September 16, 2019

Situation in Syria

United Nations Security Council

Topic: Situation in Syria

In 2011, during the Arab Spring protests against the Assad regime in Syria were met with heavy force. Escalating from beatings by local police forces to cutting utilities to entire cities and surrounding them with military forces. These actions led protestors to take up arms against the Assad regime. Nations began providing support to both sides of the conflict within a month. Rebel groups attempted to form coalitions through 2011, however, they were frequently undercut by internal conflicts over the distribution of resources. In 2012 the United Nations hosted talks in Geneva to attempt to bring an end to the fighting. The talks produced a roadmap for negotiations, however, it was unclear as to the role of the Assad regime. In 2013 a chemical weapons attack brought UN inspection teams in and led to a threat of international intervention. No intervention occurred. In 2014 a second UN backed peace conference failed to provide a solution to the ongoing conflict. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) made substantial gains in the region while other rebel groups faltered. 2015 and 2016 saw increased participation in the conflict by Iran, Russia, and Turkey by providing troops, supplies and air support. In 2018 Israel began air strikes against Iranian forces in Syria. The Assad regime, with backing from its allies, has recovered much of its territory, but resistance continues throughout the nation.

The United Nations Security Council passed many resolutions in 2013 to facilitate aid into Syria, supplying over 2.4 million civilians who have come to rely on this aid. The conflict in Syria, with the involvement of many nations, is an international crisis. Refugees fleeing from fighting and economic collapse put their own lives at risk attempting risky ocean crossings and tax the resources of neighboring nations. The conflict and resulting chaos provide ample opportunity for extremist groups to maintain operations and recruit new followers. The continued fighting also poses a risk to the UN aid convoys that cross the Syrian border every day.

The United Nations Security Council must consider how it can better stabilize the situation in Syria. Can aid be better distributed across Syria? Is there the potential to open a new round of talks between the conflicting parties? Can air and artillery strikes be reduced to prevent further civilian casualties? Can outside military aid be reduced, should it be reduced? What mechanisms are available to the Security Council to attempt to solve this situation?

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Submitted Position Papers

FHEDelegates 11/23/2022 23:58:28

Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Andre Stoll

Security Council
Situation in Syria
United States
Andre Stoll
Forest Hills Eastern

Syria is a country located in the middle east that the same ruling family has governed for the past fifty years. The most recent in this line of rulers, Bashar-al Assad took power in 2000. His rule has been described as a regime by many outside sources. During early 2011, as part of the wider Arab Spring protests in the Middle East, unrest over the despotic ruler of Syria began in the country, eventually culminating in all-out armed conflict and civil war between rebels and the Al Assad government in 2012. In response, a global coalition led by the United States and Turkey formed to back the Syrian rebels, while Iran and Russia backed the Assad forces. This war has also allowed Islamic extremists to seize land in Syria and form a new Islamic State, that has been used to harbor terrorists and plan terrorist attacks. Since the start of the war, civilians have been repeatedly targeted, with the U.N. stating that at least 306,887 civilians have been killed. There have been many allegations of war crimes against civilians throughout the conflict. The war in Syria has resulted in a massive humanitarian crisis due to the millions displaced by the conflict. Since the start of the war, over 6 million people have fled to other countries as refugees. There have been numerous attempts by domestic, foreign, and international government coalitions to de-escalate the conflict, but despite this, there is no end to this war in sight. Multiple ceasefires have successfully been organized, but all have ultimately devolved back into armed conflict. The UNSC has passed 27 resolutions on the Syrian conflict since 2013, including resolutions on humanitarian access, peace talks, and chemical weapons in Syria, but none have been fully implemented.

The United States views the war in Syria as a war for democracy waged by rebels against an Aristocratic and brutal regime. The U.S. has led multiple military coalitions in the assistance of the rebels, providing weapons, training, air support, and ground troop support. The U.S. had deployed 2,500 soldiers to Syria at one point in this war, although that number is now down to around 900 as of 2022. In addition to supporting the Syrian rebels, the United States has also led a multi-national coalition known as CJTF–OIR(Control Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve) against the Islamic State in Syria. After a series of successful military campaigns executed with the support of the Syrian Kurds, the United States eradicated the ISIL presence in Syria, resulting in ISIL losing the entirety of its territory and the majority of its leadership. The U.S. has no plans of withdrawing from Syria until the Assad regime has fallen, with the head of U.S. Central Command stating there was no “end date” for the U.S.’s presence in Syria.

