September 16, 2019

The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance

International Atomic Energy Agency

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance

Today the global average surface temperature is approximately 1°C warmer than pre-industrial levels. The Paris Agreement and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have set the goal to limit global warming to 1.5°C in order to curb the worst effects of climate change. In order to reach that goal, the world must achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050 and significantly reduced emissions by 2030. The production of electricity and heat accounts for an estimated 31% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. In 2021 the main sources of global electricity production were approximately 36% coal, 22% gas, 15% hydropower, 10% nuclear, 10% wind and solar. Wind, solar, hydro, and nuclear power do not rely on burning fossil fuels and therefore are low-carbon electricity sources.

At present there are no efficient and economically viable methods for storing energy on the scale of entire energy grids, though this is a topic of ongoing research. In order to meet the demand for energy within a particular system, its operators must adjust the output of electricity generation. This is a challenge in the transition to low-carbon energy generation. Wind and solar have a variable output; scientists and engineers cannot precisely project the quantity of electricity that specific solar panels or wind turbines will generate in a particular time period. Solar generates power during the day, however a greater portion of energy demand is in the evening and at night. Today most nuclear power plants operate to generate a consistent supply of electricity, meaning that the amount of electricity generated each hour and each day is always the same. However, nuclear power plants can be designed or retrofitted to generate electricity on a flexible basis.

At present 32 countries are using nuclear power as part of their energy portfolio, and about ten additional countries are planning and building new nuclear programs. Of existing nuclear power plants, almost two thirds are more than 30 years old. These will face challenges in safety extending their operational life. Financing the creation of a new nuclear power plant is considered a risky investment. Building a nuclear power plant requires a significant upfront cost and can take between 10 and 20 years from the beginning of planning to the start of operation and power generation. Once a plant is operational, the costs of operation and maintenance are relatively low. However, the market price of electricity can be variable which creates additional financial risk. Combined with the logistical and environmental concerns of sourcing nuclear fuel and storing nuclear waste, there are many unanswered questions as to just how much of a role nuclear energy should play in future energy portfolios.

Further Reading:

IAEA – Nuclear Power and Climate Change: Decarbonization:

IAEA – UAE Combats Climate Change with Nuclear Power and Shares Its Experience:

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Submitted Position Papers

VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 22:27:03

Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Davide Scaglione

The increased global knowledge of climate change and the potentially disruptive effects it may have in the future pushes Germany to act and cut carbon emissions by the following years. Nuclear power is the low-carbon-emission energy source that will help us achieve a “green revolution” since it consistently and reliably produces power with no carbon emissions. Germany’s energy needs would not be met by using the wind, sun, or sea as energy sources.

Germany’s attitude toward nuclear power has fluctuated for many years. The nation currently holds three operating nuclear reactors that generate only 6% of the nation’s electricity, a dramatic decrease from the 1990s when 19 nuclear power plants generated about a third of the nation’s electricity. Germany’s decision to decommission its various nuclear power reactors was driven by public outrage following the 2011 Fukushima, and 1986 Chernobyl disasters. Yet, in light of the recent crisis in Ukraine and the constrained gas supply from Russia, our country will require a new dependable energy source.

The Republic of Germany holds the stance that the IAEA members must take significant steps to work toward improved global collaboration to ensure the construction of new, effective nuclear power plants and to monitor over the observance of safety regulations.

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VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 18:38:37

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Norway
Delegate Name: Ian Wurfel

Norway recognizes that nuclear energy is a potential reliable source of energy throughout Europe. Nuclear reactors aren’t the only option in terms of producing energy, of course. Implementing nuclear power poses an important question, where will the nuclear waste be stored? Not only does this question have multiple answers, Norway has noticed that (so far at least) there doesn’t seem to be any permanent options. In addition, power plants still have a major hurdle to leap over in terms of cost. They are expensive to build and are extremely complicated in nature. As of 2023 Norway has not constructed any nuclear power plants.
Norway has not established any nuclear power plants. There are, however, several reactors made for the purposes of research. One is located in Halden, and three are located in Kjeller. As of 2023 HBWR located in Halden, and JEEP II have been closed and are on the road to decommission. Additionally, there has been nuclear legislation already passed that affects how nuclear power is done in several European nations. Examples include the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the National Energy Agency. Both of these agencies (OECD, and NEA) affect Norway directly. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has put out several recommendations on the safety of managing nuclear waste products.
Norway would like to see several things done in terms of Nuclear Energy and Fossil Fuel Reliance. First, Norway would look favorably upon more nations adopting more perpetual and renewable resources to produce energy. Not only would this introduce more variety into energy production, but it also has the possible benefit of increasing jobs in the surrounding locations. Second, Norway would support any potential research programs to find new ways to store nuclear waste more permanently. Finally, locating any new methods in the assistance of countries looking to eliminate or reduce their reliance on fossil fuels/non renewable energy.

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VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 16:14:59

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Gage Heslet

Brazil looks at the transition of fossil fuel to nuclear energy as a great blueprint towards a more sustainable earth. As the IEA has stated, “Nuclear power and hydropower form the backbone of low-carbon electricity generation.” Focusing on the nuclear power part of this statement, statistics have shown that nuclear energy is one of largest sources of clean power and can help create jobs according to This data helps show how much more useful nuclear energy is compared to fossil and that action should be taken if we wish for a cleaner Earth. The UN believes that fossil fuel use should be eliminated too, so working toward this goal is vital.
Brazil considers nuclear power to be more useful than fossil fuels, but we still have more than 50% of our nation’s power dependent on fossil fuels. Brazil has made some progress towards nuclear energy use, but we only are using 3% of it. Additionally, funding has been shown to be a problem when building and using power plants and we hope that this does not become a problem in the future. Also, with being almost entirely reliant on fossil fuels, Brazil is worried about the process in which nuclear power can replace such a widespread use of fossil fuels. Brazil hopes that we can progress, but not without addressing these issues.
Looking upon the importance of the transition into nuclear power, Brazil hopes to work on solutions that uphold its ideals on an international scale. Some of these solutions include the loaning of money towards nations who cannot independently afford the transition and slowly introducing the use of nuclear power to nations unfamiliar. The nation of Brazil wishes to emphasize the importance of fossil fuel use turning into the future use of nuclear power. Brazil hopes to implement solutions that can respect the religious and cultural traditions of the many nations within the committee. Transitioning from the use of fossil fuels to nuclear power is key to cleaning up the carbon use on Earth. As such, Brazil is excited to work towards bettering the world by using nuclear power internationally.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/17/2023 23:27:57

