September 16, 2019
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Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones

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International Atomic Energy Agency

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones

Nuclear reactors are used in a wide array of applications, ranging from research and development of more efficient nuclear reactors, the formation of medical isotopes, the development of various weapons, to the generation of electricity. However, nuclear reactions require highly radioactive material to fuel them. This material is extremely hazardous to both humans and the environment, and thus requires an extremely high standard of safety and security to prevent catastrophes such as those in Chernobyl and Fukushima. Currently there are 32 states with functioning nuclear power stations and additional states are considering, planning for, or actively introducing nuclear facilities. With an increasing number of nations turning to nuclear power, the possibility for devastation rises as nuclear power stations are exposed to areas of instability or conflict.

The need to properly secure these installations is not a new one. Recent events surrounding the conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine have raised concerns for potential damage, the consequences of which could be generational. Nuclear facilities have generally not been designed to withstand direct assault or bombardment. Even if a nuclear facility itself is not the target of an attack, nearby shelling can disrupt electricity flow to critical safety and security systems. Damage to these could cause issues ranging from a loss of facility heating, a reactor leak or meltdown. Thus, having the infrastructure to protect nuclear reactors and the facilities that house them is critical. Furthermore, the instability of wartime can also create difficulties for staffing nuclear facilities and obtaining the necessary supplies for safe operation.

At the forefront of this present discussion, is the situation in Ukraine. Ukraine is home to Europe’s largest nuclear power plant- Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP)- three other active facilities, and Chernobyl, a constant reminder of the consequences of jeopardizing nuclear safety and security. In conflict zones such as those in Ukraine, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has historically provided assistance to states in the form of backup sources of power and support staff to ensure the continued safe operation of these facilities. This unprecedented direct threat towards operating nuclear facilities and equally unprecedented response from the IAEA opens the door for discussion on how to handle the safety and security for future nuclear facilities exposed to conflict.

Further Reading:

IAEA – Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities:
https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1481_web.pdf

Update 137 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine:
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/pressreleases/update-137-iaea-director-general-statement-on-situation-in-ukraine-0

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Submitted Position Papers

GrovesDelegates 02/16/2023 15:02:00 104.225.169.115

Topic:
Country: Morocco
Delegate Name: Mamy Diop

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Morocco
Mamy Diop
Groves High School

In the past, we as a committee have seen the affections unsafe Nuclear power plants can have such as Chernobyl and Fukushima but more recently with the conflict in Ukraine.
Morroco is in complete support of all and any acts at making nuclear energy safer for us as a nation as well as a world. Although we as a nation don’t have any reactors at this moment we do plan to by 2030 and would like to ensure the safety of our nation and our people.

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VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 22:20:36 108.251.220.208

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Germany
Delegate Name: Davide Scaglione

Germany is concerned about a number of issues raised by the presence of nuclear power facilities or any other nuclear reactors in conflict zones. the largest nuclear power plant in Europe, located in Zaporizhzhia, was taken by the Russian army at the start of the conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine, putting the lives of the Ukrainian people in peril. Because of the region’s social and political unrest as well as the inadequate safety and security measures implemented in the former Russian plants, the administration decided in 1989 to decommission all of East Germany’s nuclear power reactors.

Germany’s position is that the IAEA should intensify its efforts to ensure that nations afflicted by armed conflict get assistance from the organization. The assistance would be given by subject-matter specialists who would manage and run the facilities safely, preferably without shutting down the reactors because the power production will be essential to providing heat and energy to the populace. With the help of UN peacekeepers to safeguard the vulnerable regions, Germany strongly supports the demilitarization of nuclear reactors in conflict zones.

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VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 19:50:14 68.62.67.202

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Norway
Delegate Name: Ian Wurfel

Taking into account the power of nuclear reactors, Norway has Noticed several issues on the bases of nuclear reactors within areas of conflict. The implementation of nuclear reactors presents the question of where will nuclear waste be stored? Currently most modern methods of storing such waste have been set to only last a few decades. For obvious reasons they can not be used as a permanent solution. Furthermore, if a conflict erupts in a location known to have a nuclear reactor waste could be a potential source of violence against the opposing side. Moreover, nuclear reactors being destroyed in the event of an attack pose a serious threat to not only the surrounding areas, but the entire well being of all life on planet earth.
Norway does not have any nuclear power plants as of 2023. This eliminates the danger of potential conflict zones containing nuclear power plants since there are none. Moreover, Norway has had several nuclear reactor research facilities stations in 2 locations in Norway. 1 was/is located in Halden (HBWR) which is closed and is on its way to decommission. 3 more were/are located in Kjeller. The nuclear reactor JEEP II has been closed and is also on its way to decommission. Norway has passed legislation regarding the control of nuclear energy such as the 1972 Atomic Energy Act.
Regarding the containment of nuclear power plants inside of conflict zones, Norway would look favorably upon any treaties that protect nuclear power plants from being attacked in times of war. Correspondingly, Norway encourages research performed for the purposes of locating new methods of nuclear waste storage. Norway would like to see more alternatives to nuclear energy being implemented. Such as, solar, wind, and geothermal. Because such methods are cheaper than nuclear energy to construct this makes them more available for less developed nations.