The United States believes that the only way for this conflict to end is for Assad’s regime to end and for a new government to be democratically elected. To that end, the U.S. desires for all ongoing support of and trade with the Assad government to cease. The U.S. desires more international aid to be given to the people displaced by this conflict, and for countries to be more accepting of the Syrian refugees. The U.S. also believes that the ongoing Kurdish separatist movements should be considered and democratically settled.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2022 21:17:05

Country: India
Delegate Name: Ike Webb

Committee: Security Council
Delegate: Ike Webb
School: Williamston High School

Since the “Arab Spring” uprising in 2011, Syria has been in a constant state of civil war. However, this civil conflict has sparked sectarian strife, geopolitical rivalries, and the threat of Islamic extremism on a global scale, making it more than just a domestic Syrian tragedy. Syria has fallen into a power struggle between rebel factions sponsored by Saudi Arabia and Hezbollah, which is backed by Iran. Qatar and other Gulf nations have also utilized proxies to compete for influence in the Syrian Civil War. India has taken a quiet but predictable stance on the Syrian conflict. The previous government of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), which was led by the Congress, reaffirmed New Delhi’s opposition to foreign military action in Syria and urged all parties to engage in discussion for a political solution.

The domestic strife has encouraged Iran to assert itself once more as a major actor outside of the Persian Gulf and allowed Shia militia formations to revive and discover new frontiers for growth. Given that South Asia has the largest Muslim population in the world and that the extremist group IS (Islamic State) has expanded its influence there, New Delhi, which has a lot at stake in the region, is concerned. The concern is increased by the fact that IS has begun drawing young people from India. It is crucial that India’s cautious behavior in Syria be considered in light of the conflict’s salient aspects as well as India’s own interests in the Middle East, both of which have an impact on India’s decision-making. This brief makes the argument that India’s covert support for the Assad regime is motivated by two causes in the context of the Arab Spring, which presented a challenge to the autocratic system. The first is its concern for unrest and the growth of Islamists, as it did in Libya after Gaddafi. The second is its stance on non-interventionism, which is shared by BRICS nations that have resisted supporting a military intervention against the dictatorship.
of the UN

India’s biggest problem with this conflict is the Indian youth that are being recruited by extremist groups due to this conflict, as well as the fact that this conflict cannot be solved militarily but has to be resolved diplomatically. India encourages all parties to talk in a controlled environment such as this meeting. India would also like to state that it is open and willing to give humanitarian aid, as it has in the past.

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GRCityDelegates 11/23/2022 18:48:41

Country: Italy
Delegate Name: Stephen Pellathy

Italian position paper: Syria Security council

City High middle school

Stephen A. Pellathy

DATA collection:

Trade (imports and exports)

In 2020, Italy exported $68.3M to Syria. The main products exported from Italy to Syria were Washing and Bottling Machines ($5.32M), Industrial Food Preperation Machinery ($4.25M), and Polyacetals ($3.43M). During the last 25 years the exports of Italy to Syria have decreased at an annualized rate of 7.42%, from $469M in 1995 to $68.3M in 2020.
In 2020, Syria exported $4.89M to Italy. The main products exported from Syria to Italy were Tanned Equine and Bovine Hides ($946k), Other Nuts ($806k), and Preserved Vegetables ($723k). During the last 25 years the exports of Syria to Italy have decreased at an annualized rate of 17.2%, from $544M in 1995 to $4.89M in 2020.
Government stance:
Italy and Syria once maintained a good relationship. But one year after the Syrian crisis erupted, Italy joined western countries in closing its embassy in Damascus, citing “unacceptable violence by the Syrian regime against its own citizens.” Since then, Italian officials have joined their western counterparts in condemning the regime’s efforts to portray Bashar al Assad as legitimate. Yet Italy has pursued a far less combative approach to Syria’s conflict compared to some other NATO members. Rome has refused to join its closest Western allies in military operations against Syrian regime targets. Italy’s leadership has also called for a diplomatic solution that involves Russia and Iran. In a historical context this is understandable, mindful of Rome’s foreign policy tradition of generally seeking to maintain healthy diplomatic relations with all powers in the Middle East and the Mediterranean Sea
Italy’s stance on the situation in Syria is one of cautious negotiation. The Italian public view is not supportive of military operations in Syria, and neither is the current government. Italy also does not have particularly strong ties to Syria in terms of imported goods. The Italian policy on Syrian refugees is slightly tighter now due to Melonis policies. However Italy has only received 4,815 Syrian refugees. Italy would oppose any motions to heighten military engagement in Syria, and would aim for a more passive avenue of diplomacy.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/23/2022 17:16:11

