September 16, 2019
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Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons

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UN Commission on Crime Prevention & Criminal Justice

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons

Violent extremism by means of radicalization in prisons is an ever-changing and rapidly growing challenge in the world today. Prison radicalization is understood as the process by which incarcerated people develop ideologies and goals. It is important to understand how these two things impact each other and differ; radicalization exists without violent extremism. Radicalization is not inherently violent, so it is important to differentiate between thought and action when discussing how the two relate. Extremism within prison systems has long been a concern of many governments on a domestic scale but, with the increase in international acts of terrorism, has now become a global concern as well. Violent extremism is a growing concern of the United Nations (UN) because it undermines the very purpose of the organization; peace, human rights, security, and sustainable development.

While nations continue to struggle with a response to the global threat of violent extremism by means of radicalization, it is important to understand the issues as they exist today. The problem of violent radicalization exists within prison systems and affects the climate within inmates, but trends are showing that many domestic acts of terrorism are perpetuated by formerly-incarcerated individuals who may have become radicalized while serving their sentence. This idea demonstrates the larger concern that prison systems are not properly equipped to respond to the growing threats of violent extremism within their walls and that there is not adequate support for individuals as they transition from prison back into society.

The mission of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at this meeting is to find solutions to the rising concern of violent radicalization in prisons. It is apparent that reform is needed, but what reform? Where does reform need to occur and what part does the UN have in it, if any? How does the UN manage violent extremist prisoners? What support can the UN offer prisoners upon their release? Are there ways to prevent the spread of violent radicalization within prison systems, especially to those who are most vulnerable? The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) offers a handbook already with some outlines on managing violent extremist prisoners, but what more can be done to prevent violent radicalization?

Further Reading:

UN Office on Drugs and Crime Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners and the Prevention of Radicalization to Violence in Prisons:
https://www.unodc.org/pdf/criminal_justice/Handbook_on_VEPs.pdf

UN Office on Drugs and Crime on Supporting the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners (VEP) and the Prevention of Radicalisation to Violence in Prison:
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/justice-and-prison-reform/prison-gloz85-vep.html

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Submitted Position Papers

VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 20:21:49 172.58.122.191

Topic:
Country: Norway
Delegate Name: Maya Grossman

Norway believes that mental health and violence are closely associated and both issues can be addressed together to create a singular solution. Norwegians believe that to improve prevention of violent extremism (PVE), each case of violence and its solution must be curated under specific circumstances. Kriminalomsorgen, the Norwegian Correctional Service assists in PVE by providing incentives to improve prisoners behavior. Though Norway has a population of 5.4 million people, there are about 3,500 people in prison; this low population limits the amount of violent extremism.

Norway does not have an extensive track record of violent extremism in prisons, and radicalization in Norway is usually a positive way of creating goals for Norwegian prisoners. Norway prisons, like Inner Østfold in southeast Norway and Halden prison in the south, are built to be humane places for prisoners to find a new mentality and start again. Kriminalomsorgen has always worked with Norwegian prisons to prevent violence and create some of the most civilized and peaceful prisons. Kriminalomsorgen uses committed recovery strategies that work to integrate prisoners back into Norwegian society. This service leads prisoners away from violence through motivation to return to normal life. They provide professional mental and educational help which drives people to feel connected to the world around them. With a combination of Kriminalomsorgen mental health services and correctional training, Norway has minimal encounters of violent extremism relating to negative radicalization.

To better secure and improve prisons from countries in the United Nations, Norway can integrate similar systems like Kriminalomsorgen to prevent violent extremism. Norway has a Liquidity Coverage Ratio, a policy that allows profit from banks throughout Norway even with limited funding. Using this money, Norway can create small installments of new and improved educational growth programs in prisons. Norway believes that with the correct mental health care and opportunities for prisoners to improve their lives, the total elimination of violence is possible. Prisoners need motivation to return to their normal lives and Norway believes that treating prisoners with a sense of humanity can create drastic changes in mentality and life skills.

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VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 18:41:59 68.41.134.66

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Gabriella Yost

Brazil feels that Radicalization and violent extremism in prisons is a very pressing topic and needs to be addressed. Due to the fact that Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world, we strive to reduce the crime and death rates within the country by implementing easily accessible foundations where anyone can get the necessary help. Brazil wants to create safer communities that will be welcoming to new immigrants and create a safer living space for future generations to come.
Professionals in Brazil have found a correlation between violent crimes and mental health. In 2014 a cross-sectional study was done throughout multiple prisons in Brazil with a total of 462 prisoners. Many of the prisoners were able to be successfully diagnosed with different conditions using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Many connections were able to be made to different crimes with different diagnoses. It was found that substance abuse was linked to sex and homicide crimes. Antisocial personality disorder was connected to robbery and kidnapping, and that life long alcohol addiction could be associated with armed robbery and murder. This trial easily concluded that psychosis can be linked to violent crimes.
Brazil wants to take the actions of having accessible counseling and therapy for anybody. Brazil encourages other nations to do the same because studies have shown getting behavioral related help can reduce crime involvement. We also want to put in mental hospitals along with the counseling and therapy as a step higher which can provide higher treatment to the individuals who require it.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 23:04:57 71.61.250.21

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Lauren Ye

The delegation of Mexico recognizes the critical issue of radicalization and violent extremism in prisons. These ideas formed during a prisoner’s incarceration not only affect the safety of prisoners and guards within the prison, these prisoners also pose a threat when they are released from prison and reintegrated into society. Prisons are a source of violent extremism, and this mainly results from the environment within the prison, whether it be the physical conditions of the prison or the prisoners in it.
In 2016, Mexico had 247,001 total prisoners in the prison system, with the incarceration rate being 204 per 100,000 inhabitants. Even though the death penalty was abolished in Mexico in 2005, 65% of Mexico’s prison population is run by gangs, and conflicts between these gangs result in many deaths. In 2014, the National Human Rights Commission reported more than 2,400 complaints of torture in Mexico’s prisons alone. The “self-government” of gangs in these prisons is practiced in 71 prisons and creates violence and mistreatment. Prisoners in power use violence to take over spaces, obtain weapons, and profit from certain rights such as calls, visits, and using the toilets. The causes of this are overcrowding, lack of staff, and low staff salaries. Many prisoners feel joining these gangs is a way to stay alive and healthy while incarcerated. 82% of violent incidents in prisons in Mexico were between inmates. The physical conditions of the prisons also contribute to violent extremism. The main cause of overcrowding in prisons is the abuse of pre-trial detention. 31 penitentiaries closed in 2013 due to poor infrastructure, overcrowding, and violence. Along with corruption and violence, these prisons also have poor access to food and healthcare. Terrorism within prisons stems from poor management and conditions of prisons, which leads to the formation of “self-government”, and eventually results in the radicalization and violent extremism of inmates.
Mexico strongly believes in reforming the prison system so as to prevent these violent ideologies from forming inside prisons. This can be done through rehabilitation programs, social and psychological support, and education. Mexico supports the implementation of the Mandela Rules in prison. These rules emphasize the need for humane treatment of prisoners and rehabilitation and reintegration into society. Mexico also supports the use of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. This strategy not only condemns any way, shape, or form of terrorism, but it also resolves to take steps to prevent and counter terrorism. The strategy highlights the importance of addressing the conditions that lead to the spread of terrorism in prisons, including social and economic marginalization, political exclusion, and human rights violations. Mexico acknowledges that this issue is not an issue that one country can solve alone and that countries must work together to ensure this issue is resolved. These policies must be strongly enforced throughout the prison system. This is crucial to ensure that the prison system does not remain a breeding ground for terrorism and violent ideologies that threaten society.