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Malta
Delegate Name: Juliet Guenther

Committee: IAEA
Country: Malta
Delegate: Juliet Guenther
Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance

The world is trying to lower our carbon footprint while aiming for net zero carbon emissions by 2050. This is brought to the IAEA committee because 31% of global emissions are from electricity generation, and nuclear power can reliably output electricity without emitting greenhouse gasses. Building a nuclear power plant can be problematic as it can take 10-20 years to build and needs to payed for upfront. Along with issues regarding safety that need to be addressed throughout its operational life.
Malta sees the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and has had heavy reductions in emissions from energy production. But Malta has had no nuclear reactors in the past and has not had any plans to develop any of them. Malta has looked at other ways of decreasing our climate impact in energy rather than using nuclear reactors, especially with access to heavily utilized solar power.
Malta is very adamant about not using nuclear power in our country. Malta supports making energy production less impactful on the climate. Putting these 2 variables together Malta will suggest the use of other sustainable energy sources such as solar energy, wind turbines, and hydroelectricity. Malta will support papers that don’t discourage nuclear energy but encourage other sustainable choices instead.

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GrovesDelegates 02/17/2023 22:16:47

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: China
Delegate Name: Charlisa Penzak

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
People’s Republic of China
Charlisa Penzak
Wylie E. Groves High School

Global warming and the role of fossil fueled carbon emissions is becoming an important issue for the sustainability of the planet. With increased concerns regarding climate change, countries have been exploring more sustainable alternatives, such as solar, hydro, wind, and nuclear energy.
Of the main green energy sources (solar, hydro, wind, and nuclear), nuclear fission is the only consistent source of energy and has minimal greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, according to the WNA’s 2021 nuclear performance report, since 1970, nuclear power plants prevented 72 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions. China expects that nuclear reactors are the energy source of the future and believes that nuclear energy has much potential in reducing carbon emissions.
Nuclear power has already been expanding — it’s estimated that in the status quo, 10% of the world’s energy comes from nuclear reactors and power plants. Thirty-two countries operate 438 nuclear reactors (as of February 2023) and construction of more is rapidly increasing. Similarly, the research and development of nuclear technology is becoming more essential, especially in areas like nuclear safety, nuclear waste, and more. China encourages international cooperation, not only on nuclear research, but in collaborating on energy infrastructure projects.

China understands the importance of clean energy and the threat posed by carbon emissions and global warming. However, with such a large and growing demand for energy, China’s first and foremost priority is to steadily supply citizens and businesses with power. Only after this need is met do we focus on green energy. We adopt the principle of ‘getting the new before discarding the old’. Nonetheless, the president Xi Jinping states that China will advance the planning and development of renewable energy initiatives, so that the transition happens as soon as possible while considering the needs of our citizens. China has the largest population in the world, and thus faces the largest burden in the transition to green energy.
Even so, China invests more than any other country in clean energy, and aims to be carbon neutral by 2060 after peaking emissions before 2030. As of January 2023, the World Nuclear Association (WNA) reports that China is home to 55 nuclear reactors and over 20 more are under construction. Already in the status quo, 26% of China’s energy is from clean sources, which is more than the US (17%) and most western countries. Research by the IAEA indicates that China is the fastest expanding nuclear power in the world and our country is a major exporter and a leading innovator in nuclear technology.
The Chinese National Development and Reform Commission works with the government to implement strict energy price controls that directs the nation towards a greener path. Additionally, the Chinese government has worked with state-owned and private companies to support renewable energy initiatives. China has set ambitious goals by extending the 13th five-year plan, which calls for a substantial increase in gigawatt hours from nuclear sources.
Furthermore, China plans to build over 30 nuclear power plants with countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)*. Some may raise concerns that these programs could spread nuclear material and aid the proliferation of nuclear weapons, however, most of the involved countries are members of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Moreover, China has safety measures in place and has repeatedly stressed the purely green-energy focused intentions of the partnerships.

China is a major world actor in the climate future and is open to collaboration. China recognizes the important role that nuclear energy will come to play in the reduction of carbon emissions, but also acknowledges that nuclear energy isn’t without faults, such as radioactive nuclear waste and safety concerns. As such, nuclear innovation and examination of closed/open systems is important to address these issues. China is a lead innovator in this field and currently possesses a fuel reprocessing strategy.
China believes that international cooperation is important to the advancement of nuclear technology and energy. Furthermore, additions to the BRI are welcomed and highly encouraged. While most developed countries already have substantial nuclear energy programs, China is willing to invest in allied developing countries to assist with their energy initiatives and is already building nuclear power plants in Argentina, Pakistan, Turkey, Romania, and more (according to an analysis from the International Institute of Strategic Studies). Many struggling countries have been unable to invest in nuclear reactors due to the substantial costs, but China is paving the way toward a greener future by aiding countries that need assistance.
China is optimistic about the nuclear energy future and hopes that innovation and collaboration will be the standard by which the IAEA can implement successful resolutions regarding the role of nuclear energy in reducing fossil fuel reliance.