Country: France
Delegate Name: Harry Cornell

The administration run by Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad does not work to protect it’s people. Instead it makes for attacks on all of those who oppose it and create “disgust and revulsion around the world” (Ramani). The security council is faced with questions regarding aid, deescalation and a potential resolution to the conflict.

France has a long history Syria. With the attacks in Syria, and France’s involvement in keeping the peace, France has been under attack from terrorists including the Islamic State. When Paris was attacked 129 civilians were killed in France’s Capitol. This cannot be allowed to stand. According to CNN, “More than 2,000 people have been killed in Syria since mid-March, the United Nations has said. Al-Assad blames armed gangs for fomenting violence, forcing his government to take action against them” (Sarkozy…). This led to France taking up our stance that peace must come to the Syria and that Al-Assad is not the leader of his people; which is why France’s President at the time, President Nicolas Sarkozy to assert that Syria has caused “irreparable”damage in the Middle East (Sarkozy…).

France is keen to work to stabilize the region and bring in humanitarian aid. This is why “the President of the French Republic decided in 2020 to renew an envelope of €50 million for the third consecutive year dedicated to helping the most vulnerable populations, essentially in the North West and North East of Syria” (War in Syria…). When we look at the humanitarian crisis we see that “80% of the population [in Syria] lives below the poverty line” (War in Syria…). This is a humanitarian crisis, this is what the United Nations was made to do. However, humanitarian aid can only do so much. France is seeking to work with nations to seek peace in the region. An unstable Syria is a threat to the world, as was clearly shown in the terror attacks on Paris in 2015. France is very keen on this position and is not willing to budge. France believes that more military aid must be provided to the people in order to allow them to defend themselves from an oppressive government. France was born from the spark of a revolution and when it is time for the people to rebel, rebel they shall.

Works Cited
Ramani, Samuel. “Why France is so deeply entangled in Syria.” The Washington Post, 19 Nov. 2015,
“Sarkozy: Syrian president’s actions are ‘irreperable’.” Central News Network, 1 Sept. 2011,
“War in Syria: Understanding France’s position.” France Diplomacy, Ministère De L’Europe Étrangères.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/23/2022 16:17:12

Country: Ireland
Delegate Name: Allyson Gilliland

11 – 22 – 2022
SUBMITTED TO: Security Council
FROM: Ireland
SUBJECT: Situation in Syria
Royal Oak High School

The Syrian civil war is an ongoing casualty ridden civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Arab Republic and various domestic and foreign forces. Civil unrest in Syria began in 2011 out of the Spring protests from discontent with the Syrian government, which eventually escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for Assad’s removal, these efforts were violently suppressed. The Syrian Armed Forces and its domestic and international allies represent the Syrian Arab Republic and the Assad regime. Opposed to it is the Syrian Interim Government. The peak of the war was around 2015; violence in the country has since diminished, but the situation remains a crisis. Many foreign countries have directly involved themselves in the conflict and provide support to one of the factions. Over the course of the war, a number of peace initiatives have been launched, including the Geneva peace talks led by the United Nations, but fighting has continued. As of 2015, 3.8 million citizens of Syria have been made refugees.

