a constitution that establishes civil rights such as the right to meet, the right to petition, right to vote, and the right to free speech and press in order to allow for more power to return to the citizens, like Tariq who is attempting to engage in protests, who can then use that power to shape the government. As a part of this agreement, Sudan will become a multiparty state with elections for a legislature composed of 266 representatives, 2 for each district, that will each serve two-year terms to hold them accountable to the wants of the public. There will also be a president, democratically elected, who will also serve two-year terms, with a maximum of three terms in order to allow for the rotation of those holding power. If the two do not agree to meet and negotiate on these terms, sanctions should be placed on all international economic activity, isolating the warring parties from resources in order to pressure them into building the aforementioned constitution. Under the constitution, the RSF will be kept separate from the army but will only engage in military action on the borders of Sudan or aid in humanitarian efforts, with no military engagement deeper within the country. This will prevent future clashes with the army and allow for continued peace for the people of Sudan to return home and rebuild their communities stronger than ever.

The delegation of Mozambique looks forward to collaborating with likeminded nations that also hope to ensure the establishment of democratic processes and rights in Sudan and the prosperity of their people, their dying men, their sick children, and their fighting mothers, like Tariq.

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MattawanDelegates 11/22/2023 15:45:27

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Malta
Delegate Name: Sophie Roberts

Sophie Roberts
United Nations Security Council
The Situation in Haiti
Mattawan High School

Before the current crisis, Sudan was already facing many conflicts and humanitarian challenges. In 2019, the Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir, a dictator who has been charged with genocide, was overthrown. His government was replaced by a combination of military and civilian groups. However, in 2021, the military fully took control of Sudan’s government, with General Abdel-Fattah Burhan becoming Chairman of the Sovereign Council and Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo, a member of the Rapid Support Forces, serving as vice-Chairman. The Rapid Support Forces are a paramilitary group that was originally used by al-Bashir to enforce his regime in Darfur, but they later turned against al-Bashir and allied with the Sudanese Armed Forces to depose of al-Bashir. However, tensions arose between the two leaders. A plan had been created to integrate the RSF into Sudan’s military over the next decade, but Burhan accelerated the timeline to the next two years, opening up the question of who would hold more power in the nation’s new hierarchy and leaving Burhan and Dagalo at odds. On April 15, fighting broke out between Dagalo and Burhan and their followers.

In addition to political strife, Sudan had been facing issues with refugees and displacement, which the current crisis has only exacerbated. Before the fighting broke out, Sudan had already been home to over one million refugees including South Sudanese, Ethiopians fleeing violence in Tigray, and 93,000 Syrians. Now, many of these refugees are once again displaced, in addition to many Sudanese. In total, 3.3 million people have been internally displaced or fled to neighboring countries. In addition to displacement, many Sudanese are facing resource scarcity. Food, water, fuel, and medicine are scarce, and prices for necessities have skyrocketed. The situation only threatens to worsen since the fighting is creeping closer to Jazira, Sudan’s center of food production, and conflict blocks many of the routes that aid agencies use to distribute resources. In May 2023, the two sides signed a Declaration of Commitment in Saudi Arabia guaranteeing that they would allow safe passage of aid into Sudan; however, despite this agreement, pathways to assistance continue to be blocked.

Following the overthrow of al-Bashir in 2019, the UN Integrated Transition Mission Sudan (UNITAMS) was established to help aid the country’s transition to democratic governance. The mission’s mandate has been renewed several times, most recently in February 2023, so that it may continue to address Sudan’s political and social challenges. UNITAMS has urged peace talks between the two sides, and has helped de-escalate smaller, regional conflicts between the RSF and SAF by cooperating with local leaders and regional politicians. UNITAMS has also helped address some humanitarian issues in Sudan by meeting with survivors of sexual violence, negotiating for the release of child soldiers, and providing local education on safety with mines and unexploded ordinance. However, the mission acknowledges that pathways to distribute resources continue to be blocked, and that the best solution is a “humanitarian pause” to allow for the transportation of vital aid.

Malta has “strongly condemn[ed]” the violence in Sudan, especially the impact that it has on civilians, women, and children, and called for a return to civilian governance. The delegation to Malta voted in favor of extending the mandate for UNITAMS and commends the mission’s efforts to hold peace talks. In a statement, Malta’s delegate to the United Nations suggested that Sudan to return to the “transitional drawing board” to create a stable, new government. Additionally, Malta emphasizes the importance of protecting women and children, since Sudanese women have been disproportionately affected by the violence and are at increased risk of gender-based abuse. Malta has also noted the importance of providing medical aid to Sudan, since the conflict has devastated the country’s medical infrastructure. As a member of the European Union, Malta has contributed aid to the region, with the EU providing 500 million euros in assistance to the Humanitarian Response Plan and 256.4 million euros to providing humanitarian and developmental assistance in Sudan.