*The BRI is a massive infrastructure initiative that aims to connect countries from around the world. China has taken a special interest in energy infrastructure and is helping developing countries across the world achieve costly nuclear technology by jointly investing in them.

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FitzDelegates 02/17/2023 16:01:17

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Canada
Delegate Name: Jordane Warren

Canada’s province of Ontario has been completely coal-free since 2014. This is all thanks to not only nuclear energy but also hydro power. Coal is currently providing more than a third of global electricity generation…nuclear energy can fill and replace this void resulting in coal plant closures and can provide around-the-clock power, unlike wind and solar energy which is based upon weather conditions. Canada’s plan will further help with this issue.

Nuclear energy has already been implemented in many of the developed nations and is used to the highest effect, already making significant changes. According to the Canada Energy Regulator, citizens have seen rising temperatures, as well as rising seas, and changes in humidity and precipitation. However, the countries that are in the direst need are those underdeveloped, or developing countries since these nations tend to have a higher chance of being the target of climate change effects. The biggest question that Canada would like to pose is not how do we make the switch from nuclear energy to fossil fuels in general, but rather how do we get low-income nations to switch from fossil fuels to nuclear energy?

Nuclear energy is cheaper to operate than fossil fuels. Although the cost lies within the production, there are established western nations and developed countries willing to help with these infrastructure issues, such as China, India, and Russia. Another point to note is that these nuclear energy plants, once created, need Uranium. With Canada having one of the largest uranium mines in the world located in Saskatchewan, we would be able to help distribute these resources to nations in need. We are already trading with the United States, Europe, and Asia.

Canada believes that in order to create true change around the world from fossil fuels to nuclear energy, this store must be distributed, to not only the current nations that we are trading with, but also to any nations willing to accept the agreements. Canada is not wishing to create dependency upon developing nations, whether for uranium, or general external supplies, but for the developing nations to get a head start before they are able to mine for uranium on their own lands or create their own nuclear power plants. Canada would be open to advising plans and amending possible legislation with willing participants.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 15:24:26

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: David Liu

International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Reactors In Conflict Zones
The Republic Of Korea
David Liu, Forest Hills Northern High School

The issue of reducing reliance on fossil fuels and promoting the development of nuclear energy is of great importance to the international community. As the world faces the challenge of addressing climate change, it is critical that we transition towards cleaner, more sustainable sources of energy. Globally, approximately 80% of energy production is derived from fossil fuels, which produce significant greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear energy, on the other hand, is one of the lowest-carbon forms of energy, producing just 15-50 grams of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated.

Nuclear energy accounted for only 10% of global electricity generation in 2020, but we hope to see this percentage increase. Unlike solar and wind power, which are dependent on weather conditions, nuclear power can operate continuously, providing a consistent and predictable source of electricity. Furthermore, the development of nuclear energy has significant economic benefits. The nuclear industry contributes approximately $70 billion annually to the global economy and employs over 450 thousand people worldwide.

The Republic of Korea has recognized the need to actively promote the development of nuclear energy as a viable alternative. We currently operate 24 nuclear reactors, which account for approximately 30% of our total electricity generation. Additionally, the Republic of Korea has a robust nuclear energy program that is based on advanced nuclear technology and safety standards. We are a global leader in the development and deployment of small modular reactors (SMRs), which are more flexible and cost-effective than traditional nuclear reactors. SMRs can provide reliable, safe, and clean energy to communities that are not connected to the national grid or areas with high energy demand. We are also currently developing a 100-megawatt SMR, which is expected to be operational by 2027.

The Republic of Korea’s nuclear energy program has been successful in reducing its reliance on fossil fuels while also contributing to economic growth. The country’s nuclear industry has directly created over 30,000 jobs and has generated over $6 billion in annual exports. Nuclear energy has also helped The Republic of Korea to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, with each nuclear power plant preventing the emission of approximately 7.5 million tons of carbon dioxide per year.

In conclusion, The Republic of Korea recognizes the importance of reducing reliance on fossil fuels and promoting the development of nuclear energy. Our nuclear energy program is based on advanced technology and safety standards, and it has been successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions while also contributing to economic growth. As the world continues to combat the climate crisis, it is critical to consider nuclear energy as a reliable source of energy. The Republic of Korea encourages the international community to join forces in pursuing a sustainable and low-carbon future. Thank you.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 15:07:14

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Syrian Arab Republic
Delegate Name: Vitoria Cunha

The delegation of the Syrian Arab Republic recognizes the benefits that can come from using nuclear power instead of burning fossil fuels. This provides low-carbon electricity sources. The Syrian Arab Republic’s energy sources consist of 68% oil and 31% gas, leaving 1% of renewable energy. The SAR acknowledges that this is a problem since Syria struggles with deforestation, water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage and wastes from petroleum refining, and inadequate supplies of potable water. The SAR is in the Paris Climate Agreement committing countries to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to fight global warming. Even before the civil war in Syria began, the government was heavily concerned with climate change since it would affect the water resources and food production. That is why this problem is so crucial and important to the Syrian Arab Republic, and why the SAR sees using Nuclear Energy as a good retribution to this problem.
To solve this issue the delegation of the Syrian Arab Republic is ready to hear other delegates’ plans as well as providing its own resolution. The development of new nuclear plants will be a reliable and affordable option long-term for renewable energy. Nuclear energy has the highest capacity factor since it is 2 times more reliable than natural gas or coal units and 3 times more reliable than wind or solar plants. Nuclear energy is also cheaply transported, is a highly concentrated source, and has low fuel costs. The delegation of the Syrian Arab Republic is to select HIC’s loan or donate nuclear power plants to LIC’s. This resolution will prevent the HIC’s from having a massive advantage from the LIC’s by having more access to renewable energy. The SAR sees nuclear energy as a possibly crucial part of the world preventing/recovering from climate change since it is affordable, effective, reliable and easy to transport.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 15:06:42