In 2019, Ireland received an initial influx of refugees after arrangements were made and interviews took place. However, Ireleand feels this would not have been necessary if words of peace had ever been successfully spoken. More actions need to be taken to fight for peace. The country of Ireland feels that others should not jump swiftly to violent conclusions when a peaceful approach doesn’t initially work out. Doing this shows inability to strive for peace. There is no fast solution but this is definitely something to work towards. While waiting for this solution, the use of missiles and gasses need to be halted immediately from both sides. The civilian casualties are not worth the intended outcome. Instead of sending the military to fight, send the military to help create peace.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/23/2022 15:31:07

Country: Kenya
Delegate Name: Matthew Matola

Submitted To: United Nations Security Council
From: Kenya
Subject: The Situation in Syria

The nation of Kenya encourages this committee of the United Nations Security to council to promote political stability in Syria and advocates for the prompt return of refugees to their homes. Kenya recognizes the need of the refugees for a stable political climate in which to live and work, however, the delegation would also remind the committee of the significant financial and social burden associated with housing refugees. Kenya believes that pursuing a solution that would work to address the underlying instability in Syria and begin returning the refugees to Syria would be the most desirable outcome for all parties.

While not directly affected by the Syrian refugee crisis, the nation of Kenya has accepted many refugees from neighboring countries in recent years. The ongoing refugee crisis in sub-Saharan Africa as well as Kenya’s history of accepting refugees has left the nation with an insight into the burden refugees place upon their host nations. Refugee camps are expensive to support and also run the risk of becoming recruitment sites for terrorist groups. During a refugee crisis the amount of time the refugees plan to spend in their host country, and whether they wish to be integrated or return home, is often unclear.

As Syria remains an unstable nation, refugees are extremely unlikely to wish to return. This establishes Syrian refugees as a semi-permanent group of nationless individuals for the time being. This presents a major challenge, as well as financial burden, for nations currently hosting refugees. For this reason the delegation of Kenya encourages the committee to approach the issues of refugee hosting with delicacy and respect for the unique fiscal and cultural situations of the various host countries.

Finally the nation of Kenya recognizes and maintains the position that the use of chemical weapons by the Syrian government was an unjustified and grave violation of international law. When working towards a solution to promote peace in Syria these extreme violations at the hands of the Syrian government must be taken into account. The delegation of Kenya acknowledges that these violations of international law must not go unnoticed, and must be taken into account when reaching a verdict on the Syrian situation.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/23/2022 14:31:34

Country: China
Delegate Name: Teague Ott

Country: China
Topic: Situation in Syria
Delegate name: Teague Ott

In 2011, there were Arab spring protests against the Assad regime in Syria. These protests were met with heavy force and people were even beaten in the streets by law enforcement. This sparked many civilians to take up arms against the Assad regime. In 2014 the United Nations held a peace conference that failed to provide a solution to this conflict. Then ISIS, Russia, Iran, and Turkey became involved in the conflict by providing troops, supplies, and air support. Isreal began air strikes on Iranian forces, and the Assad regime gained a large amount of territory. As a representative of China, we view terrorism in Syria as a major problem that needs to be addressed and the United Nations Security Council needs to take measures to solve this situation in Syria.
The country of China is taking active measures to ensure a political resolution. We have even met with both the Syrian government and opposing groups of Syria to come to the best neutral solution that benefits all parties involved. the United Nations Security Council has provided a great deal of aid to Syria by passing legilsations allowing countries to send aid to over 2.4 million citizens in Syria. From the perspective of the Chinese government, we could send more aid to the other people in Syria. There are a total of 18.28 million people in Syria and most of them are at risk of this conflict. It is our job as the United Nations Security Council to try to help the other millions of people still at risk of this conflict.
As a national superpower, the Chinese Government suggests that the countries in the United Nations Security Council should come together to devise a more improved plan to better distribute aid across the country of Syria. We also believe that we should also come to a solution about redirecting the missiles to better avoid civilian casualties. This situation is an extremely serious and important problem that we need to come together to find a peaceful solution.