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GrovesDelegates 02/17/2023 22:39:37 98.224.247.49

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Morocco
Delegate Name: Maya Juratli

Prisons are often a location of concern in the discussion of the emergence and expansion of violent extremism. It is claimed that behind bars, prisons can be breeding grounds for the radicalization of new members and the forming of networks for previously violent extremists.
The concept of radicalization within the prison system describes the process by which inmates can develop extreme views in prison. These views may then succeed into acts of violent extremism. These acts can occur after the inmate has been released from prison or through coordination with an outside network. These situations jeopardize a key objective of imprisonment, protecting society from crime.
When examining these occurrences within the prison system, research has shown that extremist beliefs may be amplified by the deprivations of individual freedoms, as in the case of incarceration. One important thing to note about the development of these ideals within prison is imprisonment’s tendency to have a “group-think” environment, where inmates’ social identity can further be spurred into radicalization. In 2017, the Un acknowledged that “prisons can serve as potential incubators for radicalization to terrorism and terrorist recruitment”.
The UN has also published procedures for the prevention of these events in prison. It was suggested that different approaches, such as faith-based intervention, cultural and creative recreation, and psychological interventions could reduce the risk of radicalization. Additionally, the UN has established basic rights and treatment for incarcerated people globally.
In much of the Arab world, it is not uncommon for radical extremist views to develop within the prison system. Prisons could often be hotspots for groups such as Al-Qaeda and ISIS to radicalize and recruit members.
Morocco exercises extreme caution around all terrorism measures and is hopeful that this committee can assist in its goal of eliminating the threat of violent acts of extremism within its country.
In 2017, Morocco launched a program to rehabilitate ISIS veterans who are now incarcerated. Still running today, the successful program’s graduates have shown a marked change in behavior and many are eligible for early release.
Morocco has an incarceration rate of around 0.00232%, 98% of whom are male prisoners. Although Morocco pledged to add the National Mechanism for the Prevention (of Torture) (NPM) to law in 2015, this has yet to occur. Moroccan prison systems in this day have widely reported usage of poor living conditions (lack of showers, inadequate sleeping accommodations, and overcrowdedness), and torture (especially in ‘secret detention centres’, most commonly used for terrorism offenses).
Morocco believes this committee would be best to focus on the prevention of the spread of these ideals in prison before they reach the general public. Points such as monitored communication of inmates, psychological intervention, and recreation will be looked favorably upon by the Moroccan delegation.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/17/2023 22:52:03 74.199.47.158

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: France
Delegate Name: Micaela Story

With a 17% increase in terrorist attacks in the past year bringing the amount of attacks in 2022 to 5,226, violent extremism is at the forefront of crimes across the globe. Attacks of violent extremism occur nearly every week, and claim thousands of lives every year. As more research upon individuals conducting these attacks comes to light, trends have shown that lots of domestic terrorism acts have been committed by individuals who have been incarcerated, bringing attention to the presence of radicalization in prisons.

As a European Union member, France has taken many proactive steps to combat radicalization in prisons. France currently places violent extremist prisoners (VEPs) in dedicated prison wings in an effort to fight against terrorism. The prison system has these wings divided into two categories: one devoted to the assessment and monitoring of radicalized prisoners and another dedicated to monitoring VEPs. All staff are required to undergo three weeks of training specifically outlining the handling of VEPs. While in the VEP wing, prisoners are afforded all the same rights as other prisoners and have probation officers, psychologists, teachers, and social reintegration staff working to improve their lives. France, like many other EU countries, has taken many precautionary measures including gathering intelligence to monitor radicalization and monitoring offenders who are at risk of violent extremism or influencing others. France also has voluntary intervention programs available to prisoners.

France plans to continue its support of EU efforts to reduce radicalization and violent extremism as well as continue to push its current programs domestically. France hopes the UNCCPCJ will continue to protect the rights and treatment of prisoners. France looks forward to working with its allies and countries like Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium that have implemented similar specialized systems for VEPs or have hopes of improving the outlook of radicalization in prisons, as well as both domestic and international terrorism.

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BayCityDelegates 02/17/2023 22:01:16 158.51.69.77

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Albania
Delegate Name: William Moore

While most of the media’s attention has been on acts of systematic terror committed by groups such as ISIS, Boko Haram and Al Qaeda in the name of Islam, it is important to note that the growth in extremist violence is not limited to one religion. Even in the Middle East, crimes have been committed in defense of Judaism, and Christian militias exist in many parts of the world. In Asia, groups have committed violations in the name of Hinduism and Buddhism, and in other parts of the world, political ideologies have led groups to take up arms.
The Bektashi Order or Bektashism is an Islamic Sufi mystic movement originating in the 13th-century. It is named after the Anatolian saint Haji Bektash Veli. The community is currently led by Baba Mondi, the eighth Bektashi Dedebaba and headquartered in Tirana, Albania. Today sympathy for the order is generally widespread in Albania where approximately 20% of Muslims identify themselves as having some connection to Bektashism. The ethnic distribution in Albania is Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2%. In 2002, a group of armed members of the Islamic Religious Community of Macedonia (ICM), a Sunni group that is the legally recognized organization which claims to represent all Muslims in North Macedonia, invaded the Shiʻi Bektashi Order’s Arabati Baba Teḱe in an attempt to reclaim this tekke as a mosque although the facility has never functioned as such. Subsequently, the Bektashi Order of North Macedonia sued the government for failing to restore the tekke to the Bektashis, pursuant to a law passed in the early 1990s returning properties previously nationalized under the Yugoslav government. The law, however, deals with restitution to private citizens, rather than religious communities. The ICM claim to the tekke is based upon their contention to represent all Muslims in the Republic of Macedonia; and indeed, they are one of two Muslim organizations recognized by the government, both Sunni. The Bektashi community filed for recognition as a separate religious community with the Macedonian government in 1993, but the Macedonian government has refused to recognize them.
In recent years, Albania has taken steps to identify and expel foreign Islamic extremists from the country. Many of them sought out Albania as a safe haven for their operations in the mid-1990s due to the lax government and security measures in place at that time. Albanian Foreign Minister Paskal Milo said that Tirana did not support any kind of extremism among ethnic Albanians in F.Y.R. Macedonia. In response to prominent radicalization in prisons in the Western Balkans, the Council of Europe implemental a Regional Action in coordination with Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro, and North Macedonia, which included a diverse selection of other national stakeholders and civil society organizations active in the penitentiary field and countering violent extremism and radicalisation in prisons. The main aim of the Action was to enhance regional security by improving the inter-institutional exchange of knowledge and good practices in the region in respect of radicalization in prisons, with a view on providing penitentiary system staff with necessary standards, tools and instruments needed to respond appropriately. Another important goal was to empower in-county multi-agency coordination to counter radicalization in prison and to provide adequate post-penal support to released violent extremist offenders. Albania is aware of these issues, are addressing them the best we can intrinsically, but plan to work with international members of the UN to help diminish this radicalization and violent extremism in not only prisons, but in general.