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Guatemala
Delegate Name: Maya Neblett

Guatemala is prepared and equipped to talk about solutions towards climate change as well as using nuclear energy to do so. At this moment in time, Guatemala does not believe in using nuclear energy to end climate change for everyone because of its general danger and expense. Guatemala currently uses other sources of energy such as forestry (wood) and hydropower (hydroelectricity) to cope with the CO2 emissions, as well as sources such as wind and solar power. The main goal for Guatemala is to lower CO2 emissions by 11.2% by 2030. A big problem for Guatemala right now is the immense deforestation Guatemala is facing because of new cities and establishments. It has been a major call to action and Guatemala is ready to participate and be part of the solution. Guatemala has been a member of IEA since 1990 and had a major shift when the country stopped using petrol as much and started using sources like biofuels and wood which made their CO2 emission rates deplete drastically. Guatemala thinks that a new approach is needed to change the way our society thinks about energy and CO2 emissions along with climate change. The goal is to start thinking bigger than just oil and/or nuclear energy but in more unique and adaptive ways. For instance, Guatemala is situated near lots of water and gets lots of sun as well as has a lot its of land covered in forests, therefore Guatemala uses those unique attributes to gain energy instead of just thinking of using oil, coal, and nuclear energy. Right now there are 440 nuclear power plants in 33 countries and Guatemala acknowledges that not all countries have their (Guatemala’s) resources. Guatemala thinks that nuclear energy should be used on a case-by-case basis and not just to “solve climate change”.

For this reason, Guatemala thinks that a reasonable solution and/or resolution would be to create a set of rules and implement this set of rules through the countries in the IAEA. These rules should be on a case-by-case basis and send officials to assess or recognize how much CO2 a country makes, what its main power source is if the country has enough money to improve, and enough space to do so, and what energy source would be most suitable for that country instead of directly jumping to nuclear energy. With this information from these officials or even from a database specific rules can be made and new actions can be taken so that the UN can get to the base of the issue instead of circling around the issue by implementing time-exhausting, expensive, nuclear energy plants. The delegation of Guatemala is excited to be working on this with the IAEA segment of the UN and is ready to make a change.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 14:50:43

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Bolivia
Delegate Name: Aidan Zipperer

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Plurinational State of Bolivia
Aidan Zipperer
Forest Hills Northern High School
Nuclear energy has been a topic of debate in international forums for decades. On one hand, it is viewed as a viable solution for meeting energy needs without relying on fossil fuels. On the other hand, it is also viewed as a risky and potentially dangerous form of energy production. As a Bolivian United Nations delegate, I believe that nuclear energy can play a role in reducing fossil fuel reliance, but it is not a solution that should be pursued blindly.
Bolivia is a country that is rich in natural resources, including both fossil fuels and uranium, a key component in nuclear energy production. However, our government is committed to reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and promoting renewable energy sources. We believe that it is essential to reduce our carbon emissions in order to combat climate change and protect the planet for future generations.
Nuclear energy holds in it the promise of a bright future. It can generate a large amount of electricity, while creating no CO2 byproducts. This, however, comes at another cost. Nuclear reactors create radioactive waste as a byproduct. Additionally, if they were to ever become unstable, widespread devastation is an alarming possibility. Nevertheless, when implementing proper safety procedures, the benefits of nuclear power far outweigh the potential risks.
However, we recognize that there are risks associated with nuclear energy production, such as the potential for accidents and the issue of nuclear waste disposal. Chernobyl and Fukushima stand as stark reminders of the dangers of containment failures. These risks must be carefully considered and managed to ensure the safety of our people and the environment.
We also recognize that nuclear energy is not a silver bullet for reducing fossil fuel reliance. We must also invest in other forms of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, and hydropower, to create a diverse and resilient energy mix. We must also prioritize energy efficiency and conservation efforts to reduce overall energy demand.
In conclusion, as a Bolivian delegate to the United Nations, I believe that nuclear energy can play a role in reducing fossil fuel reliance, but it must be pursued with caution and careful consideration of the risks and benefits. We must also prioritize the development of other forms of renewable energy and energy efficiency measures to create a sustainable and resilient energy system for the future.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 14:52:29

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Renia Kahn

Committee: International Atomic energy agency (IAEA)
Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Denmark
Delegate: Renia Kahn
School: Greenhills School Ann Arbor

Denmark is a leading country in clean energy. The Kingdom of Denmark, consisting of Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroe islands, is a pioneer in the quest for a completely renewable energy system. Before 1973 Denmark was completely reliant on natural gas and fossil fuels for its energy and the thought of transforming Denmark into a system comprising solely of clean energy seemed out of the question. But after the oil crisis of 1973, Denmark began looking into sources of green power and a way to capture ocean winds. Now wind turbines are a significant source of energy in Denmark. Ørsted, the main energy company of Denmark divested from oil and gas in 2017, now completely producing wind and solar energy. In 1985 Denmark decided that nuclear power should not be a part of the national energy mix for safety reasons. This policy is still in place today and there is no move to change it. In accordance with the 1985 policy, nuclear power is currently excluded from Denmark’s energy mix and no nuclear power plants will be constructed. This said, in 2020 Denmark produced half of their energy from wind and solar alone, higher than any other country.

Denmark believes that a fully sustainable energy mix can be achieved without the use of nuclear power. Denmark thinks that wind, solar, and geo-energy can transform Denmark into a country completely reliant on green energy and that the next big question is the storage of that energy. Denmark hopes that other countries can also begin to transition to a renewable energy system, preferably without reliance on nuclear power because of its safety challenges. Denmark is currently working towards creating an effective way to store energy generated by wind and solar, with the end goal of a complete transition to 100% green power.

