September 16, 2019
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Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States

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General Assembly: Disarmament & International Security Committee

Topic: Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States

As established in Article I(1) of the UN Charter, the purpose of the United Nations is to “maintain international peace and security.” Member States have consistently identified nuclear weapons as the greatest threat to humanity given the number of such weapons in existence and their destructive potential. The challenge facing the committee therefore is not new.

Contemporary international law pertaining to nuclear weapons comprises several multilateral treaties, principally the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). Other frameworks include the not yet in force Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) as well as several agreements establishing regional Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZ). These overlapping regimes have succeeded in preventing the further use of nuclear weapons in war. However, they have not succeeded in eliminating such weapons or in preventing nations from acquiring or attempting to acquire them. Since the NPT came into effect in 1970, three nations have conclusively demonstrated their acquisition of nuclear weapons. At least one additional nation is widely presumed to possess nuclear weapons and several more have had active development programs at one time or another. Frustrated by a lack of progress towards abolition under the terms of the NPT, a coalition of non-nuclear-armed nations worked together to adopt the TPNW. Some observers and international legal experts caution that the TPNW, which critically has not been signed or ratified by any of the recognized nuclear-armed nations, is fundamentally in conflict with provisions spelled out in the NPT. These issues, coupled with the continued risk that nuclear materials fall into the hands of non-state actors determined to cause harm, clearly demonstrate that more work remains.

The committee must determine how to advance nuclear disarmament despite significant disagreement among some Member States concerning the feasibility and desirability of this goal. Delegates must also reckon with the fact that possessing nuclear weapons is considered by some a necessary deterrent to threats of invasion. The return of strategic competition among major powers and the rising threat of direct confrontation between nuclear-armed nations lends renewed urgency to this task.

What steps are needed to induce current nuclear-armed nations to eliminate such weapons from their arsenals? Can states that see the acquisition of nuclear weapons as critical to their survival be convinced otherwise? Should more emphasis be placed on securing regional agreements covering those places where the potential for nuclear escalation is greater? What actions might meaningfully shift the incentives for acquiring and deploying nuclear weapons?

Useful Links:

Resources from the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs:
https://www.un.org/disarmament/wmd/nuclear/

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Submitted Position Papers

KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/23/2022 22:43:48 24.176.13.145

Topic:
Country: Poland
Delegate Name: Nadine Arabi

As nuclear weapons continue to develop and get tested, many member states of the UN, wanting to maintain peace and security, claim that these weapons are the most substantial threat to this world and humanity itself due to their potentially destructive nature. Poland believes that nuclear weapons should not be used for offensive measures, but more as a defensive backbone providing countries with some social stature.

Due to Poland’s location near Russia, Poland believes it would be best to keep Nuclear weapons armed and ready for self-defense purposes, and not in any offensive or harmful ways. Poland supports not only the retention but also the potential use of said nuclear weapons and has consistently voted against an annual UN General Assembly resolution that would adopt the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) as well as not attending the negotiations and debates for it.

Having a nuclear war would be the absolute demise of the planet therefore in no way should anyone use nuclear weapons for anything other than for self-defense purposes, however for this to truly happen Poland supports the ownership of the weapons because the TPNW would cause vulnerability and aggression to powers and could even shatter alliances.

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FHEDelegates 11/23/2022 22:12:22 107.5.3.3

Country: Guatemala
Delegate Name: Harpreet Kaur

A nuclear explosion is much more powerful than that of conventional explosions. When a nuclear weapon explodes it produces ionizing radiation, which kills or sickens those exposed, contaminates our environment, and has long-term health consequences, including cancer and genetic damage. They can destroy a whole city, potentially killing millions, and jeopardizing the natural environment, as well as the lives of future generations through their long-term catastrophic effects. Guatemala’s State Agenda is embodied in the peace agreements concluded in 1996. This applies equally to Guatemala’s foreign policy, whose spirit is saturated with a profound position for peace and the hunt for solutions within international law. Since Guatemala signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in September 1999, Guatemala has been trying to contribute to the fullest extent possible to its early entry into force. Guatemala realizes the vulnerability of the system of disarmament and the maintenance of peace. And, as Guatemala pointed out during the preparatory conference held in October of that year in Vienna, Guatemala maintains our commitment to the creation of a better world, one that is free of nuclear weapons.

Guatemala has participated in the regional seminar that took place in Lima, Peru, and has cooperated with the International Monitoring System for the installation of an auxiliary seismic station in our territory. Guatemala has assisted in the missions the secretariat has sent to our country. Several Guatemalan technicians have received training from the Treaty Organization Secretariat. Guatemala is convinced that the entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty will be a huge advance in the history of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and is making every effort to contribute to the accomplishment of this objective. Despite the arduous attempts that are being made to that end, the UN has begun a new millennium without having attained the principal objectives sought, which are not only to hold back the proliferation of nuclear weapons but also to achieve their complete destruction.

Guatemala’s delegation urges all the parties concerned to intensify their efforts and, with firm political will, move nuclear disarmament out of its present status and thereby fulfill the commitment by certain States to disarm and by others to renounce the possession of nuclear weapons. The present time is one of great international turbulence when we see that the support of some governments enables certain groups to use very powerful nuclear and conventional weapons.

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FHEDelegates 11/23/2022 22:08:02 107.5.3.3

Country: Guatemala
Delegate Name: Harpreet Kaur

The Republic of Guatemala
Harpreet Kaur

Concerned about the increasing regional and global security challenges caused by the ongoing proliferation of ballistic missiles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction, Guatemala emphasizes the significance of regional and international efforts to prevent and curb the proliferation of ballistic missile systems as a contribution to international peace and security. Guatemala remains greatly perturbed by the threat of terrorism and the risk that terrorists may acquire, develop, traffic, or use nuclear or other radioactive materials. While recognizing that nuclear security remains the responsibility of States, international cooperation contributes to strengthening nuclear security. In the framework of its strategy against the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Guatemala is actively supporting UN Security Council Resolutions as well as other international activities, such as the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, the Proliferation Security Initiative, and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.