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BayCityDelegates 02/17/2023 21:19:29 68.188.160.205

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Ireland
Delegate Name: Zoe Piotrowski

Violent extremism has no clear definition, as it is a diverse phenomenon. No country is safe or protected from the negative impacts of violent extremism. Violent extremism undermines the efforts of creating a safe and peaceful development which is what the United Nations strives for. Ireland recognises that this has become a serious issue, and is working to resolve the conflict.

Properly managing violent extremist prisoners would further decrease the acts of misconduct in prison systems. Having basic items such as food, clean water, and sanitary products would give these prisoners the human respect and dignity each person deserves. Poor living conditions could increase the amount of violence in prisons which further hurts our problem.

Ireland has been working to provide accurate and good quality information regarding extremism in prisons. The United Nations and Ireland have a common goal which is to maintain and defend human rights and fundamental freedoms. With prisoners having access to information besides what they already know, this can prevent them from becoming part of the radicalized population.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 19:07:13 68.48.247.181

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Caterina DaSilva

Honorable delegates and esteemed chair, Ghana is deeply concerned about the issue of radicalization and violent extremism in prisons. As a country committed to upholding human rights and upholding peace, Ghana acknowledges the significance of measures prisons must take to change systems and create less hostile environments for prisoners to limit violent extremism. Having radicalized individuals undermines peace and security, human rights and sustainable development. Isolation, overcrowding and other poor prison conditions continue to push those incarcerated to create violent communities within the prison for a sort of power and protection. Ghana is a country with a low incarceration rate of 42, and nationwide has 13 thousand prisoners incarcerated. Currently, Ghana has an issue with overcrowding in prisons, and has a need for larger institutions, proper education, particularly since 70% of Ghana’s prisoners are in their early adult ages, and rehabilitation programs.

The issue of radicalization and violent extremism in prisons is a multi-faceted problem that requires a complex approach. Ghana’s prisons suffer from overcrowding, an average of 135% of prison overcrowding, even housing 4,000 inmates when it had been built to accommodate 700 people. Medical treatment, inadequate sanitary conditions, and funding in Ghana prisons are limited as well, the limit of meals for inmates is 1.80 of Ghanaian Cedi, which means not adequate nutrition or amount of food for prisoners. Without proper funding, staffing in Ghanaian prisons are scarce and harsh, showing abuse and mistreatment towards inmates. When care is not shown in these systems, inmates begin to riot, contributing to the growing violent extremism.

Ghana strongly believes that the UN should focus on institutions and change how overcrowding, inadequate funding, staffing, medical treatment, safety, and education affects those incarcerated. To promote human rights and improve prison conditions, which will in turn lower the rate of riots and violent inmates, Ghana will ensure that prisoners are treated humanely, providing effective rehabilitation programs that address the root causes of criminal behavior, which are specifically drug addiction and poverty, as well as programs that will promote education, social integration, and job training. Ensuring the safety and security of institutions across Ghana is also critical to prevent the spread of radicalization, and will implement effective security measures, preventing smuggling throughout the prisons. Ghana also recognizes that the issue of extremism in prisons is a global issue, and calls for greater international cooperation in the development of combined programs to address this problem. We are committed to working with the international community to ensure that prisons serve as a place for rehabilitation and not a breeding ground for violent extremism and radicalization.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 18:30:00 68.48.247.181

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Guatemala
Delegate Name: Alexandra DaSilva

Guatemala acknowledges the severe consequences of the pathway from radicalized individuals to violent extremists and believes that significant action should be taken in order to prevent and protect other prisoners from violent extremism. Prisons create an environment that can easily facilitate the transition between radicalized individuals into violent extremists. Due to their concentrated populations, they also allow for the spread of these individuals and ideas. Prison conditions and overcrowding must be addressed, as they often push prisoners to join violent extremist groups for protection and/or for basic physical needs. Guatemala and a majority of other countries struggle with rising prison populations, overcrowding, and providing adequate care for those in prisons. This also requires proper staffing, funds, gender-based care, education, and rehabilitation programs for these prisoners.

Guatemala’s prison systems are ranked #4 in the world in regards to overcrowding, standing at an overwhelming 357.1%. Guatemala also has one of the lowest income taxes in the world, which prevents many systems, including the prison system, from receiving adequate funding. This prevents proper staffing, regulations, rehabilitation efforts, prison population minimization, and health care from taking place. There has been a large increase in the number of prison officers, but this has failed to offset the lack of control and vigilance that has allowed dangerous inmates, including violent extremists, to exercise control over the inside of prisons. This has led to violent acts taking place inside prisons, as well as escapes and riots. Bias inside of prison systems has allowed some of these prisoners to access alcohol, drugs, and weapons. This has allowed for the planning and coordination within prisons for crimes directed against the citizen population. Guatemala has received a grant from the Central American Bank for Economic Integration to strengthen the capacities of the institutions responsible for the administration of security and justice in Guatemala, construct police stations and substations, as well as design, construct, and supervise two maximum security prisons in Guatemala. This is an important step in remedying the prison systems in Guatemala.

These grants allow underprivileged and struggling countries to create positive prison environments that facilitate the rehabilitation of their prisoners and generate a safe environment to do so. This effectively prevents violent extremists in prisons. Guatemala strongly believes that the UN should primarily focus on overcrowding, bias, staffing, health care, general safety, gender-based care, education, and rehabilitation programs in prisons, in order to protect against violent extremists and radicalized individuals.