Works Cited
“Nuclear Energy in Denmark : Danish Nuclear Electricity.” World Nuclear Association, April 2022, Accessed 16 February 2023.
“Denmark: Imuna: NHSMUN: Model UN.” IMUNA,,ties%20with%20Sweden%20and%20Norway
Denmark and Nuclear Security | DIIS. Accessed 17 Feb. 2023.

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FHN Delegates 02/16/2023 21:57:24

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Australia
Delegate Name: Robert/RJ Langen

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Robert/RJ Langen
Forest Hills Northern High School

The world is currently facing the dual challenge of producing more and more energy for the growing industrialization of countries such as India while trying to reduce carbon emissions. Nuclear energy is one of the most promising alternatives to high carbon emission-releasing fuels like coal. As a country highly reliant on fossil fuels, Australia realizes the need to transition to a more sustainable energy source.

Australia believes nuclear energy has many advantages that make it better than fossil fuels. First, it is a low-carbon energy source that emits no greenhouse gases and can therefore help many countries meet their greenhouse gas goals. Second, nuclear power produces vast amounts of clean and affordable energy. Finally, nuclear energy is statistically one of the safest ways to produce energy in the world

Australia is well-positioned to take full advantage of the potential benefits of nuclear energy given that we have one of the largest reserves of uranium in the world. We have already displaced 395 million tons of carbon dioxide each year through our uranium exports. With our resources, Australia has the potential to become the leading provider of uranium to countries seeking to transition to nuclear energy.

Australia must reaffirm that we cannot blindly provide countries with uranium without considering the risks that come with nuclear power. Nuclear power can result in accidents, such as the Fukushima disaster in Japan. This event demonstrated the need to take all necessary precautions to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, Australia is concerned with the safe disposal of the very dangerous nuclear waste that is produced by nuclear power plants.

However, despite the risks associated with nuclear energy, Australia believes that the benefits of nuclear energy can make up for the negatives in certain scenarios. Australia believes that in safe, stable environments, nuclear energy can be used to reduce greenhouse gasses and reduce countries’ dependence on fossil fuels. This is why Australia supports responsible development and the use of nuclear energy as part of an approach to tackling climate change.

To conclude, Australia recognizes the role of nuclear energy in reducing fossil fuel reliance and addressing climate change. We also recognize the risks associated with nuclear power. With proper safety measures and responsible development, the benefits of nuclear power can outweigh the risks in some scenarios. Australia is committed to exploring the potential of nuclear energy as part of a multi-pronged approach to reducing fossil fuel reliance.

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SASADelegates 02/17/2023 11:25:53

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: United States
Delegate Name: Ricardo Pastor

The United States, as one of the world’s largest producers and consumers of nuclear energy, recognizes its responsibility and potential to contribute to the global transition to a low-carbon energy future. With its 93 nuclear reactors, which provide about 20 percent of its electricity generation, the United States has demonstrated that nuclear energy can be a safe, reliable, and clean source of power that can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security.
The United States is committed to advancing the development and deployment of new nuclear technologies that can improve nuclear energy efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The US government has allocated significant funding and regulatory support for research and innovation in small modular reactors and Generation IV nuclear reactors, promising new technologies that can offer greater flexibility, scalability, and sustainability for nuclear power plants.
The United States also believes that international cooperation is essential for promoting the use of nuclear energy both domestically and internationally. The US is a party to several bilateral and multilateral agreements on nuclear energy cooperation, such as the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). Through these platforms, the US shares its expertise and best practices in nuclear energy production and safety standards with other countries while also advocating for the revision of safety guidelines to ensure that they reflect the latest scientific knowledge and technological advancements.
The US also supports the efforts of emerging markets to adopt nuclear energy as part of their low-carbon energy mix. The US provides technical assistance, capacity building, financing options, and policy advice to countries interested in developing or expanding their nuclear power programs. The US also encourages these countries to adhere to high safety, security, non-proliferation, and environmental protection standards when pursuing nuclear energy.
The United States firmly believes nuclear energy can be critical in reducing fossil fuel reliance and achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. The US calls on all Member States to join us in investing in advanced nuclear technologies and fostering international collaboration on nuclear energy issues. Together, we can harness the power of nuclear energy for a more sustainable future.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 09:19:56

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Switzerland
Delegate Name: Akshat Jain

Committee: United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Switzerland
Name: Akshat Jain
School: Forest Hills Northern High School

The issue of reducing fossil fuel reliance has become important, especially in light of the fight against climate change. The burning of fossil fuels creates carbon dioxide which negatively contributes to climate change. Switzerland is a country that has a long-standing commitment to renewable energy sources. However, it also recognizes the need for various energy sources not limited to the use of nuclear energy. As of 2021, Switzerland has five nuclear power plants, which supply approximately one-third of Switzerland’s electricity needs. Despite its reliance on nuclear energy, Switzerland is committed to ensuring the safety and security of its nuclear installations.

Switzerland recognizes that nuclear energy can play a significant role in reducing fossil fuel reliance. Nuclear energy is a low-carbon energy source that can produce large amounts of electricity without emitting greenhouse gasses. Furthermore, it is a reliable and stable source of energy that can supplement intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power. However, Switzerland understands that nuclear energy is not without risks. Switzerland is committed to ensuring the safety and security of its nuclear installations as well as the responsible management of nuclear waste. Switzerland supports the highest safety and security standards for nuclear energy and believes that international cooperation is crucial in ensuring nuclear energy’s safe and responsible use. Switzerland also recognizes the importance of investing in renewable energy sources as these sources reduce fossil fuel reliance and serve as a greater, more long-term source of renewable energy. Switzerland supports the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies such as wind, solar, and hydropower.