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VicksburgDelegates 02/20/2023 16:13:12 50.124.40.230

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Brazil
Delegate Name: Gage Heslet

Brazil sees Nuclear reactors in conflict zones as a pressing issue. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has stated that “the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and activities using radioisotopes in science, industry and medicine generate radioactive waste.” This radioactive waste has been shown to be extremely harmful in cases such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The overexposure of these high radiation levels have shown to negatively affect the environment and its inhabitants. Additionally, these disasters negatively affect the residents surrounding it by either killing them through radiation or by making it hard to relocate somewhere else after being forced to evacuate. Brazil believes that all of these outcomes need to be avoided no matter the cost.
Brazil considers the use of nuclear energy to be very helpful when used as an energy source. Even though we have dealt with problems ourselves in the past, we believe that these nuclear energy plants located in conflict zones can still be utilized. Some of the past problems with nuclear power plants Brazil have had are a shortage of steam supply for Angra 1, lack of finance, corruption probes, and radioactive contamination from the Goiânia accident. In the Goiânia accident, 249 of our citizens were contaminated and do not wish for any other nations’ citizens to suffer the same fate.
Recognizing the importance of nuclear plants within conflict zones, Brazil wishes to work out solutions that uphold its ideal on an international scale. Some of these solutions include a barrier on nuclear power plants, moving production to a safer area, and the possible practice of newly made procedures to evacuate the area within a plant safely. The nation of Brazil also wishes to emphasize the importance of safety and sustainability on nuclear power plants. Brazil’s nuclear power plants make up about 3% of entire energy usage and hopes to implement solutions that are respectful to all other nation’s beliefs along with our own. Making nuclear power plants in conflict zones safe for both the environment and its nation’s citizens is of most importance. As such, Brazil is excited to work towards the progress of safety towards nuclear energy in conflict zones.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/17/2023 23:26:53 74.199.24.77

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Malta
Delegate Name: Juliet Guenther

Committee: IAEA
Country: Malta
Delegate: Juliet Guenther
Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones

Nuclear reactors can cause very dangerous events if not protected and maintained properly. History has shown us what will happen to nuclear reactors if they have been deprived of power in Fukushima. But this was just a case of a natural disaster, but similar situations could occur from human intervention. This is why it is necessary to protect nuclear power plant and keep them out of combat as it poses a threat to civilian lives. The impact is likely not just to one area and could affect people from multiple countries as seen from the power plant near Chornobyl.
Malta has not used or planned to use any nuclear installations in any way in its history. This is because of the island’s population it is unlikely to be any nuclear reactors in Malta. But it is understood to make sure that radioactive material is dangerous, and there have been changes in the past to make it safer.
Malta sees the danger of nuclear reactors in combat zones, and how it can be addressed. Understanding that the effects of nuclear disasters are tremendous Malta seeks to have the IAEA provide any assistance in maintaining plants in these areas. As well as encouraging countries to agree to leave combat out of nuclear installations to avoid any risk of disaster.

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GrovesDelegates 02/17/2023 20:30:33 104.225.169.115

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: China
Delegate Name: Charlisa Penzak

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
People’s Republic of China
Charlisa Penzak
Groves High School

In recent years, nuclear reactors have become more prevalent and now produce 10% of the world’s energy. As of January 2023, the World Nuclear Association (WNA) reports that China is home to 55 nuclear reactors, with over 20 more under construction. Research by the IAEA indicates that China is the fastest expanding nuclear power in the world. It’s estimated that about 26% of the total energy comes from nuclear reactors (more than most western countries). Moreover, China is a major exporter and innovator in nuclear technology.
As a world leader in nuclear energy, China is collaborating with other countries and assisting in construction of reactors around the world through the Belt and Road Initiative. Nuclear energy is becoming a popular and reliable alternative to carbon-emitting fossil fuels. In fact, according to the WNA’s 2021 nuclear performance report, since 1970, nuclear power plants prevented 72 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions.
However, the radioactive material that fuels nuclear reactors is highly volatile and must be protected. As demonstrated in previous nuclear reactor accidents such as the Fukushima and Chernobyl disasters, the consequences of a mishap could be catastrophic. Nuclear reactors in conflict zones are especially at risk, because most power plants were not built to withstand shelling and bombs. There is no room for mistakes: such a catastrophe cannot happen, so it is imperative that the IAEA takes steps to safeguard nuclear reactors in conflict zones.