Malta encourages a ceasefire to stop further spread of the conflict and allow for the distribution of lifesaving resources. Neutral mediators may help facilitate productive discussions between the two sides. Ideally, all Sudanese people, including women, would be represented in discussions on how to establish a new government. Additionally, Malta supports a resolution providing further medical aid and protections for women and children in Sudan to help minimize the devastating humanitarian impact of the conflict.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:36:26

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Andre Stoll

The ongoing conflict in Sudan has currently internally displaced approximately 4.6 million people and has resulted in the deaths of at least 9,000 people. This tragic situation is also impacting humanitarian aid missions responsible for assisting the over 25 million people in Sudan who need aid. The conflict has reversed the progress Sudan has made over the past years toward becoming democratic, and, given the extensive history of violence and brutal regimes in Sudan’s history, this war has the potential to escalate into a far more deadly and long-lasting schism. As such, the UN Security Council (UNSC) must work together to end this situation through diplomatic means and continue to provide both financial and humanitarian aid to the millions affected by this conflict.

The United Kingdom (UK) has a long and complex history dating back to the 1890s when Britain forcefully took control of Sudan as a colony. After Sudan became an independent state in 1956, the UK continued to have close ties to the country and has provided immense support to the country and its people throughout the numerous wars Sudan has experienced in the past 70 years. In just the past five years alone, the UK donated over £250 million in humanitarian aid to the region. The UK possesses substantial influence over numerous regional actors and is a core part of both the ‘Troika’ and the ‘Quartet,’ two informal international groups dedicated to assisting Sudan’s transition to a free andfair democracy. The UK has continued its tradition of support for Sudan in this current crisis and this May provided over £5 million to individuals fleeing the conflict. The UK also has considered arranging travel for some Sudanese citizens and refugees to the UK. The UK is extremely involved in UNSC activity involving Sudan and has been labeled as the “Penholder” for Sudan responsible for taking the initiative on all UNSC concerning the situation in Sudan.
The UN has had five separate peacekeeping missions in Sudan since 2002, including the first-ever joint African Union-UN peacekeeping mission. The most recent and pertinent mission, the UN Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS), was launched in 2020 and is set to expire in December of 2023. This mission was launched to assist Sudan in a democratic transition following the ousting of its long-lasting ruler Omar al-Bashir and to provide humanitarian assistance to people affected by the conflicts in Sudan. UNITAMS also sought to provide economic and developmental assistance to Sudan, as Sudan is currently one of the least developed nations in the world. Following the outbreak of the current Civil War, there have been some within the Security Council who believe that UNITAMS should be disbanded, as it is unable to effectively execute its mission goals in the current environment in Sudan, and since it failed to ensure a peaceful transition to democracy. In addition to UNITAMS, the UN also is providing aid through the Sudan Humanitarian Fund, a country-based pool fund dedicated to “funding the people most in need when they need it.”

It is in the best interest of the global community to end this conflict in a peaceful manner and in a way that will ensure continued peace in the region. As such, it is the opinion of the UK that the UNSC should level its international power of embargos and trade restrictions to limit financial and military support in coming to both sides of the conflict, to force the opposing sides to the negotiating table. Additionally, the UN should collaborate with stable regional governments to provide shelter to those displaced by this conflict. Throughout this conflict, the UN must continue to supply financial aid and humanitarian aid to the victims of this tragedy and should work to utilize its peacekeeper forces to protect NGOs and active UN missions in the area. It is important to the UK that the end of this conflict does not result in another 30 years of nondemocratic rule in Sudan, and as such, the UK believes that any form of ceasefire agreement should include within it free and fair elections after a specified period for the country. A resolution that helps limit the ongoing violence in the nation while promoting democracy and humanitarian aid is not just in the best interest of the UK, but is in the best interest of the globe.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:16:48

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Jasmine Mand

Sudan is enduring a situational crisis at the present time. A civil war erupts in the nation in a fight for power. The Rapid Support Forces (RSF) want to know how to be integrated with the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF). These forces also battle for leadership of the new military. This war has spread from the capital of Khartoum to other scattered cities, forcibly, 4.5 million civilians to be displaced. Of those, 1 million have fled to neighboring states, and over 4,000 killed. Since many people are pushing into South Sudan, they need help with humanitarian aid. $2.6 billion is needed to help support the 18 million Sudanese people. Without correct healthcare, hygiene, food, and human rights protection, these people can’t survive. The large crisis revolves around protecting the humanitarian aid workers and securing supplies. Many trucks have been looted for food and harassment has occurred with health care workers. Innovations within technological advancements and safer delivery of supplies can help. The Center for Strategic and International Studies states, “International aid to Sudan should focus on partnerships that do not rely solely on the approval of the warring factions, but instead connect directly with the civilian populations” (“Center for Strategic and International Studies”). Brazil recognizes and supports the aid needed for Sudan and is willing to help. Brazil would additionally support the two forces calling a ceasefire and ending the conflict.