Switzerland acknowledges the great advantage of using nuclear energy as a means of reducing fossil fuel reliance, yet notes the great risk that atomic energy, if misused, would have on the people, environment, and world as a whole. Switzerland advocates for the safe use of nuclear energy and supports the creation of stronger regulations. Switzerland also believes that the use of this nuclear energy is less sustainable than other uses of renewable energy, yet believes that atomic energy coupled with other forms of renewable energy could be the most effective.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 00:35:00

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Shangyang Xia

Shangyang Xia
Russian Federation
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Greenhills School

As the delegate of the Russian Federation, it is our position that nuclear energy should play a significant role in the world’s future energy portfolios. Russia has a long history of using nuclear energy and currently has one of the largest installed capacities in the world. We believe that nuclear energy can help us meet the growing energy demand while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. Nuclear energy is a low-carbon source of electricity and can be generated on a consistent basis. This consistency is critical in ensuring a stable supply of energy to meet the demands of the energy grid, especially during peak hours when the demand for energy is highest. Nuclear energy also has the potential to be generated on a flexible basis, which would make it even more valuable in the transition to low-carbon energy generation.

Russia is committed to the development and deployment of advanced nuclear technologies and we believe that these technologies will play a significant role in the future energy mix. The development of new nuclear technologies, such as small modular reactors, will reduce the cost and time required to build new nuclear power plants. This will help make nuclear energy more accessible and affordable for countries that are looking to expand their energy portfolios and reduce their dependence on fossil fuels.

While the upfront costs of building a nuclear power plant are significant, the costs of operation and maintenance are relatively low once the plant is operational. Nuclear energy is also a reliable source of energy, with some power plants operating for over 60 years without any major safety incidents. This reliability is critical in ensuring that the energy grid is stable and that energy is consistently available to meet the needs of the population. The Russian Federation believes that nuclear energy has a crucial role to play in meeting the world’s growing energy demand while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. We are committed to working with the international community to promote the development and deployment of advanced nuclear technologies that will help us achieve this goal.

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FHN Delegates 02/16/2023 23:47:28

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: United Arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Lidija Habekovic

Many countries, including the UAE, are largely dependent on fossil fuels. The use of
fossil fuels as a source of energy has several detrimental effects, especially on the environment,
as it causes global warming. The UAE acknowledges its dependence on fossil fuels, and its
high carbon emission rate, and hopes to decrease it, using reliable and clean energy sources
such as solar energy, nuclear energy, and hydropower energy.

The UAE has always been dependent on fossil fuels. Efforts have been made in the past
to decrease this high rate of dependence, although the UAE still emerges as one of the largest
emitters of carbon globally, behind Qatar and Kuwait. This is due to the fact that hydrocarbons
play a very large part in the UAE’s economy, with 30% of its GDP based on the oil and gas
industry. The UAE holds the seventh-biggest reserve of natural gas in the world, and as fossil
fuel demand increases around the world, it is more profitable than ever. The UAE has stated
that it targets to become a “net-zero” country by 2050, and has made steps toward that goal,
which include the building of Barakah Nuclear Power Plant in 2012. The UAE has recognized
nuclear energy as a reliable and environmentally safe source of energy, and hopes to continue
to take advantage of this resource in the future.

The UAE recognizes the risks and downsides that come with using nuclear power.
Nuclear power plants produce tons of radioactive waste, which is hard to dispose of. Moreover,
it is difficult to, with a lot of waste, to protect people and the environment from the radiation
emitted by this waste. In conclusion, using nuclear power could be more detrimental to the
environment than it is beneficial. Additionally, uranium, the fuel that is used to produce nuclear
energy, is not renewable. Although the reserves are expected to last another eighty or so years,
uranium cannot be produced again and again on demand. Nuclear power plants also have
potential to be destroyed and have devastating impacts on the areas surrounding them. One
notable example of this is the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The harmful effects of events such as
this are still being seen in ecology and in humans.

The UAE thinks that nuclear energy has the potential to be a reliable source of energy in
the coming years. Despite the risks and downsides of using nuclear energy, nuclear power
produces a low amount of carbon, and has a higher capacity factor than fossil fuels. The UAE
proposes to conduct research on further benefits and downsides or risks of nuclear energy, so
as to be more informed on the impacts of using nuclear power. The UAE has also signed a deal
with the United States to work on clean energy projects, and reduce the reliance on fossil fuel.
The UAE looks forward to observing progress in reducing reliance on fossil fuels through the
use of nuclear energy.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/16/2023 23:29:05

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Isabella Rivas Ladino

The increasingly depressive effects of the use of fossil fuels and other carbon-based energy sources have dramatically increased the contributions to worldwide global warming. Due to Mexico’s geographical location, between two oceans and complex topography, Mexico is very vulnerable to natural disasters including floods, heat waves, and tropical cyclones. Mexico has also experienced a temperature increase of 5-6 degrees celsius, adding to normal high temperatures. All of these changes heavily affect agricultural productivity in rural areas, causing significant financial losses for citizens and destructed diverse ecosystems. Additionally, Mexico is the second largest producer of carbon-related emissions in Latin America but has since then improved and strived toward a carbon-free country. As part of the Paris agreement, Mexico hopes to be completely carbon-free by 2030, striving to improve current policies.

Currently, fossil fuels are the main source of energy in Mexico, generating about 70% percent of the energy, leaving renewable energies, nuclear power, and other energy sources at 30%. Mexico has worked towards increased use of renewable resources and moving towards renewable energy. Currently, Mexico’s new solar, geothermal, wind-powered, nuclear energy, and hydroelectric capacity, will go from 30% to 40% in the coming year. Additionally, Mexico has slightly improved in the use of renewable energy, increasing the use of nuclear energy. Currently, Mexico has two nuclear power plants, Laguna Verde 1 and Laguna Verde 2. Since its opening, reliance on nuclear power has significantly increased throughout the past 10-15 years. In 2015, The Energy Transition Law was passed to set a target of 35% of Mexico’s energy to be from clean nuclear resources, while encouraging the peaceful use of nuclear energy. High-level government support has increased carbon-free policies by 35%, encouraging the use of wind-powered and nuclear energy. Mexico plans to build two new 1400 Mwe units, starting at Laguna Verde, supporting the expansion of nuclear capacity by 2026.