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RoeperDelegates 11/23/2022 09:07:46

Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Jameson Gerrits

Brazil has traditionally taken somewhat of a non-interventionist position on world politics. This stance somewhat continues with the situation in Syria. Brazil has occasionally condemned Syrian leader Bashar Al-Assad, but never supported any of the insurgent groups that attempted to overthrow his administration. The country has also accepted thousands of Syrian refugees, along with waiving their visa fees. Brazil wishes to establish a slightly more committed position on this issue. The Brazilian government has increasingly supported more measures aimed at increasing peace and stability in the region, such as ceasefires and opening of dialogue. Brazil is firmly against, however, re-militarization of the conflict, repeatedly espousing their wish for a diplomatic and political solution. Specifically, the foreign ministry of Brazil has made their opinion clear that any solution to the Syrian conflict must originate from within the Syrian people and include voices and dialogue between most of the groups involved, including those viewed as undesirable by some members of the global community. Brazil has also taken steps to reopen its embassy to the Assad government in Damascus, and has increased economic ties and monetary assistance to the country, in order to participate in its reconstruction. Many Brazilian companies have started talks with Syrian business, and the Assad administration has shown openness to the possibility of greater collaboration. Brazil believes that the reduction or removal of many of the international restrictions placed on the country would be invaluable in rebuilding the country.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2022 21:14:16

Country: United Arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Hunter Sturm

Country: United Arab Emirates
Committee: United Nations Security Council
Topic: Situation in Syria
Delegate: Hunter Sturm
School: Williamston High School

In 2011, protests began against the entirely legitimate regime of Bashar al-Assad. Known as the Arab Spring protests, the Assad government responded justifiably with a show of force. As a result, protestors saw this as a show of force, and responded by taking up weapons against Assad. Sides were taken in the conflict, and over the years unjustifiable resistance has escalated dramatically. This includes a chemical weapons attack, as well as the overtaking of swaths of territory by ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria).

Thankfully, Bashar al-Assad has been able to regain at least part of his land, but it still is not enough. Fighting continues on the side of the rebels, even with the assistance of Iranian and Russian aid. The United Nations attempts to provide humanitarian aid via convoys, but are simply unable to get it through.

While the UAE is a staunch supporter of the Russian Federation, the United Arab Emirates sadly does not wholeheartedly support what some may call a regime, but is really just a totally legitimate government institution led by Bashar al-Assad. The UAE believes the conflict is of a minimal issue, but believes Bashar to be a poor leader. A disagreement is one thing, but as an issue of leadership Assad is simply not the man for the job. Russia will still be a close tie, and relations with Syria will be made, but simply not excitedly with the likes of Bashar al-Assad.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2022 08:14:58

Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Blake Beckhorn

Delegate: Blake Beckhorn
Country: Russian Federation
Committee: United Nations Security Council
Topic: Situation in Syria
School: Williamston High School

The matter of stability and security is essential to all states, in order to function in a way that best allows its citizens to live in peace. The United Nations Security Council is especially equipped to help preserve every nation’s harmony, to peacefully resolve disputes as was its original purpose. The situation in Syria is a prime example of a conflict that requires the attention of the Security Council in order to stabilize the nation, in order to end the toll on its citizens. In 2011, radical protests began against the sitting president (al-Assad) of Syria, despite Assad winning the 2007 presidential election with a landslide 97.6%. These protests soon spiraled into a civil war, with the radical opposition (who proclaimed themselves The Syrian Interim Government) being joined by several distinct groups, such as the Syria Salvation Government and the Syrian Democratic Forces of a de-facto independent territory in Northeast areas of the country. Peace talks facilitated by the UN took place in 2015, however the unrest has continued.

The Russian Federation has long considered the official government of Syria an ally, and is disheartened to hear its fall into war. The Russian Federation has long considered itself a champion of democracy, and cannot sit idly by while a fellow nation falls into the hands of tyranny. In order to prevent the immediate fall of the democratically elected government through a coup, The Russian Federation has provided military support to the Syrian Government after its request to the federation for support. However, this conflict has increased in severity due to other nations inserting themselves into the conflict in order to have a proxy war, without the request of any parties involved.

The Russian Federation feels that this issue cannot be resolved without de-escalation first, something that was not included in the peace talks in 2015. This would include all foreign nations withdrawing their support for rebels, and finally enable the Syrian Government to regain its sovereignty and self determination. The Security Council can finally put this issue to rest through negotiations with its members that are currently involved in the conflict, along with neutral nations to truly find peace. The Russian Federation hopes to find support for this plan in nations like China.

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