The Federative Republic of Brazil realizes the humanitarian aid risks that many people have to face. Brazil has put some police force within the borders of South Sudan to help with the displaced people from Sudan. They have partnered up with the Near East Foundation NGO to assist people in Sudan and bring peace through economic cooperation. With this collaboration, access to goods and services becomes easier to handle. Another solution to the humanitarian aid crisis can be connecting with more local partners that know the region to secure the supplies. The Brazilian government has been coordinating with other countries that also have citizens in Sudanese territory to establish coordinated evacuation measures, to be implemented as soon as security conditions permit ( Recently, Brazil has also suffered humanitarian aid and refugee problems from Venezuela. Brazil has hosted 406,000 refugees, representing 18% of Venezuela’s population. During this time, the United States assisted the country by programming $1.1 billion to protect the Venzulainan people. With this crisis, Brazil understands the situation for Sudan and its neighboring countries. Developing new routes by air can help deliver the products safely. Despite the high cost, Brazil’s contribution can assist by funding and distributing aid to ensure the protection of the workers.

The Federative Republic of Brazil requests the United Nations to de-escalate the conflict between the SFA and the RSF to control the displaced people. Brazil insures to help fund humanitarian aid for safer clinics, secure food/resources, shelters, and health care. Countries that are willing to assist can add more funding and connect with NGOs to help distribute products faster. Also, developing technological advancements would help with precise humanitarian response. Brazil is growing and innovating as the future beholds and is willing to help with this crisis.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/21/2023 21:51:38

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Harry Cornell

Situation in Sudan
Russian Federation
Harry Cornell

The situation in Sudan began with the 2019 coup d’etat that overthrew Omar al-Bashir’s regime. This overthrow was caused by the fact that Al-Bashir had lost the right to govern in the court of public opinion; protesters had been in the streets for months when the military decided to launch their coup d’etat. The resulting regime sought to be a transitional period between military control, stemming from the coup, and a government led by the regular Sudanese citizen. This was accomplished through having both members of the military regime and civilians on the Sovereignty Council, the governing body of Sudan. However, a failed coup attempt by those still loyal to Bashir led to unrest in the nation between those who believed there was a need for greater civilian involvement in government, and those who believed the military should take the helm. This led to a successful coup by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, the new military government sought to remove all civilian members of the Sovereignty Council, as they claimed that the citizens had guided the nation towards a potential civil war. Present day, a rift has appeared in the government between Burhan and Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo – often referred to as Hemedti – who leads Sudan’s Rapid Support Forces (RSF), as wages on throughout Sudan and a humanitarian crisis has appeared. Economic assets require protection and humanitarian aid is necessary if this body is ever to get this crisis under control.

The Russian Federation has not involved itself in the war and unrest in Sudan, as such it does not seek to involve itself, as it does not believe there is any interest in Sudan for its nation. Russia has no relations with either of the forces fighting in the war and has little to none with the Sudanese government as a hold. There are no Russian assets in Sudan, therefore the Russian Federation sees no need to get involved in order to protect anything belonging to the Russian Federation. It is in Russian interest however to solve the humanitarian crisis at hand in order to prevent a backlog of refugees seeking refuge within the borders of the Russian Federation. This is evident in the fact that since mid-April of this year, more than 6 million people in Sudan have been displaced, and at least 1.2 million have left seeking refuge in other nations. The Russian Federation also seeks to reaffirm human rights, as they are a necessity for life, as outlined in the Declaration of Human Rights. This body cannot sit on the sideline when these rights along with the Economic and Social Council’s sustainable development goals are in jeopardy, as we are the only body with the power to enforce the measures we choose to take.