Despite all these efforts to increase the use of renewable energy, Mexico recognizes the dependence on fossil fuels and will continue to enforce renewable energy policies. The use of nuclear energy and other renewable would prove to be extremely effective, decreasing the number of fossil fuels used by Mexico. Mexico plans to increase the amount of wind-powered energy, and nuclear-powered energy in hopes of reaching the zero-carbon goal by 2030.

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SASADelegates 02/16/2023 21:46:49

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Jett Miller

Jett Miller
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
The Role of Nuclear Energy and Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

In recent years, the amount of air pollution due to nuclear power and fossil fuel use in power plants for energy has been slowly nearing climate tipping points due to their effects of global warming. 68% of the energy that is used worldwide comes from nuclear power and fossil fuel consumption. Although these processes are currently needed in order to support the demand of energy around the world, there is a vast amount of experiments being conducted in order to discover new ways to produce an equal amount of energy so that the energy production can remain the same without the use of fossil fuels or nuclear energy. A large challenge with the various other ways of producing energy is that most of the other energy sources are highly variable such as solar and wind due to changes in the atmosphere. At least 32 countries are putting new nuclear power programs into place thus making it likely that the amount of pollution caused by an increase in the amount of power plants producing nuclear energy.
Argentina has become a dumping ground for many wastes, primarily plastics, and has been attempting to make efforts in order to reverse the pollution that has been brought in mass to the country. The main source of the polluted areas in Argentina that have become dumping grounds for harmful wastes is waste that has been brought by the United States. The United States is able to avoid a lot of laws that are put in place in their country by bringing the waste to Argentina instead. Argentina is making efforts in order to pass laws that would prevent other nations from being allowed to bring their waste into Argentina’s borders in a valiant effort to reduce the amount of waste that is contained within the Argentinian nation.
In order to ensure that Argentina can pursue a future that seeks to lower the amount of pollution in the world, efforts will be put forward in order to remove waste from highly polluted areas. Argentina would also like to seek out programs that strive to remove waste from the environment in order to maintain a clean environment for all of life on the planet.

Works Cited
GreenhillsDelegates, et al. “Home.”,, 1 Jan. 2023,
“Argentina Could Become ‘Sacrificial Country’ for Plastic Waste, Say Activists.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 1 Nov. 2019,
King, Ed. “Argentina’s Climate Change Laws.” Climate Home News, Climate Home, 19 Feb. 2013,

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/16/2023 20:59:17

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: India
Delegate Name: Neha Narayanan

Fossil fuels have contributed to global warming greatly, and the many negative effects have impacted India’s economy, climate, and living. Fossil fuels account for over 75 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. India has been experiencing severe food shortages, air pollution resulting in death, heat-related diseases, floods, droughts, and record-level heat. According to Wikipedia, “The 2022 heat wave in India and Pakistan is an extreme weather event which has resulted in the hottest March in the subcontinent since 1901. The hot season arrived unusually early in the year and extended into April, affecting a large part of India’s northwest and Pakistan.” India is committed to the Paris Agreement and reducing fossil fuels while increasing the amount of renewable energy used in the energy sector.

Nuclear energy is the fifth largest energy source in India. There are currently 7 nuclear power plants, however, India aims to triple its nuclear power capacity by 2032 as part of their low-carbon development strategy created in November 2022. An article by IBEF on India’s nuclear power states, “With an aim to increase its atomic power contribution from 3.2% to 5% by 2031, this surge in the nuclear energy contribution in India will help the country lead towards a more sustainable and economic future.” Nuclear power has proven to result in huge opportunities and has allowed for many technological advancements and growth for India.
India aims to reach net zero emissions by 2070. Currently, fossil fuels, specifically coal, make up 70% of India’s power sector. The country relies heavily on coal. India wants other countries to agree on a phase-down of all fossil fuels at COP27. However, India’s plan to reduce fossil fuels still includes coal as it is a key part of the economy and for development.

As part of the United Nations, India has outlined goals in order to achieve a reduction in carbon emissions of its economy of 33-35 percent by 2023. Nuclear power could provide India with a solution to the demand for power instead of wind and solar, which is not constantly available. The Economic Times state, “India currently operates 22 reactors totaling 6,780 MW, and those under execution or accorded administrative approval and financial sanction will lift it to 22,480 MW by 2031.” Currently, 172.72 GW of capacity from non-fossil fuel sources has been installed in India. Furthermore, India plans to increase the usage of renewable, clean, and sustainable energy. This will decrease the amount of Greenhouse Gases emitted by India’s energy sector.

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GRCityDelegates 02/15/2023 18:04:41

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Krishna Mano

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
United Kingdom
Krishna Mano
City High Middle School

Although methods to obtain nuclear energy are still being continuously researched to improve the safety of these processes, they have proven to play an instrumental role in reducing international reliance and dependence on fossil fuels. As reported by the United Nations, nuclear reactors are becoming an increasingly common source of energy with “32 countries worldwide operating 443 nuclear reactors for electricity generation and 55 new nuclear plants under construction”. Furthermore, a report from the International Trade Administration finds that, currently, “the United Kingdom has 15 operational nuclear reactors operating, which comprise just less than 20% of the United Kingdom’s electricity.” Nuclear energy provides an efficient procedure to make the global transition from fossil fuel-based energy to more renewable sources. The United Kingdom strongly affirms the importance, if not necessity, of nuclear energy during this transition period over the next few decades while acknowledging that the safety standards of current nuclear energy sources must be revised and rewritten. We also urge our fellow members of the IAEA to join this standpoint, support the use of nuclear energy to reduce fossil fuel reliance overtime, and recognize the importance of revising standards and guidelines in the status quo to make the process of creating nuclear energy much more safer.