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SASADelegates 02/17/2023 17:23:30 47.26.96.162

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Jasmeher Singh

With the emergence of terrorist groups/attacks internationally, it’s essential for the UN to devise a plan of action to help prevent radicalization and violent extremism in prisons. Argentina recognizes that preventing radicalization starts with reforming the prison systems which often allow vulnerable people to be negatively affected. Incarcerated persons are often subjected to dehumanizing conditions within prison systems and often don’t have the support to go back out into society after serving their sentences. They are also bound to the prison systems and often form relationships with people there. This can result in radicalization from different groups of people which has seemingly been the case for some time now. Furthermore, prison systems are often extremist environments where violence takes place. Ensuring that prison systems are reformed and that vulnerable persons aren’t harmed in this process is essential when addressing this problem throughout the committee.
Argentina is aware of our high incarceration rates and recognizes the need for reform in prison systems in our nation. With 249 out of 100,000 people incarcerated in Argentina, we understand that the prison population trend is increasing. Furthermore, the number of institutions/establishments in Argentina is also increasing and is at a record high of 324 which is a relatively high number compared to the rest of the world. Argentina looks favorably upon minimizing overcrowding within prisons as overcrowding can cause radicalization to spread quickly. While radicalization isn’t necessarily unwelcome within unhealthy prison environments it can lead to extremist thought. Extremist thought after leaving the prison system can turn into violent extremism. Therefore, Argentina believes that separating radical thinkers from susceptible prisoners is necessary. Additionally, minimizing overcrowding within prison systems can help with fixing the extremist environment in prisons. This in turn can also help with creating a safer and cleaner environment for inmates within prison systems. Argentina’s own occupancy level within prison systems is around 115% which has led to some unsanitary conditions within prison systems. Other nations are struggling with addressing the issue of overcrowding and separation of prisoners as well, and while the UN cannot enforce these regulations upon nations, suggesting these solutions can help with addressing the problem of radicalization and violent extremism within prison systems.
In addition to maintaining prison systems to create a less extremist environment, it’s necessary to focus on creating rehabilitation programs to help inmates gain higher education and learn the skills needed in the workforce (critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, and communication). Learning such skills can help incarcerated people go back to the workforce and can help them reconnect with their families and communities. This can help incarcerated people feel less isolated and may lead them to be more susceptible to radicalized thinkers who are spreading violent extremism within prison systems. Furthermore, encouraging different education systems to be put in place outside of prison systems to educate the general public on the causes of radicalization and violent extremism may be helpful. Also teaching incarcerated people how to recognize other inmates who may be trying to spread radicalization may help prevent the spread of ideas of violent extremism that may come out of radicalization. Ultimately, nations must come together and recognize that reform is needed within prison systems to help deradicalize such institutions and provide a safer place for prisoners.

Works Cited
“Argentina.” Argentina | World Prison Brief, Argentina | World Prison Brief, 1 Jan. 1970, https://www.prisonstudies.org/country/argentina.
“Argentina – United States Department of State.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, 16 Dec. 2021, https://www.state.gov/reports/country-reports-on-terrorism-2020/argentina/.
Christiansen, Sara. “Preventing Radicalization in Prisons.” Diva-Portal, Diva-Portal, http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1487470/FULLTEXT01.pdf.
“Security Council – Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) | Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED).” United Nations, United Nations, https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/ctc/.
“Supporting the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners.” United Nations : Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations : Office on Drugs and Crime, https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/justice-and-prison-reform/prison-gloz85-vep.html.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, https://www.unodc.org/pdf/criminal_justice/Handbook_on_VEPs.pdf.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 17:02:39 68.56.158.141

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Gabon
Delegate Name: Mahbuba Mohammed

UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Gabon
Mahbuba Mohammed
Forest Hills Northern High School

Radicalization and violent extremism in Gabonese prisons pose a significant threat to national security and stability. The Gabonese government must take urgent action to address the problem by improving prison conditions, developing effective rehabilitation and reintegration programs, strengthening intelligence and security measures, collaborating with civil society organizations, and improving community policing. These measures will go a long way in preventing the spread of extremist ideologies in Gabonese prisons and communities.

There are over 2.2 million people living in Gabon, with about 10% of them being Muslims. Political unrest, corruption, and economic hardships have plagued Gabon, fueling anger among some sections of the populace. The rise of violent extremism in the nation is a result of these issues as well as the dissemination of radical Islamist doctrine. There have been instances of attacks carried out by people connected to extremist groups in recent years.

Inmates in Gabonese prisons live in subpar conditions that fall short of international norms due to overcrowding. Prisons lack the essential manpower and resources to provide inmates with the help they need to resist radicalization and violent extremism. Some radicalized prisoners have enlisted others to support their cause, which has increased the number of violent occurrences in jails.There have been allegations of extremist-affiliated prisoners getting out of jail and continuing to commit violent crimes. In order to stop the development of extremist ideology in prisons, strong rehabilitation and reintegration programs are essential.

Security and peace in Gabonese prisons are seriously threatened by radicalization and violent extremism. By enhancing jail conditions, creating efficient rehabilitation and reintegration programs, boosting intelligence and security measures, working with civil society organizations, and enhancing community policing, the Gabonese government must act quickly to address the issue. These actions will significantly slow the propagation of extremist ideology in Gabonese jails and neighborhoods.

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FitzDelegates 02/17/2023 17:05:39 64.88.7.10

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Mozambique
Delegate Name: Victoria Fowler

Maputo Central Prison is the largest prison in Mozambique. Mozambique recognizes the conditions prisoners within our country are treated, and wants to use ideas in the room to help the institutions we must provide for. Mozambique calls for thoughts of humanity in the room. The treatment in prisons has not gone unacknowledged, moreso Mozambique is seeking for better conditions in the prisons.

Mozambique wants to ask other nations what can be done to help the prisons? “How can we measure the rights of prisoners”. With this question, we can more accurately understand a base at which all prisoners must be treated and create rules to hold prisoners and guards accountable to.

Mozambique wants resolutions to accomplish integrity. Resolutions would be most successful if they view the prisoners first and not like animals. Mozambique wants to seize conversations that perceive prisoners as objects and their situation as unimportant issues. Mozambique believes this conversation deserves just as much attention and wants other nations to view the issue as it is and not have bias towards those we are helping.

We look forward and welcome any nations willing to work together to find a valuable solution for the issue.

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BayCityDelegates 02/17/2023 16:52:18 24.231.162.96

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Ireland
Delegate Name: Logan Wallace

The issue of extremism in prisons is not new and has affected countless people. This issue stems from the fact that while prisoners are interned, they feel alienated from the rest of society and look for community within the prison; these communities do not always hold the best beliefs. Ireland still treats these prisoners with the same standards and amenities it does with all other prisoners.