In order to solve these issues, the Russian Federation seeks for the renewal of the mandate of the UN Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS), as originally mandated in resolution 2524 (2020) and most recently extended by resolution 2685 (2023) until 3 December 2023, the day after this body ceases to meet. The mission of UNITAMS is critical to any chance of having peace in the region and it is important that they continue to build upon the groundwork they have made. Moreover, UNITAMS has provided both this body and the secretary general with a great amount of information and it is vital that that intelligence is maintained. The Russian Federation also seeks for an increase in humanitarian aid to the region, as of 12 November 2023, the 2023 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan – as implemented by the UN Office for Coordination of Human Affairs – is currently funded at 33.8 percent of its funding goal. The Russian Federation also believes that protecting Sudan’s interests in its natural resources is vital as a driver of the Sudanese economy. The Russian Federation specifically seeks protections for the gold industry as it has proven to be a driving factor for the Sudanese economy. This is exemplified by the fact that Sudan is the third largest producer of gold in Africa over the past decade.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 21:25:24

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Gabon
Delegate Name: Noah Breukink

2023-Situation in Sudan
Noah Breukink
Security Council

The Republic of Gabon recognizes the gravity of the situation in Sudan and extends its deepest condolences to the people of Sudan who have endured considerable challenges. As a responsible member of the international community, Gabon believes in the importance of collaborative efforts to address the complex issues facing Sudan and work towards lasting solutions.

Gabon acknowledges the historical and socio-political complexities that have contributed to the challenges in Sudan. The country has closely followed developments, taking note of the aspirations of the Sudanese people for peace, stability, and democratic governance.

Gabon reaffirms the principles of sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of sovereign states. While acknowledging the need for international assistance in addressing humanitarian concerns, Gabon emphasizes the importance of respecting Sudan’s sovereignty and supporting Sudanese-led initiatives.

Gabon expresses deep concern over the humanitarian situation in Sudan, particularly the displacement of civilians and the impact on vulnerable populations. We call for unrestricted access for humanitarian organizations to provide aid and assistance to those in need. Gabon believes in the importance of addressing the root causes of the humanitarian crisis to achieve a sustainable solution.

Gabon advocates for the use of diplomatic means and dialogue to resolve the conflicts in Sudan. We encourage the international community to support and facilitate inclusive negotiations among the various stakeholders in Sudan, with the aim of finding comprehensive and lasting solutions that address the concerns of all parties involved.

Gabon supports the role of the United Nations and African Union in peacekeeping efforts in Sudan. We believe in the importance of strengthening regional cooperation and collaboration to address the root causes of conflict and promote stability in Sudan and the broader region.

Gabon stresses the significance of national reconciliation and inclusivity in Sudan’s political processes. In order to achieve a sustainable and inclusive peace, it is imperative that all segments of Sudanese society are given the opportunity to participate in the country’s political and social reconstruction.

In conclusion, Gabon remains committed to supporting international efforts aimed at achieving peace, stability, and development in Sudan. We call upon the international community to work collaboratively, respecting Sudan’s sovereignty, and ensuring that any actions taken are in line with the principles of the United Nations Charter.

Delegates of Gabon are ready and open to engage in constructive dialogue with other member states to formulate effective and comprehensive solutions to address the situation in Sudan.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 09:49:06

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Albania
Delegate Name: Taha Ibrahim

Ever since al-Bashir was ousted in 2019, Sudan has been engulfed in economic and political turmoil following the military coup. General Abdel-Fattah Burhan was placed as the chairman, while the deputy chairman, Mohammad Hamdan Dagalo, leads a paramilitary group known as the Rapid Support Forces (RSF). This paramilitary group was previously used to suppress rebellions in Darfur. Tensions arose between the two following Hamdan’s claim that Burhan wanted to bring back members of the prior regime. As a result, Burhan and Hamdan have thrown the country into disarray as they fight against each other for supremacy and control, pitting the Sudanese armed forces (SAF) against the RSF. The conflict is currently contained within the capital city, Khartoum, and its surrounding areas; however, there are fears that the conflict could spread beyond into neighboring regions. The estimated death toll, following more than half a year of conflict, is at least 5,000 civilians, while over 12,000 are left injured, and 5.7 million people have been displaced. This conflict threatens the agricultural stability of Sudan as the fighting threatens to spill over into the province of Jazira, Sudan’s heart of agricultural production. Food resources are already scarce in Khartoum, so any further damage could lead to greater casualties. The situation in Sudan must be resolved to ensure lasting peace, prosperity, and hope for a nation in dire need of all.

The Republic of Albania has given unwavering support and commitment to resolving the ever-growing conflict in Sudan. Albania has always been concerned with the widespread human rights violations and abuses that have run rampant with no consequences. The military government has skirted its responsibilities, and accountability has been dismantled. In order to find lasting solutions, independent investigations into all violence against civilians are essential. Albania urges the military forces to release political detainees and to end arbitrary arrests, avoiding any further discourse that may jeopardize discussion. To continue the conflict is to continue division and further increases the risk of prolonged clashes. Albania urges all conflicting parties to fulfill obligations under humanitarian law to protect civilians and civilian infrastructure.