Guatemala recognizes the importance of appropriate adequate export controls, following paragraph 2 of Article III of the NPT(which requires its parties to apply safeguards on exports of nuclear material and specialized nuclear equipment to non-nuclear weapon states). In this context, we fully support the activities of the international export control regimes, namely the Zangger Committee, the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Australia Group, the Wassenaar Arrangement and Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), and the full participation of all 28 EU Member States therein. Guatemala is seriously concerned by the proliferation of missile technology. The development, testing, or use of ballistic missiles is clearly a destabilizing factor in various world regions. In this regard, Guatemala strongly supports the MTCR. Moreover, as the only multilateral transparency and confidence-building instrument against ballistic missile proliferation, Guatemala continues to pursue the objectives of, and support financially, the Hague Code of Conduct (HCoC) in three aspects: universality, implementation, and enhanced and improved functioning.

Guatemala would like to stress the importance of the mentioned non-proliferation aspects for a successful outcome and will fully support the Chairs of the NPT Preparatory Committee in order to ensure a successful review cycle.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/23/2022 21:35:50 69.234.61.36

Country: China
Delegate Name: Anna Crum

There is no denying the dangers of nuclear weaponry. Nuclear weapons have only been used two times in wartime in 1945 with the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but the effects of these two attacks were devastating. Currently, nine countries have nuclear capabilities. These countries are the United States, Russia, France, China, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, India, Israel, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Many other countries are hosting nuclear weapons. As tensions rise across the globe between groups like NATO and CST as well as between countries the mission of the UN must not waiver. Peace has always been the goal and China hopes to further progress toward this goal. China supports non-proliferation, and China has actively stood for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons since first possessing nuclear capabilities. China keeps the minimum amount of nuclear weapons required for national security. China sees the importance of nuclear weapons as a deterrent to ensure national security and the safety of its people. A further spread of nuclear arms and nuclear war should be avoided.
China signed the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) on July 1, 1968. This treaty was ratified on January 27, 1970. China has pledged to a No First Use (NFU) policy on nuclear weapons which has been established since China first tested a nuclear weapon in 1964. China has also pledged to not use or threaten the use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states and nuclear-weapon-free zones. Both of these pledges are unconditional. The NPT has has little effect on China. China continues to support the NPT as China keeps national security as a priority. With 9 states already having nuclear weaponry and many others housing nuclear weapons. New nuclear states emerging is a problem. As the UN moves to solutions to further limit nuclear weapons, the emergence of new nuclear states should been seen as a threat to the goals the UN is moving towards. While the NPT is something China supports and adheres to, the TPNW may have a larger unwanted affect on China.
In the words of the Chinese premier, Li Song, “First, it is our top priority to maintain global strategic stability… Second, we must earnestly abide by and strengthen international arms control treaties and mechanisms”. China urges the two countries that posses the largest nuclear arsenals to fulfil their responsibilities toward nuclear disarmament. China encourages other nations who have not yet done so to adopt a NFU policy and posses the minimum amount of nuclear weapons needed to ensure their national security. China hope to work with many African nations and hope to reach out to all nations in solving this issue. China finds that Russia stance on disarmament would not necessarily be in the best interest for all while some other countries could be reminded of the possible advantages for all the nuclear weapons can provide.

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Matt Vallus 11/23/2022 20:55:26 68.61.248.177

Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Daniel Hernanz

One of the main reasons the United Nations was founded was for “maintaining international peace and security.” This was after the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki that terrorized the world, and ones which aftermath is still felt today. Just like all things in life, nuclear technology can be used for good or bad, and the existence of nuclear weapons certainly does not allow for peace to prevail. However, that does not mean that nuclear technology can’t be used for good.

The delegation of Brazil agrees with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and urges countries with nuclear weapons to only use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes because as long as nuclear weapons exist, a threat to humanity is present.

For this reason, Brazil signed a bilateral agreement with Argentina promising to only use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes in 1991, and this is also why the delegation feels it is unnecessary to implement the IAEA’s Additional Protocol on Brazil. Brazil was falsely accused of acquiring its technology for A.Q. Khan’s black market nuclear network, and because of this had to reveal its 25% more powerful centrifuges that had been developed in Brazil. The country has always had the great responsibility of keeping the Amazonian rainforest safe. This rainforest is the largest natural resource known to humanity, and Brazil could greatly benefit from further exploiting it. If Brazil has the great responsibility to keep it pristine, then it should be allowed to reach its goal of nuclear fuel independence and not reveal its completely Brazilian advanced technologies.

Nuclear technology is capable of extreme consequences, and it’s up to countries to decide whether the aftermath will be positive or negative. This is why the delegation of Brazil strongly urges countries to use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes only. When a weapon capable of destroying mankind exists, it should be used to help progress it.

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GRCityDelegates 11/23/2022 10:04:14 73.18.94.21

Country: Italy
Delegate Name: Krishna Mano

United Nations Disarmament & International Security Committee
Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States
Italy
Krishna Mano
City High Middle School

The risk of an international nuclear conflict remains to be a pressing, if not pivotal, issue in the status quo. As defined by the United Nations, Nuclear Disarmament “is the best protection against” the dangerous effects of nuclear weapons on the environment and society. It is imperative for the committee to address increasing nuclear tensions and, more importantly, ask how to decrease these hostilities and enmities that lead to devastating nuclear wars with irreversible impacts. While a global conflict involving nuclear weapons may seem unlikely, when we take the current conflicts around the world into consideration, these risks are only growing with Matthew Bunn, an advisor to former President Clinton, estimating in regards of the Ukraine-Russia conflict, in a 2022 NPR interview, that there’s a “10 to 20 percent likelihood that Russia might use a nuke.” Bunn continues to say that “while that’s a pretty low probability for most things in life, when it comes to nuclear weapons, it is intolerably high.” Looking at the consequences of a nuclear conflict between the U.S. and Russia, which together hold more than 90% of the world’s official nuclear stockpile, the LA Times estimated in 2022 that “5 billion people worldwide would die.” Italy, especially, deeply cares to prevent conflicts like the one described above. As a European nation, we have joined and led many alliances like the UN, NATO, and the EU, to ensure that our neighboring countries have reliable protection against nuclear weapons.