According to the Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremists and the Prevention of Radicalization to Violence in Prisons, the best way to distinguish radicalized prisoners is to screen all prisoners when they first come through and at regular intervals throughout their time in the facility. More prisoners go into prisons for petty crimes and leave radicalized than those who come in with these ideals. With more screenings, a decrease in radicalization would most likely occur

Ireland thus far has been trying to stop radicalization in prisons by allowing prisoners greater access to various sources of information. It has been proven that prisoners who have access to knowledge and ideals other than those held by a radicalized prison population are less likely to become radicalized. The best way to keep prisoners from being radicalized is to honor the shared goal between the United Nations and Ireland – to maintain and defend human rights and fundamental freedoms.

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FitzDelegates 02/17/2023 15:50:06 64.88.7.10

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Canada
Delegate Name: Cheyenne Panek

Although Canada realizes that our prison system is flawed. Considering Canada has had a rapid increase of murders and prison staff abuse within the last 3 years. With 60% of prison guards being subject to physical violence and our homicide rate being 20 times higher than Toronto. We have slowly started to transition to lower security prisons for more “non threatening” prisoners. Lowering the supervision of these prisoners has caused our rehabilitation rate to increase so Canada thinks we can work together to make a change.

Canada poses the following questions to the committee: “What standards does the UN system need to implement to identify radicalization and violence within prison systems?” “In what ways can countries train people in prisons (guards, wardens, support staff) to acknowledge when there is such extreme violence and radicalization going on?” “How do we implement standardized training that can be transferred from nation to nation if prison workers move to other countries?”

Canada and many other countries have already established many foundations and programs to help make the transition back into society easier. Specifically, these programs include: Friends of Returning Citizens, Prison Entrepreneurship Program, Community Bridge Fact Team, Delancey Street Foundation, Safer Foundation and The Last Mile. Many of these programs have been very useful in helping but Canada recognizes that these programs do not help everyone and there will always be one problem — money. What Canada proposes is that we not only create a worldwide program that is globally funded by anyone who can but also rewrite how we deal with prisons and prisoners. Make it like a place to keep the bad people contained and away from people they could harm and rehabilitate them. Make it more humane those people may be criminals but they are still humans.

Work Cited: https://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/houses-of-hate-how-canadas-prison-system-is-broken/

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/16/2023 18:49:49 74.199.47.92

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Ecuador
Delegate Name: Sierra Turner

Prison radicalization: when people in jail develop ideologies and goals. Prison radicalization can be without violence, but recently many domestic acts of terrorism are found to be from formerly-jailed individuals who have become radicalized while in a prison. Many prisons are not able to fight off the threat of prison radicalization, leading to violent extremism while prisoners are in jail. Most people who leave the prison system do not have the support they need to transition into society once more, and this leads to violent encounters after being released.
The prison population of Ecuador has tripled in 13 years, and at least 390 people have been killed in Ecuador’s prisons. In February of 2022, President Lasso launched a public policy of social rehabilitation of prisoners. The new policy was developed with significant technical support from the UN Human Rights Office, and in consultation with a large cross-section of Ecuadorian society: government agencies, non-governmental organizations, human rights defenders, academics, and, the families of prisoners and prisoners themselves.This policy’s goal was to guarantee access to basic rights for prisoners: rights to health, food, water, education, and work. The President also ordered the release of around 5,000 prisoners as part to reduce prison overcrowding. Ecuador’s rehabilitation-based prison reforms were successful in reducing violence in prisons and in improving the human rights of criminal offenders.
Ecuador will be providing further resources to implement its public policy of social rehabilitation of prisoners. Ecuador would hope for this policy to persuade reform in other countries facing similar challenges such as the Dominican Republic, Antigua and Barbuda, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay. Ecuador would like to, furthermore, investigate all deaths and serious injuries in prisons to potentially figure new strategies to combat violent extremisms, as well as bring reparations to the victims and their families. Ecuador believes this reform will be able to decrease violent extremism in prison radicalization, and therefore decrease domestic acts of terrorism. Ecuador would like to stress the importance of national sovereignty in a solution.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 15:03:23 107.137.112.29

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Chile
Delegate Name: Adilyn Petors

UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Radicalization and Violent Extremism in Prison
Chile
Adilyn Petros, Forest Hills Northern High School

Much of the current discourse about prisons and radicalization is negative. But prisons are not just a threat – they can play a positive role in tackling problems of unradicalizing and terrorism in society as a whole. Chile plans to demonstrate how prisons can become net contributors to the fight against terrorism. The intention of prison and probation is to maintain a secure society by enacting a judicial conclusion in a way that is attentive for civilians, workers, prisoners and those convicted. Jail has partaken in the histories of progressive and combative movement in the contemporary era, yet are spots in which radicalization occurs.
With the approach of security being the top priority, most nations evaded chances to encourage improvement. Countless prison aids assume the essentials of safety and amendments are contradictory. Oftentimes, commands for them are aptly to complement rather than counter one another. Prisons are frequently assumed to have become where radicalization commences. No surprise, prisons are considered areas of susceptibility, which causes ‘rebels’ in increased quantities than other conditions. They supply ideal circumstances in which revolutionary, religious theories can thrive.
Being congested and short-staffed intensifies the settings that provide themselves to radicalization. Poorly managed prisons dim the awareness of radicalization, and also generate both the tangible and abstract space in which zealot scouts can steer at their own volition and take over political and religious communications. When political compromises shape facets of the pacts between government and terrorists, mutual separation and radicalizing can launch the foundation for a developed peace actions, and needs the obligatory abilities, assets, and , most importantly, patience. Chile plans to become more involved: we are with distinct pursuits and groups excluding policing, like community recognition and activism, conducts understanding and generosity between parties.
Stimuli and assistance are vital segments of most separation strategy, since they supply motivations for engaging with the procedure, then support the conversion of returning from prison to the public.Occasionally, cumulative routines may recommend political compromises as and arranged package deal that is likely encompassed of agreements of early release and remittance.
Besides Chile, countries globally have committed to start performing radicalization. Within being opportunities for others to learn from their progress or lack thereof. In Yemen, the key to this situation was for the ministers to test the convicts to enter what is known as a ‘dialogue of equals’, in which reciprocal sections vow to take up the other side’s logic as if they were persuasive. In the Philippines, Singapore, and Saudi-Arabia, the method is to reimburse for the clerics’ absence of recognized validity with added soft skills. For example,in Singapore, in addition to being capable scholars of Islam, clergymen need to be primed as consultants and exhibit their capability to empathize with the inmates.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 13:16:04 99.36.129.201

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: United Arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Allison Edwards