The Republic of Albania reaffirms its support for the United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan (UNITAMS) and believes it is imperative to ensure the safe movement of civilians away from ongoing conflict and to provide them access to essential resources like food, water, and medicine. Albania commends the efforts made by surrounding nations and the League of Arab States in their willingness to open borders and provide refuge to internally displaced civilians. The Republic of Albania is willing to provide continual support to Sudan during their ongoing struggle. For peace to be achieved, the current regime must be held accountable for its rampant crimes against humanity, and democracy and civilian leadership must be restored through legitimate transitions under their constitution. The Republic of Albania looks forward to cooperating with other delegations to ensure that the cycle of violence in Sudan is curtailed and to continue the mobilization of economic, developmental, and humanitarian assistance.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 22:53:51

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Switzerland
Delegate Name: Matthew Matola

Submitted To: United Nations Security Council
From: Switzerland
Delegate Name: Matthew Matola
Subject: The Situation in Sudan

The delegation of Switzerland calls for an immediate and lasting ceasefire between the RSF and the Sudanese Armed Forces. The scope of this conflict and the massive civilian cost warrant immediate further action taken by this council. Switzerland reiterates its support for the extension of the UNITAMS mission until December 3, 2023 and urges the Council to further extend the mandate of this mission. The Sudanese people deserve not only our humanitarian support, but a lasting, concrete solution. Failure to de-escalate this conflict could lead to catastrophic consequences, not just for Sudan, but for the region as a whole.

A UN brokered call for ceasefire would be the most effective first step to preventing further harm to civilians and Sudanese infrastructure. Aiding in the reorganization of the Sudanese government will be a long and arduous process and securing a formal ceasefire is crucial to beginning this work. As long as there is open conflict between the RSF and the Sudanese Armed Forces civilians will continue to be caught in the crossfire and the UN will be greatly restricted in its ability to safely provide humanitarian aid to displaced civilians. Though ceasefires have failed in the past, they are still the most effective way to ensure some means of relief are made accessible to Sudan’s citizens and that refugees are given time to escape conflict zones.

Switzerland remains invested in securing democratic processes and fair elections within Sudan, however, due to the scope of the conflict Switzerland has drastically reduced its direct involvement due to its inability to guarantee the safety of its nationals and NGO groups within Sudan. If the UN wishes to engage in further pro-democracy measures and put Sudan back on the path towards stabilization, a lasting ceasefire must be achieved. A stable, long term, democratic government for Sudan must be promoted, not just to de-escalate this conflict, but also to insure Sudan’s independence and stability in the future.

Switzerland reiterates the importance of humanitarian support during this time of conflict within Sudan. Urban warfare has stricken cities throughout Sudan, including the capital Khartoum, causing massive damage to infrastructure such as roads, power grids, hospitals, and sanitation facilities. Much of the urban population of the capital and the surrounding region have been unable to access clean water, food, and adequate medical supplies for months since the initial fighting began. In light of Sudan’s necessity for these humanitarian services Switzerland emphasizes the reality that without guarantees for the safety of NGO groups and UN humanitarian aid these programs cannot operate as effectively as is needed. Additional ceasefires are crucial to ensuring that these aid groups can safely provide assistance to the people who need it the most, those who remain in active conflict zones. Switzerland continues to actively support the World Food Programme and their efforts within the region.

A lasting peace between the RSF and the Sudanese Armed Forces, including each parties’ affiliated militant groups, should be the ideal that this committee aims to achieve. While it may be easier to simply address the humanitarian aspect of this issue, it is impossible to ignore the mounting refugee crisis and the numerous human rights violations committed by the parties involved in this conflict. If we ignore the need for an immediate ceasefire, in tandem with an expansion of humanitarian aid programs, this conflict may continue to expand past the borders of Sudan creating a regional refugee crisis of an unmanageable scale.


“Bilateral Relations Switzerland–South Sudan.” Eidgenössisches Departement Für Auswärtige Angelegenheiten EDA,,peacebuilding%20activities%20in%20South%20Sudan. Accessed 21 Nov. 2023.

“Switzerland Supports WFP’s Sudan Crisis Response in Egypt: World Food Programme.” UN World Food Programme, Accessed 21 Nov. 2023.

“Switzerland Shuts Embassy in Sudan for Security Reasons.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 24 Apr. 2023, Accessed 22 Nov. 2023.

“Briefing on Sudan.” Switzerland’s Seat in the Security Council 2023-2024, Accessed 22 Nov. 2023.