Over the years, Italy has taken many steps to support nuclear disarmament and, therefore, set a good example for emerging nuclear states to emphasize the need for peace during these hostile times. On a national level, we do not possess nor produce any nuclear weapons. We have been transparent about hosting 40 B61 nuclear bombs for the US on our air bases, one of our duties as a key member of NATO. When looking at our nuclear disarmament accomplishments from an international perspective, we began with ratifying the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, aiming “to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament,” in 1969 and strongly affirming our support for other treaties with similar goals since then. A recent example is the Arms Trade Treaty, a treaty that establishes global standards for the international trade in conventional weapons by encouraging members to trade conventional arms transparently and shutting down illicit markets. Italy was the first EU member to sign it in September in 2013, motioning for neighboring states to join us in the global journey to peace. We also greatly helped when drafting the treaty, choosing the most inclusive words and sections to make it a successful step on this journey. However, Italy has joined the U.S. to refrain from treaties that we deem to be too irrational and extreme for the hostile status quo, like the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW).

When we are all divided by conflicts occurring throughout the world from East Europe to the Middle East, it is essential for us to not just acknowledge, but also take prompt action against the growing threats of nuclear weapon use. Italy strongly urges the United Nations to further support limiting the use of nuclear weapons whenever possible, but asks that all delegates consider the extremities of banning nuclear weapons all together, especially when nuclear-possessing countries with hostile intent have refused to join such treaties. When seeking global peace, the crucial step is to modify existing treaties and craft new ones to keep up with the ever-growing field of nuclear weapons.

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FHEDelegates 11/23/2022 20:19:16 99.180.72.115

Country: Finland
Delegate Name: Tanner Beavon

DISEC
Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States
The Republic of Finland
Tanner Beavon
Forest Hills Eastern

Nuclear proliferation is a plague that must be addressed. Finland is greatly concerned with the safety and security of nuclear weapons in order to ensure peaceful applications and strengthen non-proliferation efforts.

Although 84% of Finns support the TPNW, the possibility of joining NATO is something that The Republic of Finland values, which could be put in jeopardy if it is signed. As a country that shares a border with Russia that spans over 1000 km long, we hold a particularly sensitive position when it comes to defensive actions, however, we have no intention of keeping any permanent military bases or nuclear weapons in our territory. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is a major contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. Finland supports diplomatic efforts to support the safeguards to ensure peaceful intentions of nuclear programs. We also greatly emphasize the risk of weapons of mass destruction falling into the hand of terrorists. We also urge North Korea to dismantle its nuclear weapons program completely as a starting point toward security and prosperity. Although Finland does not possess nuclear warheads, We emphasize the importance and essential responsibility of the IAEA in nuclear security.

Ultimately Finland’s goal is to achieve full gains of peaceful nuclear applications, implementation of the IAEA monitoring activities, and to encourage all nations to adhere to the guidelines of the Zangger Committee, the Nuclear Suppliers Group, and the Missile Technology Control Regime.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/23/2022 16:28:51 97.83.25.146

Country: Canada
Delegate Name: Amenech Kostrzewa

Nuclear weapons and their disarmament has been an ongoing debate since they were invented. Nuclear weapons are argued to be weapons of mass destruction and have been counter-argued as a means of protection. The primary debate is on whether or not each country’s personal protection is more important than the safety of the world as a whole. Canada’s own opinion leans more toward the counter-argument because we believe that they are an unnecessary danger to the human race. We advocate for the complete disarmament of nuclear weapons and inevitably eliminate nuclear weapons in their entirety.
We are proponents of non-proliferation and a step-by-step approach to nuclear discernment. We signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to accomplish this goal. This policy includes having all states join the NPT to put the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) into order and negotiating a Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT). We created a 10-year, $20 billion initiative targeted toward Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union, called the Global Partnership. At the 2002 Summit in Kananaskis, Canada, we Leaders launched the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction and created a mandate to prevent terrorists and people in possession of nuclear weapons to stop them from acquiring weapons.
We suggest slowly reducing the production and use of nuclear weapons to gradually eliminate them. We have worked closely with NATO, G7 Non-Proliferation Directors Group, the Non-Proliferation, and Disarmament Initiative, and the Stockholm Initiative for Nuclear Disarmament to achieve this mission. We are trying to keep peace and safety throughout the world and we think that getting rid of the biggest threat to humanity is the first step.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/23/2022 17:04:31 68.40.156.16

Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Akshat Jain

Country: Japan
Committee: Disarmament & International Security Committee
Topic: Proliferation of Ballistic Missiles
Delegate: Akshat Jain
School: Forest Hills Northern High School
While ballistic missiles are not as dangerous as nuclear weapons, they still pose a major threat to countries as they carry nuclear warheads. They are only going to become more destructive as technological advances and further research continue. The main reason why these missiles are so dangerous is mainly because of the lack of regulations. Overcoming the challenge posed by these missiles is a daunting task.

Japan has different Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems in place, including the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF), and Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) as mechanisms to defend against ballistic missile attacks. After the recent North Korean missile launch over Japan, the need to increase Japan’s missile defense has become apparent. Enhancing these defenses makes tactical, political, and economical sense as the prevention of casualties is politically paramount. Japan supports the reduction of ballistic missiles.

Japan believes that over time, the proliferation of ballistic missiles will slow and countries will agree to reduce the number of ballistic missiles in possession. Japan wants to see more regulations toward the usage of these missiles, the number of missiles countries can possess, and what circumstances they can be used for. Japan believes that with these regulations in place, the threat of ballistic missiles will lessen.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/23/2022 16:04:30 68.40.156.16

Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Akshat Jain

Country: Japan
Committee: Disarmament & International Security Committee
Topic: Proliferation of Ballistic Missiles
Delegate: Akshat Jain
School: Forest Hills Northern High School
While ballistic missiles are not as dangerous as nuclear weapons, they still pose a major threat to countries as they carry nuclear warheads. They are only going to become more destructive as technological advances and further research continue. The main reason why these missiles are so dangerous is mainly because of the lack of regulations. Overcoming the challenge posed by these missiles is a daunting task.

Japan has different Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems in place, including the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF), and Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) as mechanisms to defend against ballistic missile attacks. After the recent North Korean missile launch over Japan, the need to increase Japan’s missile defense has become apparent. Enhancing these defenses makes tactical, political, and economical sense as the prevention of casualties is politically paramount. Japan supports the reduction of ballistic missiles.