The problem of radicalization and extremism in prisons is not new to many countries in the middle east. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) denounces all forms of terrorism and is working alongside the Hedayah to combat this serious and important issue. The UAE aims to stop all forms of terrorism in prisons and to address the root of the problem regarding extremism.
The UAE believes that terrorism and extremism won’t be eradicated just by military forces, but by a combination of many sectors and policies. The United Arab Emirates is home to the Hedayah, an organization funded by the Emirati government. The Hedayah is the global center for counteracting terrorism which is a holistic approach to wiping out radicalization. This organization is working alongside the UAE regarding the problem of terrorism and extremism in prisons. The goal of the plan is to inform countries about the rehabilitation and integration of former terrorists.
The Hedayah created a blueprint for the integration of former terrorists and rehabilitation centers. Medical help and individual help and religious counseling ensure that the root problem of terrorism is addressed and will not reoccur. This program can be implemented in many countries. The UAE strongly urges countries to adopt this program.
Additionally, the United Arab Emirates wants to address the root cause of extremism by cutting off funding to groups, halting recruitment for hate groups, and monitoring the violence on the internet. They have cooperated with many NGOs on this issue such as SAWAB, which is combating online misinformation and terrorism, and The Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies, which corrects ideals posed by extremist groups.
The UAE aims to halt the spread of terrorism through the Hedayah that they funded and address the root of the issue causing terrorism. They aim to do this not only by military forces but by working alongside many NGOs and funding many programs to eradicate terrorism. The UAE urges all countries to take steps toward eradicating terrorism through similar policies and encourages collaboration between nations.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 12:49:07 174.174.130.207

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Switzerland
Delegate Name: Camille Gerville-Reache

Switzerland recognizes that prisons can exacerbate radicalization and violent extremism, and mismanagement of prisons can pose a threat to international security. While tackling this issue is costly, the benefits are greater. However, the complexity behind the root causes of radicalization must be acknowledged: different nations will require different solutions, and solutions must be varied.

By performing research, collaborating with international partners, and investing in several measures, Switzerland’s issue of radicalization in imprisonment is near negligible. Prisons have established internal regulations and detection protocols to limit the spread of radical ideas. Additionally, coordinated positions (rotations between floors or prisons), ongoing staff training, and access to non-violent religious leaders have all proved effective measures according to a recent study. Attention is focused on the largest demographic susceptible to radicalization– men of a low education background, who are poorly integrated into the employment market. Mental health, which is linked to radicalization, is also being addressed through access to counseling, questionnaires upon incarceration, and prison officers receiving mental health training.

Along with encouraging the implementation of these methods, Switzerland prioritizes and encourages international collaboration. Working with non-governmental organizations like Innovative Prison Systems, an EU-based research and consulting firm, have enabled Switzerland to collaborate with many other nations in this effort. Internet access in prisons and elsewhere also must be regulated. Many radicalized inmates were introduced to violent extremism through the dark web. Switzerland is eager to continue cooperation with fellow nations to mitigate radicalization and violent extremism.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 12:25:10 68.61.105.233

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Bolivia
Delegate Name: Reem Omran

UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Radicalization and Violent Extremism in Prison
Bolivia
Reem Omran
Forest Hills Northern High School

Similar to many other nations, Bolivia has seen an increase in radicalization and violent extremism in its prisons. For the nation’s law enforcement agencies, this has grown to be a significant problem because violent radicals often work discreetly, making it challenging to detect and prevent terrorist activity.
At 250 prisoners for every 100,000 people, Bolivia has a comparatively high incarceration rate. Political inmates and regular offenders both make up the jail population. Extremist and terrorist prisoners have been more prevalent in Bolivia in recent years. These persons include those connected to domestic political movements as well as those connected to extremist Islamist organizations. Extremist offenders frequently enjoy a high degree of impunity within the penal system. They frequently have access to communication networks like the internet and mobile phones, which they utilize to spread their ideas and recruit new members. Additionally, they may use force and intimidation to maintain control over other inmates and personnel.
To address the problem of radicalization and violent extremism in Bolivian prisons, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive approach that considers the underlying causes of the issue. Enhancing social and economic growth, maintaining prisons effectively, and developing counter-radicalization strategies are a few potential solutions. The government should invest in strengthening the management and security of its jails, including the adoption of cutting-edge technology and better staff training. They should implement policies and initiatives that support inclusive growth and equal access to opportunities in order to eliminate social and economic inequality. Lastly, the government should create and put into action plans to stop inmates from becoming radicalized, such as giving at-risk inmates counseling and educational help.
Radicalization and violent extremism in Bolivian prisons pose a significant threat to the country’s security and stability. The government can take measures to reduce the potential of violent extremism and radicalization in its jails by taking a comprehensive and multifaceted approach, including improving prison management, promoting social and economic growth, and establishing counter-radicalization methods.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 11:43:48 153.106.237.16

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Tristan Gerville-Reache

The Republic of Korea would like to acknowledge the importance of preventing prison radicalization and violent extremism. This process involves those who are incarcerated to form radical ideals and cause havoc. The formation of radical ideas has no direct harm until they are acted upon. The Republic of Korea expresses the importance of preventing the formation of radical ideas to prevent violent extremism.

All males who possess citizenship in the Republic of Korea are required to join the military for a minimum of 2 years if they are drafted. Previously, those who refused to participate were incarcerated, but that policy has changed. Now, those who refuse to enlist themselves are still sent to prisons as laborers. They receive no criminal record and do not have to fight in a war. This policy changed because of the growing radicalization in our prisons until the policy was refined. The Republic of Korea encourages other countries to enforce a similar policy to prevent violent extremism globally.

The Republic of Korea believes in adaptation to this growing problem. Reform is an option that the Republic of Korea encourages all to take part in, as a change in policies will help diminish radicalization and extremism in most, if not all countries. As we work to perfect our country’s policies and promote peace, we welcome other countries with open arms to gander at the amount of reform our country has made for the better.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 11:30:08 68.61.105.195

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Australia
Delegate Name: Noah Breukink

Country: Australia
Committee: UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prison