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GRCityDelegates 11/21/2023 22:23:09

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: France
Delegate Name: Amyah Kantz

Delegate: Amyah Kantz
Country: France
Topic: Situation in Sudan
Committee: United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
School: City High Middle School

Since the Sudanese Civil War in 1983, Sudan has had frequent conflicts regarding government practices. There has been significant growth in crime, ethnic cleansings, violence, and rebellions. In the early 2000’s, a militia formed to help aid the government, and in 2013, officially became the Rapid Support Force (RSF). When the RSF was named an independent military in 2017, their beliefs began to expand, leading to tensions with The Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF). On April 15th, 2023, fighting erupted. Currently, there is quantitative evidence that the RSF is responsible for numerous murders, rapes, pillages, and torture. The heart of these acts is in Darfur, which is in the western side of Sudan. In October, they recorded 12,000 injured, approximately 6,000 passed away, and 5.7 million forcibly displaced. These conditions continue to affect neighboring countries such as Ethiopia, Chad, South Sudan, and others. This ongoing fight has not reached the entirety of Sudan yet, and needs to be addressed.

While France does not have prominent ties with Sudan, we do have relationships with the nearing countries affected by this. Not only do we stand in line with humanitarianism, but we hope this conflict does not interact with the social and political status of other countries. Our hope is to make sure that there aren’t more lives lost due to this conflict, and that we can help Sudan solve these issues before it gets out of hand. France strongly condemns the inhumane acts being committed, and wants to end this swiftly. We do not stand with either side of this fight, and are going to remain neutral while stopping this. France has given 55 million euros to help solve this conflict. We will continue to encourage an end to this battle.

France firmly urges an immediate ceasefire in order to discontinue this. France would like to avoid military action, but will use it if the two parties do not abide. We hope to end this peacefully and are against the way Sudanese citizens are being treated. Our goal is to find a mutually beneficial solution for both the RSF and SAF. We agree to help smoothly transition Sudan into a safe, democratic system that ensures no more crimes occur. We see this as an important issue that needs to be solved by international forces. The United Nations Security Council is responsible for keeping global peace, and Sudan is in need of intervention. It is at our hands to ensure that all countries involved are safe and accounted for.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 17:47:48

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: United arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Connor Argenzio

Committee: Security Council
Topic: Situation in Sudan
Country: United Arab Emirates
Delegate: Connor Argenzio
School: Forest Hills Northern

Ever since the coup d’etat, where the reigning government led by Omar al-Bashir was overthrown, Sudan has been thrown into a state of political, economic, and humanitarian bedlam as two warring factions struggle for supremacy. Replacing the war criminal al-Bashir as the head of the Sudanese state is General Abdel-Fattah Burdan, who serves as the current Sudanese chairman. He leads the governmental faction within the conflict as the Sudanese army clashes with the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), a military group led by Hemedti, also known as Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo. Initially, the two men, Abdel-Fatah Burdan and Hemedti, cooperated; however, the tenuous coexistence was broken upon the latter’s claim that Burdhn intended to reinstate much of the previous al-Bashir regime. The conflict has yet to spread to the entire country, currently contained within the capital, Khartoum, and various surrounding regions. The fighting has killed nearly four thousand civilians and displaced millions. The conflict has yet more destructive potential as it threatens to spread into the surrounding Jazira province, which is crucial to Sudanese agriculture, and stretch an already weak food supply past its limit. Ultimately, the conflict is causing indelible economic damage to the region and threatens to strike a more significant regional conflict, which must be avoided at all costs. The humanitarian and economic crisis in Sudan must be resolved if peace, democracy, and economic prosperity should ever hope to be returned to the region.

The United Arab Emirates has played a crucial role in attempts to resolve the Sudanese situation thus far. As a close ally of the United States, the UAE has gladly accepted the mediator role delegated to it by Washington. Despite the UAE’s attempts to bring a peaceful resolution to the conflict, Saudi Arabia’s meddling has trammeled peace efforts. Aside from the current crisis, as a regional gulf power, the UAE has taken a prominent role in investing in Sudanese well-being and prosperity through a six billion dollar investment in agriculture and constructing a Red Sea port. Going forward, the UAE wishes to invest an additional twenty-four billion dollars into the Sudanese economy because the Gulf region as a whole cannot flourish if Sudan flounders. To protect Sudanese prosperity, the UAE has aligned with Russia to support the Hemedti regime. UAE efforts to secure peace in the region have been repeatedly limited by Saudi and Egyptian interference and support for the Burhan regime. Egypt, in its naive aggression, has even gone so far as to threaten an invasion of Sudan, which would only exacerbate an already precarious situation. The UAE has continued to support Sudan and Hemedti; nevertheless, it understands that the true cost of this conflict is not economic but human.