Japan believes that over time, the proliferation of ballistic missiles will slow and countries will agree to reduce the number of ballistic missiles in possession. Japan wants to see more regulations toward the usage of these missiles, the number of missiles countries can possess, and what circumstances they can be used for. Japan believes that with these regulations in place, the threat of ballistic missiles will lessen.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/23/2022 16:04:24 68.40.156.16

Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Akshat Jain

Country: Japan
Committee: Disarmament & International Security Committee
Topic: Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States
Delegate: Akshat Jain
School: Forest Hills Northern High School

There is great difficulty with achieving total eradication of nuclear weapons because they are tied up with the beliefs and values of various countries. While some countries may believe eradicating nuclear weapons would make the world a safer place, other countries will argue that they are necessary to retain superiority over others. At our current state, attaining a nuclear-free world is near impossible. However, we are headed on the right path, as 191 countries have signed the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT) whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology and to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The NPT has enabled dramatic reductions in nuclear stockpiles and will serve as a base for future nuclear disarmament.

As the only country to have suffered atomic bombings, Japan has been leading the international discussion on disarmament and has been promoting change by calling on all nuclear weapon states to take measures toward nuclear disarmament while increasing transparency in military armaments and supports the peaceful uses of nuclear energy such as its ability to trace pollution and evaluate coastal dead zones. Japan has also put forth the “Hiroshima Action Plan,” a 5 pillar/step plan aimed at setting forth the beginnings of a nuclear-weapon free world. Japan strongly supports nuclear disarmament and commends any actions taken to eradicate/reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but recognizes that the path towards achieving this will be even more difficult following Russia’s threat to use nuclear weapons in its war in Ukraine.

Japan is committed to achieving international disarmament and believes that the best way to achieve this is through a combination of following the structure of a treaty such as the NPT and large-scale cooperation that would compel all nuclear and nuclear-free countries to participate without compromise. Japan believes that after seeing the devastation these nuclear weapons brought on the people, the environment, and even the world, a nuclear-free world is far more desirable.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2022 15:25:57 174.210.225.133

Country: Nigeria
Delegate Name: Cale Pederson

Delegate: Cale Pederson
Country: Nigeria
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging States
As countries grow and develop, so do their arms and the lethality that these countries have amongst them. Nuclear weapons are considered to be the most powerful and dangerous weapons in the entirety of the world. The UN has been incorporating various different treaties and prohibitions to stop the growing rise of nuclear arms in not only the UN but the entirety of the world. Although the UN has arranged different treaties and prohibitions, such as the Treaty on the prohibition of nuclear weapons (TPNW) which as a result set a guideline and a way that nuclear weapons and forces should be pursued and dealt with. Even with these borders and guidelines the nuclear arms in the world are continually increasing and will keep growing if not dealt with.
Among these nuclear states there is the state of Nigeria which is considered as a Nuclear-Weapon-Free-State that they had signed into place on January 22 2021. Nigeria as well signed the TPNW and was one of the original 50 to sign and put these guidelines into place. Although they have signed into the TPNW they do not host or help with any nuclear weapons. Nigeria doesn’t have the resources to host or have nuclear weapons. Along with this they have kept true to the Non- Proliferation Treaty in which they have discussed not using or bringing in nuclear weapons to Nigeria. When thinking and talking about Nigeria gaining nuclear arms and becoming more involved would not be sustainable nor smart to do so with Nigeria as they don’t have the power or structure and we will maintain to be a nuclear free state. When thinking of a way to abolish these nuclear arms Nigeria thinks that the countries that use such nuclear threats should be punished and not be able to use this threat and endanger the entire world.
Along with the information put forth Nigeria would like to stay away from nuclear arms but be willing to help with other countries to either become nuclear free states or be able to help pass different resolutions and give our ideas to help the cause of nuclear arms within these countries. Nigeria hopes that it can help stop the threat of nuclear arms and help the countries trying to get involved with these nuclear forces to not go that route. Nigeria will also keep within the guidelines and follow the guidelines that have been put into place by these different treaties created.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/23/2022 14:25:39 23.28.185.240

Country: Colombia
Delegate Name: Marie Schafer

Nuclear Warheads have been causing mass controversy for years. Even though it’s assumed that a mere five countries have possession of these weapons, their size of storage is astronomical. Several attempts have been made throughout the years, starting just after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to disarm nuclear warheads, and prevemt their creation as a result of their devastating effects. One mere bomb, of the thousands present today can wipe out an entire city, not only incinerating everything in its path, but mutilating the environment, and the generations of citizens for years to come. Such attempts at nuclear disarmament include the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). The first being an agreement between 191 countries, serving to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, while promoting cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. This is seen as the superior treaty as it has been signed by the 5 nations wielding nuclear weapons. The TPNW however is not seen quite as reliable considering none of the 5 nations have signed. This treaty serves to adapt a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination.
Colombia, like many of the nation states, has a Constitution that prohibits the manufacture, importation, and use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological and chemical), or importing nuclear or toxic waste into the national territory (Article 81 of the Constitution). They have signed both the NPT as well as the TPNW, however they are still in the process of ratifying the TPNW. Colombia has also joined with many Latin American countries to create a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (or the Treaty of Tlatelolco) which prohibits Latin American parties from acquiring or possessing nuclear weapons and storing and deploying weapons from other states on their territory. Colombia does not want to take the chance of putting the country’s safety at risk, and therefore is proud to be a part of such treaties, refusing to store other countries’ weapons.
Going forward, Colombia would like to continue connections with fellow Latin American countries who are in a similar position to them. While heavily encouraging the states that have nuclear weapons to slowly disarm them, Colombia also understands that recommendations can only go so far, and due to national sovereignty, they cannot force a country to abide by the goals of the committee as a whole. Considering this, the UN could consider creating a resolution in which all of the countries pledge that they will not be the first country to use a nuclear weapon against another country. As a result of this, if nobody is initiating a war, then part of the problem is solved. Knowing that 191 countries have already signed an agreement to prevent the spread of nuclear technology reassures the Colombian delegation that the majority of the group is sharing similar thoughts.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/23/2022 12:09:06 69.12.36.55

Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Camille Gerville-Reache

The complexity surrounding nuclear weapon possession has stalled disarmament agreements, especially when considering the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). While a nuclear-free world is ideal, in the current day, ideal is all that it remains to be. The practical implications are farther reaching due to violence in Eastern Europe and tensions elsewhere. Nuclear weapons are and have ended up in the wrong hands, and possession from opposing countries, such as the United Kingdom, is the only deterrent from their use. Nevertheless, nuclear arms and development should be monitored carefully, and methods such as transparency, risk reductions, and safeguards should all be considered in the nuclear debate. A nuclear-free society is the larger goal, and the steps to bring about that future are necessary but tedious.