Radicalization and violent extremism in prisons have become a growing concern for many countries, including Australia. The Australian government recognizes that prisons can serve as breeding grounds for extremist ideologies, and that incarcerated individuals are particularly vulnerable to radicalization. As a result, Australia has implemented a range of measures to address radicalization and violent extremism in prisons.
One of the primary strategies employed by Australia is the separation of radicalized prisoners from the general prison population. The government has established specialized units where radicalized prisoners are held separately from the general population. The aim of this measure is to prevent radicalized prisoners from influencing others who may be vulnerable to radicalization. This approach also helps to prevent radicalized prisoners from carrying out violent acts within the prison environment.
In addition to the separation of radicalized prisoners, the Australian government has introduced a range of programs to rehabilitate and de-radicalize prisoners who have been radicalized. These programs focus on addressing the underlying factors that contribute to radicalization, such as social isolation, discrimination, and a lack of education or employment opportunities. The goal of these programs is to help prisoners develop critical thinking skills and resilience to extremist ideologies. Some of these programs include mental health support, vocational training, and education programs.
Australia has also strengthened intelligence gathering and sharing to prevent radicalization and violent extremism in prisons. The government has established a network of intelligence officers who are responsible for gathering information about extremist activities within prisons. This information is then shared with law enforcement agencies and other relevant authorities to prevent radicalized prisoners from carrying out violent acts. The government has also provided training to prison staff to help them identify signs of radicalization and extremist behavior among prisoners. This training includes how to identify and report suspicious activities and behaviors, as well as how to respond in the event of an incident.
Another approach employed by the Australian government is to focus on preventing radicalization before it occurs. This approach involves working with communities and organizations to address the underlying causes of radicalization, such as social isolation, marginalization, and discrimination. The government has implemented a range of community-based programs to promote social inclusion, reduce discrimination, and increase access to education and employment opportunities. These programs are designed to prevent individuals from becoming vulnerable to radicalization in the first place.
It is important to note that the issue of radicalization and violent extremism in prisons is complex and multi-faceted. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to addressing this issue. Australia’s approach to this issue is based on a combination of strategies that aim to prevent radicalization before it occurs, as well as addressing the underlying causes of radicalization and providing rehabilitation and de-radicalization programs for those who have been radicalized.
In conclusion, Australia recognizes that radicalization and violent extremism in prisons are serious threats to national security, and has implemented a range of measures to address this issue. These measures include separating radicalized prisoners from the general population, implementing rehabilitation and de-radicalization programs, strengthening intelligence gathering and sharing, providing training to prison staff, and focusing on preventing radicalization before it occurs. These approaches are aimed at preventing radicalization and violent extremism in prisons, as well as promoting social inclusion and preventing individuals from becoming vulnerable to radicalization in the first place.

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SASADelegates 02/17/2023 11:25:42 47.26.96.169

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: United States
Delegate Name: Alexandre Morrison

The United States affirms that prison systems, as they operate now, exacerbate the problem of prison radicalization because of the systemic harsh treatment and dehumanization of prisoners. Throughout the world, prisoners are beaten, tortured, raped, and prisons can lack basic hygiene standards, sanitation, lights, nutrition, and other basic needs. Slave labor under authoritarian regimes is common. This is a universal issue, and although the UN lacks enforcement power, it should still relentlessly condemn human rights abuses and violations of the Nelson Mandela Rules (UN list of basic and necessary standards for the treatment of prisoners globally.)
The United States has an important international role in establishing the treatment of prisoners because we have one of the highest percentages of our population in prison. For every 100,000 people, 505 are incarcerated. We also have some of the highest recidivism rates in the world, with almost 44% of our prisoners returning to prison after less than a year of freedom. It’s clear we have a serious problem.
Many Americans look to prison reform as a solution to prison radicalization and recidivism rates because our current prisons are heavily exploitative and create a co-dependency on the system for many inmates. Physical violence, sexual assault, penal labor, and isolation from the outside cause resentment in inmates which can lead to radicalization and violence. As an alternative, many suggest an increased focus on rehabilitation, humane treatment, normalization of inmates, and deradicalization programs.
Rehabilitation is best achieved through prisoners having the resources to better themselves, such as access to higher education, books, and developmental opportunities during their sentence. Humane treatment, as outlined in the Nelson Mandela Rules, exists when all basic necessities are supplied, violence is kept to a minimum, prisoner safety and wellbeing is prioritized, and connections to family, community, and society are maintained. Normalization is the attempt to connect prisoners to the outside world as best as possible through meeting people in person (e.x. religious leaders) and having continuous contact with families. The goal is that prisoners are able to live in a way that resembles life outside their cells. Deradicalization programs, of particular international interest, exist not as propaganda for the state, but as an amelioration of extremism. Prisoners should be exposed to diverse viewpoints and understand more nuanced opinions with the hopes that extreme racial, ethnic, ideological, and reactionary ideas can be mitigated.
Additionally, vocational training is one of the healthiest ways to humanize prisoners. By learning a craft, inmates can earn remuneration and learn a skill that they can use to stay employed post-incarceration. It has been shown to increase feelings of self-satisfaction and calm discontent within prison populations.
With these solutions put forward for reformation, the United States calls on other delegate nations to develop reforms focused on deradicalizing their prisoners. We must work together as a committee if we hope to accomplish Sustainable Development Goal 16: peace, justice, and strong institutions. Prisoners are people too, and no nation should make them feel inhumane and not expect bitterness and radicalization to fester and grow as a result.

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GrovesDelegates 02/17/2023 09:21:11 216.11.6.192

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: China
Delegate Name: Alaina Williams

TOPIC A: Radicalization & Extremism In Prisons
Background:
Radicalization in prisons is a prominent issue in China. The goals and tenets of the United Nations are violated by violent extremism. Human rights, security, and sustainable development are all threatened. No nation or area is safe from its effects. Extreme violence is a complex phenomenon with no obvious definition. It is neither novel nor specific to any one nation, culture, or way of life. Member States are free to define “terrorism” and “violent extremism,” but these definitions must be in accordance with international law, including international human rights law. Our collaborative efforts to uphold peace and security, promote sustainable development, safeguard human rights, advance the rule of law, and engage in humanitarian action are undercut by violent extremism. China is ready to work with all countries in today’s conference on combatting this issue in a time-efficient manner.

Chinas Past Policy/Relation:
China has had an abundance of radicalization of Uyghurs in prisons. Before examining the methods and initiatives employed by Chinese authorities to de-radicalize citizens, it is important to understand the context in which the de-radicalization strategy was conceived and refined. The Chinese government has implemented harsh anti-terrorism measures in response to the growth and frequency of domestic terrorism. One of these is deradicalization. This merits special consideration mainly because state-run media in China has reported extensively on the policy, nearly always in a favorable light, whereas independent reporting in Chinese or international scholarly publications has been scarce, if not nonexistent. In 2013 China adopted a 3-prong strategy. CCP units are being established inside Islamic Organizations at the county and prefecture levels with the goal of guiding believers and bringing their religion into alignment with socialism. Government and party leaders should be contacted directly on a frequent basis to tell them of developments and to find quick solutions to issues. Enhancing the examination of religious leaders to recognize their efforts in fostering ethnic harmony and to eliminate those who are unqualified from their positions.