The United Arab Emirates will persist in its role as a mediator and power within the region as it works towards peace. However, ultimately, peace is impossible while the insurgent Burhan continues to spread his anarchy and destruction through the prosperous countryside. Thus, the only path towards rapprochement is through Hemedti, the rightful head of the Sudanese people. Despite its support for Hemedti, the UAE realizes that there is no clear end in sight and thus would support peace talks between the two forces, ultimately resulting in a quasi-two-state partition of Sudan between regions controlled by Hemedti and those occupied by Burhan. Additionally, the UAE will humbly offer to invest further in Sudanese infrastructure, agriculture, and the many other imperative industries damaged by the situation. However, the human cost is beyond any economic loss, and the paucity of humanitarian aid is regrettable; however, this regional dispute should remain regional, and officious powers should keep their distance. Therefore, the UAE would like to humbly offer its aid in providing aid to the Sudanese people. Through UAE funding and a UAE-backed support effort, aid can reach the people who need it. The UAE looks forward to cooperating with other governments to facilitate local support for the imperiled country and keeping meddling countries, like the Saudis and Egyptians, from throwing a tenuous situation into irreversible chaos.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 15:30:47

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Delaney Parkin

Committee: Security Council
Topic: Situation in Sudan
Country: Ghana
Delegate: Delaney Parkin
School: Williamston High School

For almost seven months now, Sudan has been in a humanitarian crisis, divided between the Sudanese Military, and the Rapid Support Forces. Starting on April 15, 2023, Sudan has been faced with a vast conflict covering the capital of Khartoum, all the way to regions including the Darfur region. This fighting has caused millions of civilians to be displaced, and Sudan is now the world’s largest child displacement crisis with millions of children fleeing the nation. Neighboring countries such as South Sudan, Ethiopia, Chad, and the Central African Republic have experienced an immense surge in refugees since the start of the conflict, changing the dynamic amongst multiple nations. Regions impacted by the conflict have experienced increased shortages of necessities such as food and shelter, especially in areas with higher refugee rates. Aid to these affected areas has been strained due to looting, and the inhibition of transportation with the conflict affecting routes for transportation. The conflict is also getting dangerously close to a province where much of Sudan’s food production occurs. This can lead to a great deficit in food distribution and production, increasing the already immense food insecurity issue. Many civilians in the country have resorted to the capital of the Red Sea State, Port Sudan, for assistance, however the city is about at its max capacity. Neither side of this conflict has agreed to attend any peace talks, and any ceasefires imposed have not lasted. The United Nations Transition Assistance Mission in Sudan has been putting most of their efforts towards this issue, trying to bring the two sides to a diplomatic agreement, however no process has been made. This issue greatly affects all surrounding nations, and is a serious danger to any civilians involved. It is important that this conflict be resolved soon, to ensure no further damage is done.
As an African country, Ghana has expressed serious concern regarding this issue, and the impact it has on the region. Ghana is in full support of the conflicting sides coming to a solution peacefully, and promotes peace talks while condemning any further conflict. Ghana has stressed the point that adequate leadership of Sudan is essential for a sustainable solution, as the country needs long lasting resolution, not a quick fix. Ghana is concerned about the attacks on civilians, as well as UNISFA Peacekeepers, and emphasizes the need for investigations, and accountability to be held. Ghana has provided military deployments in both Sudan and South Sudan in the past, which may indicate their future contribution to the situation. Ghana is also concerned with the deaths of United Nations members in the conflict, and provides its concern relating to safely providing support to the situation.
Ghana will continue to strongly encourage the conflicting sides to attend Peace talks and find a diplomatic solution to this issue, as the destruction needs to stop. The nation emphasizes the necessity of the implementation of an arms control program to fight the illegal weapons trade and prevent them from falling into the hands of civilians, causing further damage. Ghana supports a regional led approach to this issue. The A3 (Ghana, Gabon, and Mozambique) is particularly concerned with three issues. These include: Maintaining coherence and prioritizing efforts towards ending hostilities, a de-escalation of the situation and protection of all civilians; the need to contain the conflict and prevent a wide-spread and long-drawn out conflict, and The concern with implications of current conflict on security of the region, promoting aid, especially to regions with refugees. The A3 communicates its collective rejection of any external interference in ongoing conflict which would complicate the situation on the ground.