As a leading member of many multilateral alliances like the UN and NATO, the United Kingdom finds it essential to maintain our own standards to continue the safe and reliable use of nuclear energy while transitioning towards renewable forms of energy while helping our neighboring countries set up similar guidelines and procedures as well. We have taken it into our own hands to further such policies on this subject of great importance in many ways. Before taking action, we reviewed the statistics from our top national energy analysts and received advice from our fellow nations who are members of the IAEA. In association with the Government of the United Kingdom, the London School of Economics and Political Science found in a 2022 report that “Nuclear power has a minimal carbon footprint of around 15–50 grams of CO2 per kilowatt hour (gCO2/KWh). In comparison, the average footprint of a gas-powered generator is around 450 gCO2/KWh and for coal it is around 1,050 gCO2/KWh.” On a national level, as our 2023 Government Policy Paper on Advanced Nuclear Technologies states, “The UK’s Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution and the 2020 Energy White Paper confirmed the government’s commitment to developing large, small, and advanced nuclear projects. More recently, the Net Zero Strategy reinforced the importance of nuclear in the UK’s energy mix as we transition to net zero.” Furthermore, a document outlining the history of the United States’ Atomic Energy Commission outlines multiple instances in which the US and UK have joined forces along with many other nations to address the importance of using nuclear energy during the process of decreasing global reliance on fossil fuels. We continue to strongly agree with these experts and have clearly portrayed this stance through our actions.

Despite all of these efforts, however, the United Kingdom is aware that the current measures in both our own country and other member nations of the IAEA are a mere step in the right direction; there is still so much more work to be done. While the occurrences of such accidents have reduced in recent years, we believe that there is more work to be done to ensure that the UK is able to effectively protect both our allies who rely on us for security and ourselves by setting the correct example with proper regulations. Most importantly, we seek a solution that re-evaluates current safety guidelines for sources of nuclear energy and puts the safety of our citizens and our allies above all else.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/15/2023 16:35:26

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: France
Delegate Name: Logan Ellis

The threat of global warming is a great one. Global warming is where greenhouse gasses (mainly due to fossil fuels burning) get trapped in the atmosphere and result in the planet getting warmer. This issue affects the whole world, and is very rapidly getting worse. If we want to prevent it from further affecting the Earth, then we must take action now.
The Earth has gotten 1° C warmer than in pre-industrial times. A lot of burning of fossil fuels comes from factories, and the production of energy. There are several ways to produce energy without burning fossil fuels. The only problem is many of those ways produce variable amounts of energy. For example, using hydroelectricity only works if you have large, fast flowing rivers, or solar energy, which only works in the day. The solution to this is using nuclear energy.
It has been proven that nuclear power plants produce a constant flow of energy, and reactors can work for decades on end. Secondly, nuclear power plants can also use recycled fuel, which helps to keep a steady supply of fuel. The only con with nuclear energy is the cost to construct the power plants. Also it is difficult to maintain the security of the nuclear power plants. Each power plant costs billions of dollars to construct, though once built, they are relatively cheap to maintain.
France has seen the threat of global warming and has taken action. 70% of France’s electricity is produced by nuclear energy. In France there are currently 56 operable nuclear reactors. Also, France is in the top 3 for producing nuclear energy. Another thing France has done is recycled a lot of recyclable fuel from their nuclear power plants.
France believes they should continue their work in using nuclear energy, keep up on the infrastructure, and maintain existing nuclear power plants. France thinks they should help other countries to use nuclear energy. Since nuclear power plants are so costly to build, many countries can’t afford to build them. Wealthier countries in the UN can help less fortunate countries financially. France’s allies include Germany, Italy, Switzerland, the UK, and many more. Since this is such an important issue, France (and other countries) can really make a difference in this issue.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/15/2023 15:49:06

Topic: The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Lizzy Zaremski

Nuclear is a zero-emission clean energy source. It generates power through fission, which is the process of splitting uranium atoms to produce energy. Fossil fuels are natural fuels such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms. Nuclear power is much more “clean” and efficient. Nuclear energy is a clean source of energy as it doesn’t emit carbon dioxide into the environment. It keeps the environment clean by removing thousands of air pollutants. Nuclear energy is highly efficient. The nuclear fission reaction produces high-density energy, making uranium much more efficient as a fuel than coal, natural gas, and other fossil fuels. With nuclear energy, much less fuel is needed to produce the same amount of energy.

Japan adopted a plan to extend the lifespan of nuclear reactors, replace the old, and even build new ones, a major shift in a country scarred by the Fukushima disaster that once planned to phase out atomic power. Japan will maximize the use of existing reactors by restarting as many of them as possible and prolonging the operating life of aging ones beyond a 60-year limit. The government also pledged to develop next-generation reactors. Japan embraced the peaceful use of nuclear technology to provide a substantial portion of its electricity. Japan has 33 nuclear power reactors classed as operable. However, in 2013 the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) established new regulatory requirements, and just 10 reactors have since received clearance from the regulator to restart. In July 2016 the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan estimated that seven reactors could restart by the end of March 2017, 12 more in the following year to March 2018, with a significant reduction in fossil fuel imports. Japan adopts a plan to maximize nuclear energy.

Japan has 33 nuclear power reactors classed as operable. However, in 2013 the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) established new regulatory requirements, and just 10 reactors have since received clearance from the regulator to restart.

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