The United Kingdom is one of five nuclear weapons states that signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons, should not be spread in the long-run. The UK applauds the decrease in nuclear armaments from 60,000 to 13,400 since the Cold War. However, the UK has not ratified the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) due to its contradictions with NPT and practical implications with current global conflicts. In recent years, the UK has increased its arms by 40% as a cost-efficient method to offset security risks posed by emerging nuclear states and nuclear terrorism. The country’s position as a deterrent protects many vulnerable countries and populations. While UK citizens are largely in favor of the TPNW and decreasing nuclear arms, and the population’s position will be taken into account, the UK will maintain its defensive position until certain threats fade.

Despite recent developments, the UK is still committed to global nuclear arms reduction for a peaceful future. The only path to that future is through multilateral disarmament, negotiated through the NPT’s framework. Nuclear testing should be decreased in accordance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, prevention of internal unauthorized use and development of nuclear weapons should be maintained, and the promotion of diplomacy should remain to prevent military altercations. When working closely with NATO allies and fellow committee members, the UK hopes transparency and safeguards will be of the utmost importance during current and future talks.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/23/2022 13:18:39 67.39.250.5

Country: Jordan
Delegate Name: Camden DeByle

Country: Jordan
Delegate name: Camden DeByle

With nuclear weapons being a hot topic in the world these days more and more countries are worried about the threats of nuclear weapons in certain countries and states. Jordan is not one of the countries with a nuclear weapon but has not wished to gain controll of a nuclear weapon in the past couple of years. Jordan was denied by the United States for nuclear power and stopped seeking to. The country of Jordan has been in the works of studying and constructing small nuclear power plants.

The country of Jordan has not signed the (TPNW) but has been in talks about wanting to sign and ratify the treaty which would mean no nuclear weapons for the middle east which would include Jordan. Jordan wants countries that don’t have a nuclear weapon to never have a nuclear weapon and leave it to the five known countries that do have one.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/23/2022 12:11:11 68.36.121.248

Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Noah Johnson

With tensions growing around the world, more and more countries are looking to nuclear weapons to save them. Nuclear weapons are a dangerous tool to use in these standoffs between countries increasing tension until it explodes.
On the Issue of Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States, Denmark supports the holding and use of nuclear weapons on our behalf, Denmarks trusts the allies in NATO to protect it at the current moment. As nuclear weapons grow around the world Denmark urges they are only used for self-defense and deterrence and not in an offensive attack that would start a war. In the future with treaties and agreements, we hope that Nuclear weapons can be fully destroyed and we can live in a nuclear-weapon-free world. The Issue of Nuclear states is a very threatening one with more countries being armed with nuclear weapons it increases tensions between countries and raises concerns about war.
Denmark is in support of countries’ possession of nuclear weapons at this point because they are a part of NATO but in the future hope to end all uses and possession of nuclear weapons and have a nuclear-weapon-free world.

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ForestHillsNorthernDelegates 11/23/2022 12:05:36 68.36.121.120

Country: Romania
Delegate Name: Braydon Hoeksema

Disarmament and International Security Committee
Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States
Romania
Braydon Hoeksema
Forest Hills Northern High School

In recent years, newly emerging nuclear states have been a heated topic amongst the UN, with the resurgence of threats concerning nuclear weapons, following the ongoing conflicts within Europe and Asia, these weapons are of serious implication for many nations. As of now, there are five nuclear-weapon states (NWS), which are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and The United States of America. There are a total of nine countries with access to nuclear weapons. Many actions proposed by the UN have been in effect to limit the access or ban access to nuclear weapons such as the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), which states nuclear weapons development, testing, production, possession, stockpiling, use, and the threat of use, as well as the stationing or deployment of another country’s nuclear weapons on a state party’s national territory, is prohibited under international law.

The country of Romania has consistently voted against the TPNW and supports the potential use of nuclear weapons for protection and security purposes. As of now, there are approximately 13,080 nuclear warheads, which proposes possible threats and displays the importance of maintaining protection from these forces. Advancement towards nuclear disarmament is a difficult task with the large amount of current nuclear weapons existing. While Romania has the ability to produce these nuclear weapons and has the capability of emerging as a nuclear state, Romania is against the use of nuclear weapons strictly for power, war, and threats. The TPNW suggests a complete prohibition of nuclear weapons, Romania is not completely opposed to TPNW but rather refrains from joining in the vote and maintaining Romania’s goal of challenging the disarmament and the emergence of nuclear states and to find ways to limit, but not diminish the use of international security. Romania is open to ideas suggesting ways to combat possible threats or wars that have resulted from nuclear development.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/23/2022 11:32:15 67.149.112.47

Country: Kenya
Delegate Name: Julia Malone

Kenya is an African nation with a population of 66 million people. The national motto of “Harambe,” is truly a representative phrase for this resilient nation. Going through three government transitions in just as many decades, ranging from a colony of the United Kingdom to a fully-functioning multi-party democracy, Kenya has faced serious turnovers in recent history. Since its transition to multi-party democracy, every election it has had has been met by allegations of fraud, but the election results have eventually been verified. Recently, the previous president and his opponent launched a program called the Building Bridges Initiative, focusing on bringing the divided country together.
Kenya is a nuclear-weapon-free state. They avidly support the banishment of nuclear weapons from the global arena. As early as 2015, representatives from Kenya endorsed a “humanitarian pledge” to cooperate “in efforts to stigmatize, prohibit, and eliminate nuclear weapons.” In 2016, Kenya co-sponsored the UN General Assembly resolution that established the formal mandate for states to commence negotiations on “a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination.” Kenya has welcomed the adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons and officials have made several remarks about how important the treaty is. Kenya participated in the negotiation of the TPNW in 2017 and was among 122 nations that voted in favor of its adoption. However, Kenya has not officially ratified or signed the treaty.
Kenya would look favorably upon drafting a new resolution on nuclear disarmament, especially with ongoing wars involving nuclear powerhouses such as the Russo-Ukrainian Conflict and the Afghanistan Situation. Kenya hopes to continue working towards a peaceful, nuclear-weapon-free world.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/23/2022 00:55:33 99.25.152.223

Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Kyan Martini-Zeller

Delegate Name: Kyan Martini-Zeller
Country: Democratic People’s Republic Of Korea

Emerging nuclear states have been a theme of the 20th century. These weapons have become major influences on the global stage. Nuclear weapons once being monopolized by the United States have since been obtained by 9 other nations with many more on the way.
Pertaining to the issue of nuclear disarmament and emerging nuclear states. The Democratic People’s Republic Of Korea stands strongly in favor of the development of such instruments. These weapons are necessary to secure our nation from foreign aggression and imperialism. Without such weapons our country would fall prey to senseless violence and war perpetrated by western forces. The right to develop and secure these weapons should not be infringed.
Consequently the DPRK has taken various steps to refine and secure these weapons. The DPRK created its nuclear program in the 1980s with the first nuclear test being carried out on the ninth of October 2006. And the first thermonuclear conducted on the third of September 2017. Furthermore the DPRK succeeded from the Treaty on nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. This was to ensure that the weapons to protect our homeland were not infringed upon. These actions have in turn provided a safer and more secure environment for our people to prosper without worry of western invasion. The United Nations proposal on the prohibition on nuclear weapons was a dangerous attempt to remove weapons from our hands. The DPRK thus forward advocates for no restrictions on nuclear or thermonuclear weapons of war. We suggest the U.N takes careful action when drafting legislation so as to not provoke our nuclear might. I yield my time to the chair.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2022 22:50:17 50.107.112.235

Country: Turkey
Delegate Name: Frinz Fisher

Delegate: Frinz Fisher
Country: Turkiye
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States

The UN announced nuclear arms as the most dangerous and destructive weapons on Earth. While only accompanied by warfare two times –in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki– they decimated the lives of nearly 215,000 citizens while also having a catastrophic impact on the environment, leaving a nearly irreversible effect on the future. Nuclear disarmament is the end goal that would leave our world in a position for any less destructive actions toward each of the nations involved. Any destruction that could be caused by nuclear arms would not be possible in the future if they were taken away from those that cannot be trusted. As of now, 9 countries possess nuclear weapons, including the United States, the Russian Federation, France, China, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea which together have an estimated total of nearly 13,000 nuclear arms. The United States also appears to be accompanied by Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and lastly Turkiye to house their own nuclear arms. The United States continues to have complete operational control of its operations, the precautioning of these locations was chosen to strengthen the United States’ nuclear war planning in any case of an urgent emergency that jeopardizes the lives of all the citizens of the world.
Turkiye has been an otherwise safer “neighbor” rather than its neighbors that have consistently sought destruction and unrealistic opportunities in the past. An example of one is the country of Germany which has the ability to produce/provide nuclear weapons but currently withholds. Germany is currently in partnership with those included in NATO which provides secure and justifiable protection against those who attempt any harm against their allies. Turkiye is in allyship with America as Turkiye continues to not only house the United States 50 nuclear arms but also provide security. Turkiye signed under the 1968 nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty which doesn’t allow Turkiye to develop or acquire any nuclear weapons. Turkiye has as well been signed under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which bans all nuclear test explosions. Turkiye otherwise endorses the acquirement and possession of nuclear arms.
Turkiye disagrees consistently with the disarmament of nuclear weapons and provides support to emerging nuclear states. Nuclear weapons provide border support and unification between nations with the precaution of improved treaties to declare that the use of such arms cannot be used in an unjustifiable way. Turkiye would be grateful to continue allyship with the United States with involvement with those signed with NATO to form an international allyship with the powerful nations with great military, navy, and overall control.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2022 15:24:58 136.228.39.188

Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Lanell Gardiner

The ongoing struggle concerning nuclear disarmament has been and continues to be an international issue that is difficult to solve with open-ended treaties and little to no enforcement. Since the invention in the mid 1900s, nuclear weapons have become the greatest threat to humankind, and even with disarmament movements and efforts to deactivate existing nukes, the global threat of nuclear war is ever present. Treaties concerning disarmament have united countries in the past, but cooperation and peace talks only do so much to stop the issue of emerging nuclear states and prevent nuclear testing. Without a global agreement on the usage, storage, and testing of nuclear weapons, the threat of mass destruction only grows.

As a member country of NATO, Germany is among a small group of European countries that stores nuclear weapons for it’s fellow nations. For this reason, Germany has neither ratified or signed The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW); however, Germany signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and continues to support international cooperation and efforts against nuclear testing. There is growing support across German activist groups and political parties to move forward with nuclear disarmament treaties and actions, such as the removal of other countries’ weapons from German soil. Germany will take the opinions of its people into consideration in the upcoming conference, however the wishes of the government will be this delegate’s main concern. Taking into account the current state of affairs in Europe, Germany will likely not accede to the TPNW (or any treaty similar to it) because of the open aggression shown by Russia, as this would collide with their membership in NATO.

Germany supports a nuclear-free future, one where no country feels threatened by the potential for nuclear war or feels the need to hoard weapons of mass destruction. A main concern should be on preventing the creation of more weapons and the emergence of new, hostile countries wanting access to nuclear-weapons. Germany hopes to improve dialogue and cooperate in addressing the humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons – in the field of victim assistance or the remediation of areas contaminated by nuclear testing. Working closely with fellow NATO member states and other countries interested in the prevention of nuclear testing is Germany’s goal going into this conference.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2022 08:13:01 136.228.39.189