Proposal: The Security Council recognizes that “prisons can serve as potential incubators for radicalization to terrorism and terrorist recruitment” in resolution 2396 (2017), and it calls on States to “take all appropriate actions to prevent inmates who have been convicted of terrorism-related offenses from radicalizing other prisoners to violence, with whom they may come into contact.” The delegation from china believes that taking effective measures to combat the issue that would help all countries is the best option, and that should be our primary goal in the committee.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/16/2023 19:52:57 98.209.226.212

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Ethan Hess

The Russian Federation sadly is well aware of the effects of radicalization in prisons, and especially of their tendency towards violence. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a series of wars called the Suka wars were fought inside the gulag camps among the radicalized prison population over what was considered “traitorous” behavior. This traitorous behavior was partly the taking up of Joesph Stalin’s offer of reduced prison sentences in exchange for fighting in the war against the Nazis. This was considered an act of treachery as the gulags at the time had internal hierarchies controlled by “Thieves in law” a group of criminals high up in organized crime who had strict moral codes. A key part of this was that members must not collaborate with the Tsarist (and later, Soviet) government. This included accepting shortened sentences in exchange for fighting for the government. When those who fought in the war were returned to the prison camps, they were labeled ‘suki’ and put at the lowest rung of the unofficial prison hierarchy. Due to this many ‘suki’ would make deals and collaborate with prison guards in exchange for better in-prison jobs. This collaboration is what the “Thieves in law” considered the second portion of the treachery by the same justification as the first. And it is also what finally triggered the Suka wars across the gulag. During these wars, many prisoners died but sadly guards turned a blind eye as the casualties reduced the prison population.

The Russian Federation is dedicated to making sure a terrible event like this doesn’t happen again, and that if one does, there are better ways to manage both the radicalization and the violence that stems from it. We are aware of the existing protocols for both of these events but are looking forward to improvements and modernization of the aforementioned protocols. During the committee, the Russian Federation will be open to working with fellow delegates on the creation of committees to research how to improve these issues in prisons all across the world. Additionally, the Russian Federation hopes to work on the creation of committees to help countries that wish to implement these recommended changes but aren’t able to, get the resources necessary to make the changes.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/16/2023 17:45:00 166.216.159.86

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Rykken Vivekanand

The Delegation of Denmark wishes to acknowledge that there has been no end to the radicalization of violent extremism in prisons, even in our present. Prison radicalization is the process under which incarcerated individuals develop ideas and set goals. Radicalization itself is of no harm, only a piece of usual human action. However, when that radicalization grows ideas of violent extremism, very quickly it can turn dangerous. Violent Extremism has been and should continue to be a concern to Demark and the United Nations.

In Denmark, the use of “open prisons” has worked very well. For lower-security prisons, Denmark belies that the supervision of inmates can be less, and the amount of hardship is also less. This can limit prisoners’ physiological load. The system tries to prioritize the preservation of prisoners’ dignity over the implementation of stricter drug enforcement policies. Denmark has approximately 73 prisoners for every 100,000 residents, and In Denmark, the average prison sentence is six months, and only about two percent of sentences are over two years. Additionally, more than half of prison sentences are actually three months or less. Closed prisons are typically reserved for psychopaths, terrorists, or those who have previously attempted to escape.

Denmark believes that on a global level, not just reform is needed, but direct, and influential, action. It is imperative that countries care about their prisoners, if not for the prisoners, then for what happens when those prisoners are released. Denmark believes that prisons should understand the prisoners within the system very well, and be to address each person’s needs, and also work to prevent potentially dangerous prisoners from influencing violent extremism. Denmark wants to avoid any misinformation, however, about free speech, and maintain prisoner health. These programs will work only to prevent the spread of terrorism and other formation of dangerous organizations.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/15/2023 23:16:04 73.145.130.48

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Malta
Delegate Name: Abby Grocki

Radicalization and violent extremism have been major issues worldwide for numerous years. Beginning with radicalization, societies have found a result in domestic acts of terrorism by former prisoners. The process of radicalization is an internal conflict within prisons as prisoners serve their sentences. As for violent extremism, societies worldwide are observing steady decreases in the important characteristics that the just systems provide such as peace, human rights, security, and sustainable development. In violent extremism, nations must put effort into finding the triggers of this aggression and where it stems from. Why the United Nations need to come together is to prepare these prison systems for the threats of violent extremism and radicalization, and to support all individuals returning to society from an imprisoned environment.
Malta has witnessed the acts of radicalization and violent extremism within the nation’s own prison. As an effect of these issues, Malta has observed an especially high recidivism rate of about 70% and climbing. The answer to why individuals of a past imprisonment have not corrected their lifestyles lies with what internal conflicts took place within the prison during the sentence. Malta desires to strive for an improved just system for all individuals of incriminating records. To do this, we must view what is being done correctly. For instance, taking a look at Norway’s statistics of imprisonment we see a 63 to 100,000 ratio while Malta is at 154 to 100,000, keeping in mind the European average is 117. Norway’s taxpayers are put at a higher cost due to the luxury prison environment they provide. In Malta, however, there have been complaints of the environment being presented and what support is offered during this time. Prisoners have been known to pursue lawsuits against the governments with segregation, limitations from work, sports, education, and overall being treated in an inhumane manner. Maltas only prison, the Corradino Correctional Facility (CCF), does not provide proper support from the staff on two levels: emotionally and practically. In order for Maltese prisoners to reform, adequate movements towards improving the mental and physical lifestyles of the individuals are required as stated in the Subsidiary legislation 260.03 prison regulations.
Maltas intentions are to provide an increase in the quality of prisons starting within. A great place to begin is simply educating prison staff on the providing of support and care needed for a rehabilitative system. Malta looks favorably upon any financial support/ aid concentrated towards a just prison environment. In doing so, the nation does not wish to interfere with any other nations national sovereignty. Forming allies with nations such as Italy, France, Norway, and Turkey would all be seen as beneficial to Maltas intentions of solving radicalization and violent extremism in prisons.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/15/2023 15:46:41 136.228.39.188

Topic: Radicalization & Violent Extremism in Prisons
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Vivienne Grzelak

In Japan, prison rates have been decreasing over the past twenty years. Japan has been working toward becoming the safest country in the safest country in the world by making sure that when you come out of prison you are not prompted to commit crime again. With this being the case and prison rates being extremely low (only 47/100,000 citizens being put in prison long-term as of 2015) radicalization and violent extremism is not the biggest issue in the country as of right now. Japan takes crime very seriously and has taken major precautions to ensure that no prisoner, or group of prisoners, tries to revolt against our prisons due to radical ideas.

Although we will speak briefly about our prisons, we believe that a strong authoritarian prison system works best. As seen in the first paragraph we have had a steadily declining prison rate over the past decades. With force, we can show people that committing crime is no laughing matter and that it will be dealt with in any matter that is seen fit.

Japan thinks that other countries could rapidly improve crime rates and constant prison reforms across the world if prisons ran more closely to our model. Other countries with more lenient prison systems, such as the United States of America, have shown that more lenient prison policies are not successful, as their prison rate has gone up. More strict and authoritarian rules should be set in place for prisons to see better results in prison rates going down.

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