Works Cited
“/.” YouTube, 16 June 2023, Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Communique of the Ministerial Special Session on Sudan, 20 April 2023-African Union – Peace and Security Department.”, 20 April 2023, Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Security Council Calls on Sudan, South Sudan, to Demilitarize Abyei, Highlights Impact of Sudan Conflict on Area’s Political Process, Humanitarian Needs – Sudan.” ReliefWeb, 6 November 2023, Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Sudan | Situation Reports.” Situation Reports, 12 November 2023, Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Sudan’s Worsening Violence, Humanitarian Crisis Could Foreshadow Civil War, Senior Officials Warn Security Council, Calling for Urgent Action to End Conflict | UN Press.” UN Press, 13 September 2023, Accessed 21 November 2023.
“Sudan: World’s largest child displacement crisis.” Sudan Tribune, 12 November 2023, Accessed 21 November 2023.
“UN Security Council Briefing and Consultations on the situation in Sudan – Ghana Permanent Mission to the United Nations.” The Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations, 25 April 2023, Accessed 21 November 2023.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 07:59:05

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: China
Delegate Name: Colin Zaremski

On April 15, 2023 the Paramilitary Rapid Support Forces(RSF) began surprise attacks in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, against the Sudanese Army. This has caused other attacks to pop up in other cities in Sudan. In 2019 a coup ousted most civilian-held positions in government and put General Abdel-Fattah Burhan of the Sudanese Army as Chairman and Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo of the Rapid Support Forces as Deputy Chairman which helped be the catalyst for the fighting in 2023. Plans were also made to dissolve the Rapid Support Forces and integrate them into the Sudanese Army. These plans were rapidly accelerated in the months leading up to April. The fighting broke out over plans to reinstate many of the officials that were overthrown in 2019, which the Rapid Support Forces opposed and that caused conflict to break out. This has caused many to be displaced and forced to look for shelter in neighboring countries and in other cities in Sudan far from the conflict, which has put stress on those areas to support those fleeing the fighting. Due to the fighting, roads and supply routes the people in need of medical assistance have been cut off.
The People’s Republic of China has so far taken an overall neutral stance on the issue and is keeping a small eye on the situation due to economic interests in the region. China has deep rooted diplomatic relations with Khartoum and expresses some support for the government. China has been outspoken against the UN’s urges for sanctions due to respecting Sudan’s national sovereignty. China has also been concerned about this spilling over and causing further instability in Sudan and in the Horn of Africa. Most of the aid sent by China has been economic aid to help keep the Sudanese floating.
China’s plan going forward to help give Sudan more economic aid and helping fund the construction and actually constructing ports and oil fields. China also has a possibility of helping mediate the conflict and bringing both sides to the discussion table thanks to China’s huge influence over the region. China is also working towards establishing better ties with Sudan on the principles of sincerity, real results, and good faith in one another.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/18/2023 14:13:34

Topic: 2023-Situation in Sudan
Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Teague Ott

The situation in Sudan started due to the Rapid Support Force taking down a rebel group in the early 2000s, this caused one of the generals, Omar Al-Basir to be charged with genocide. This then led to supposed plans to integrate the RSF(Rapid Response Force) into the Sudanese military which was supposed to take around a decade but was then accelerated to two years. This resulted in fighting breaking out on the 15th of April. The fighting between the Sudanese army and the RSF has spread from the capital to many surrounding cities. A total of 3 million civilians have been displaced, one million have fled, and four thousand have been killed so far. Due to the widespread nature of the fighting, there are very limited resources, and routes used by aid agencies have been blocked. There is also potential for the fighting to spill over into the Jazaria providence which is Sudan’s major food supply which would result in many innocent civilians in this conflict starving. With no end in sight, measures must be taken to send aid to the civilians trapped in this conflict and help the refugees displaced by this war.

The United States of America does not wish to be involved in this conflict but is prepared to take measures to try and get both sides of this war to the negotiating table to try to come to a peaceful solution. it is in the best interest of both sides to resolve this peacefully for the sake of the people trapped in this warzone and unable to leave. The United States is also extremely involved in sending aid to help civilians trapped in the warzone and requiring aid. Currently, the United States has sent 130 million dollars to Sudan for humanitarian assistance so far. We are also in support of accepting refugees from Sudan and have currently only accepted 762 refugees but are taking measures to accept more and provide stable conditions for the refugees. Accepting refugees and donating to the humanitarian aid cause is the best way for the United States to help the people there.

The United States of America encourages all of the countries that have the ability and power to help the displaced citizens and refugees to do so to the best of their ability, as well as trying to take measures to try and get the two sides of this war to negotiate to try to come to some sort of peaceful solution and if its absolutely needed, a United Nations peacekeeping force to stop the unneeded fighting in Sudan. This war is causing death and destruction for the people of Sudan and something must be done to either stop the war or help the people trapped there.

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