Country: Philippines
Delegate Name: Colin Zaremski

In the world right now is a world that is living in fear from the idea of nuclear annihilation from multiple nuclear armed countries. There are many countries that own nuclear weapons such as: China, The US, Russia, The UK, France, India, North Korea, Pakistan, and Israel. There are also many countries hosting nuclear weapons such as: Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy, Turkiye, and Germany. Poland is also seeking to host US nuclear weapons on its soil. With rising tensions in the world and many nuclear armed states being hostile towards one another, creating fear of possible nuclear destruction. The two nuclear armed alliances of Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) have had a worsening relationship which may cause launching of nuclear weapons at each other.
The Philippines has always been interested in harnessing the power of nuclear energy to power the cities of our country. The Philippines has also put a section into the constitution that would prohibit the placement of nuclear weapons on Filipino soil. The Philippines has also signed the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. The Philippines believes that we should use nuclear power for good and use it to make a prosperous nation and world and not use them to scare, intimidate, and destroy countries.
The Philippines is for the use of nuclear energy to make successful cities and nations and not use it for the destruction of our world. There is no good reason to ever use a nuclear weapon or use nuclear weapons to intimidate other countries. It is important to disarm these terrible weapons and try to use nuclear energy to make clean cities for developing countries.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2022 08:09:22 136.228.39.189

Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Allison Bennett

Delegate: Allison Bennett
Country: Russian Federation
Committee: DISEC
Topic: Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States

The United Nations says that nuclear weapons are the most dangerous weapons on earth. It’s said that the danger of these weapons just comes from their very existence in the world, but nuclear weapons have only been used twice in warfare. Nuclear disarmament is the ultimate goal of a world without nuclear weapons. Disarmament is said to be the best protection against nuclear weapons. There are nine countries who possess nuclear weapons, those being the United States, United Kingdom, the Russian Federation, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Between these nine states there is an estimated total of 13,000 nuclear weapons, which is lower than the count during the Cold War at 60,000. There are also five nations hosting the United State’s nuclear weapons, these countries being Turkiye, Italy, Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. Twenty-six other countries, plus the five host nations, who also endorse the possession and use of nuclear weapons. Allowing the potential use of these nuclear weapons on their behalf as part of defense alliances. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) also endorse the possession of nuclear weapons.
The Russian Federation has consistently voted against an annual United Nations General Assembly resolution since 2018 that welcomes the adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). The resolution calls upon all states to sign, accede and ratify the TPNW at the earliest possible date. The Russian Federation, along with other nuclear-armed states, has said that it does not accept any claim that the TPNW contributes to the development of customary international law. The Russian Federation called upon all states that are considering supporting the treaty to reflect seriously on its implications for international peace and security. The Russian minister for foreign affairs said in 2019 that the goal of eliminating nuclear weapons cannot be achieved. The Russian Federation claims the methods of disarmament in the TPNW are unilateral and arrogant. In June 2022, Russia, along with other nuclear-armed states, did not attend the first meeting of state parties to the TPNW, but did issue a statement criticizing the outcome of the meeting. The Russian Federation does not intend to join this agreement and believes that the treaty does not establish any universal standards.
The Russian Federation is firmly against the push towards nuclear disarmament, believing that nuclear weapons could be used as a reinforcement of national borders as well as other uses. Nuclear weapons should also be allowed in the cases of private military operations. The Russian Federation looks highly upon the other eight nuclear states and the thirty-one other countries who endorse nuclear weapons to put the nations’ differences aside and work together to assure no nation is forcibly disarmed, keeping peace within the nations.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2022 07:56:28 67.39.250.5

Country: South Africa
Delegate Name: Farrah Salyer

South Africa’s desire to create nuclear weapons began in 1948 after giving a commission to the South African Atomic energy corporation to oversee the country’s uranium mining and industrial trade. In 1957 South Africa and the U.S signed a 50-year collaboration under the U.S sanctioned program (Atoms for Peace). This collaboration allowed South Africa to use one nuclear research reactor along with highly enriched uranium fuel (HEU) in Pelindaba. South Africa researched, developed weapons and attempted to test weapons all the way up until the 1990’s. When South Africa attempted to test their nuclear weapons, Soviet intelligence discovered their testing sight. Eventually the U.S discovered the sight as well. South Africa then immediately shut testing down, but the U.S and the USSR had already seen enough. Both the Soviet and western governments were convinced that South Africa was conducting a full scale nuclear test. Both governments urged South Africa to not test because it would cause economic issues for South Africa. South Africa ended the Nuclear Weapons program in 1998 and was the first country to voluntarily give up its nuclear weapons.
Since the 1990’s South Africa has been a signatory of the Biological Weapons Convention, Treaty f on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Chemical Weapons Convention. South Africa is the first state in the world to voluntarily give up Nuclear arms it had developed itself. South Africa also ratified the treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in 2019, becoming the first country to physically dismantle the weapons and sign the treaty. South Africa is also a full member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and played a major role in the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty.
Solutions to the problem of nuclear disarmament and emerging nuclear states is the Treaty of Pelindaba. This treaty was created in July of 2009 and has been ratified by 28 countries. This treaty states that parties will not engage in the research, development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition, testing, possession,control or stationing of nuclear devices in these countries’ territories. To verify compliance to this treaty, The African Commission of Nuclear weapons established a headquarters in South Africa. Another solution to the ongoing nuclear crisis is to educate the people on why nuclear energy, weapons, and waste are dangerous, so they know why people are opposed to Nuclear weapons in the world. Education on nuclear weapons and their effects will influence people’s opinions and could change where nuclear weapons fit in our world.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/22/2022 07:50:38 136.228.39.188

Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Delegate Name: Nora Cowen

The destruction and devastation of war have only increased due to nuclear weapons. On a global scale, nuclear weapons have the immense power to completely alter whole societies and obliterate entire populations. 80 years ago, the true combative power of such weapons was shown as over 200,000 people died in the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Combating such destructive weapons can only be done by disarmament those nations that possess nuclear weapons. Currently, the United States, Russian Federation, China, India, United Kingdom, Pakistan, France, Israel, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea all host such weapons. Between these nine nations, 12,700 nuclear warheads are estimated to be in use. Of the 12,700, around 9,400 are in military stockpiles to be used by missiles, aircraft, ships, and submarines. The nations that currently possess nuclear weapons, as well as the five other nations that host weapons for the United States, would be in favour of the continued use of the weapons in order to uphold treaties like NATO. Other nations who oppose the use of nuclear weapons hope that the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) goals hold up.
The Democratic Republic of Congo has consistently voted in favour of the annual United Nations General Assembly resolution since 2018 that encouraged the adoption of the TPNW. In 2016, the DRC co-sponsored the UN General Assembly resolution that established the formal mandate for states to commence negotiations on a legally binding scale towards total elimination. In terms of the TPNW, DRC has heavily encouraged other nations to sign and ratify the document, becoming the 67th nation to do so back in September of 2022. The DRC feels that it “has reaffirmed its unwavering commitment in favour of international peace and security by signing [the TPNW]” and encouraged “all peace-loving countries” to become state parties. In a statement in June 2022, DRC said that Deterrence is a false guarantee of security that keeps the world in the balance of terror, nuclear disarmament is an emergency and is becoming a necessity for our security.”
The Democratic Republic of Congo is highly in favour of the push towards nuclear disarmament. The idea is that nuclear weapons are an issue of international security that do far more harm than good. DRC would like highly upon its trade partners: Zambia, China, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Belgium, and South Africa to join with them on the continued disarmament of nuclear weapons. DRC would also look favourably upon nations such as Turkiye, Germany, the United States, and other high-profile nations with access to such weapons to think about peace and work with DRC in order to come to a compromise.

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FHEDelegates 11/21/2022 15:07:29 67.39.250.5

Country: Spain
Delegate Name: Sam Zaruba

Disarmament and International Security Committee
Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States
Kingdom of Spain
Sam Zaruba

With the onset of World War 2 plaguing the globe, nations’ economies worked overtime to produce weapons to fend off, or defend, the Nazi regime. In response, two nuclear bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, the United States, instantly killing 200,000 people. This event marked a new era for the world, an era prioritizing the precarious tight-rope act of limiting nations’ nuclear arsenals. With about 13,080 weapons still reportedly in stockpiles and counting, concern for the world’s welfare is rising. Although some treaties have restricted atomic weapons, many countries have made advancements to ascertain and establish large nuclear arsenals. In June 2022, UN Secretary-General António Guterres opened the First Meeting of States Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons by urging that nuclear weapons are “a deadly reminder of countries’ inability to solve problems through dialogue and collaboration.”
Among the people of Spain, the issue of emerging nuclear states is concerning, with 89% of Spaniards approving the proposed Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). However, a dispassionate government deems that the TPNW undermines the potential for amendments to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Despite this, Spain has signed and ratified the NPT and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As for the TPNW, Spain finds that the lack of sufficient signatories with nuclear weapons belittles the impact that the TPNW would have in regard to the NPT. With the onset of a new, right-wing government in 2018, Spain’s original intentions for signing the TPNW were backtracked. These same Spanish government officials posit that Spain advocates for nuclear disarmament, but “from a realist perspective which takes into account security commitments and allows for progress towards that objective.” Spain’s tight connections with NATO make it a primary ally of the US and an Atlanticist. With very little public or government interest in nuclear weapons, Spain stands with the NPT and is content under NATO’s “umbrella.”
Although worried about the rise of nuclear weapons intended for military use and irresponsible leaders, The Kingdom of Spain holds firm that these weapons can be implemented to prevent the former and indirectly disarm the latter. If nuclear weapons can serve as a deterrent to a military invasion, the retention of these weapons would save countless lives from unnecessary wars. The proliferation of nuclear weapons can be minimized through NATO and other collective treaty organizations. Spain insists on reductions in nuclear armaments involving all states that possess them and stresses the importance of foreign states’ entry to the CTBT. Furthermore, Spain also urges states such as the US to cooperate on nuclear-related issues, including new US-Russia reductions in strategic and non-strategic weapons. Moreover, Spain is worried about the expiration of landmark agreements between the US and Russia, which have been allowed to expire, such as The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Overall, Spain is a concerned bystander who favors the NATO “umbrella” and the safety of multilateral treaties and agreements.

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FHEDelegates 11/21/2022 14:57:36 67.39.250.5

Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Pranav Mudhas

Disarmament and International Security Committee
Nuclear Disarmament and Emerging Nuclear States
The United States of America
Pranav Mudhas
Forest Hills Eastern

In the aftermath of World War 2, humanity gained its ultimate weapon and threat: nuclear weapons. They were responsible for over 200,000 fatalities in the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, not counting the numerous geographical and ecological travesties resulting from the bombing. Consequently, more than 10,000 ballistic missiles were built during the Cold War in response to budding tensions between the USSR and the US. Approximately 13,080 nuclear warheads exist today, and many lie in the hands of countries without a proper fail-safe to prevent their use. Some treaties have been in place to restrict the use of these nuclear warheads, such as The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), which highlights that any attempt to develop, test, produce, acquire, possess, stockpile, use or threaten to use nuclear weapons is not allowed. However, these treaties are not enough to control the emerging nuclear states that have made advancements to procure a nuclear arsenal.

The United States prides itself on being a leader in arms control and is committed to making the world a better and safer place. We show unwavering support for nuclear nonproliferation under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). NPThas halted the spread of nuclear weapons, sped up their disarmament, and allowed peaceful nuclear energy to bless the global outreach toward a sustainable energy source. Since the ratification of the NPT, the US has seen an 88% decrease in its nuclear weapons stock. With the NPT, the US wishes to avoid any nuclear conflict but supports the idea of keeping its nuclear weapons to deter any threat or attack of the war. The US, for now, has not signed or ratified The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). It finds that a treaty seeking to ban nuclear weapons without the support of countries that have nuclear weapons is not very likely to produce any results. The US also mentions that it does not accept that the TPNW contributes to customary international law. It also finds that the TPNW does not do enough to deal with rising nuclear states that do not have checks to control their nuclear weapons proliferation.

The United States of America stands firm that no nuclear conflict can ever end in a victory, so it should never be fought in the first place. We affirm that nuclear weapons should serve defensive purposes, deter aggression, and prevent war. We believe strongly that the further spreading of such weapons must be stopped, especially in countries without moral inhibitions. We wish for a treaty that holds firm to NPT’s obligations, including our Article VI obligation “to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.” We also intend to strengthen our national security and measures to prevent any unauthorized or unintended use of nuclear weapons. We aim to work with all states to create a secure environment to continue with the disarmament of nuclear weapons with the goal of a world without nuclear weapons that have security for all. We seek bilateral and multilateral diplomatic approaches to avoid military confrontations, strengthen stability and predictability, increase mutual understanding and confidence, and prevent an arms race. We wish to create a treaty that pursues mutual respect and acknowledgment of each other’s security interests and concerns.

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