On the domestic scale, China has maintained an extraordinary nuclear safety record and has effective safety regulations in place by establishing nuclear security policies based on international recommendations. The IAEA has examined China’s nuclear guidelines on multiple occasions and has commended the safe practices. The Chinese government regularly conducts safety inspections, enacts the latest protective guidelines on nuclear plant blueprints, and enforces China’s Nuclear Safety Plan (which includes various preventative measures among other protocols). China boasts the world’s most stringent nuclear safety requirements, according to a research article by the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center. Furthermore, China has collaborated with the National Nuclear Safety Association to incorporate nuclear security into national security.
Not only is China a leader in nuclear safety, but is also dedicated to strengthening the security of nuclear facilities globally. For example, China was one of the first to call on the IAEA to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants in Ukraine/Russia when the war began, and have often reiterated that concern. China believes that international cooperation is essential to provide a secure world for all, especially since one state’s nuclear actions have implications for other countries.

The Chinese delegation asserts that immediate modifications to current security protocol regarding nuclear reactors in conflict zones is imperative. Specifically, China is concerned with the safety of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) as the Ukrainian conflict rages in the region. The Chinese UN representative Geng Shuang stated, “Any single incident could lead to a serious nuclear accident with irreversible consequences for the ecosystem and public health of Ukraine and its neighboring countries.” Bombing near the reactor poses a significant threat — if power lines to the cooling systems were cut, the reactor could overheat, causing a radiation leak or an explosion.
More importantly, by addressing the root cause, China calls upon involved parties to reach peaceful resolution and will continue to play a constructive role in this goal. Until such an arrangement is reached, China encourages both sides to act responsibly and consider the implications of a nuclear disaster. In times of need, reflection on current safety standards is necessary to address difficult situations, not only in the current situation with Ukraine, but in conflicts to come. The Chinese delegation looks forward to collaborating with other countries to ensure the security of nuclear plants in conflict zones.

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BayCityDelegates 02/17/2023 18:59:33 75.219.216.98

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Albania
Delegate Name: Gregory Thomas

International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Albania
Bay City Central High School

General Overview of Topic

The presence of nuclear reactors has been a cause of international concern due to the potential for environmental, infrastructure, and civilian destruction and susceptibility during warfare. As per the World Nuclear Association, over 440 nuclear power reactors inhabit 32 different countries, with over 60 reactors in construction. Due to the rapid increase in the construction of nuclear reactors, world leaders and industry experts have stressed how crucial the preservation and management of these institutions are. There have been heightened concerns about the presence of nuclear power plants in Ukraine during the Russian invasion, especially in regards to the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant in southeastern Ukraine. Towards the emergence of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the plant was immediately taken by Russian forces, and it is currently being utilized as a weapons depot for heavy weaponry. Measures have already been taken by the Ukrainian government in collaboration with the UN to deactivate the plant and prevent nuclear meltdown and a potential humanitarian crisis. In addition to Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine hosts 14 nuclear power plants which are responsible for generating more than half of the electricity in the country. The condition of each of these plants is of great concern, as the spread of warfare threatens the stability of the reliability of nuclear reactors.

Albania possesses no nuclear installations and has complied with disarmament of any facilities capable of nuclear production. However, there is a large presence of radioactivity and radioactive materials being utilized. According to the Second National Report of Albania, various industries and settings within Albania, particularly in the medical, agricultural, and the environmental sectors, employ radiation and radioisotopes. We have instituted strict protocol in the handling and care of radioactive substances in such environments, and have prepared for any emergencies that may arise as a result of the handling of such substances. The International Physical Protection Advisory Service(IPPAS) has validated our regulatory legal framework in regards to the security of nuclear-related material, facilities, and activities. After the enactment of the Law on Radiation Protection in 1995, Albania has made significant progress with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, through establishing the regulatory body for the espousal of such laws and regulations. However, we have not signed the Treaty of the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons(TPNW), which was proposed in 2017 by the General Assembly. We have consistently voted against the passing of the TPNW and firmly support the possession and potential to use nuclear weaponry for the benefit of the country.

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FitzDelegates 02/17/2023 15:44:04 64.88.7.10

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Canada
Delegate Name: Jordane Warren

Canada is a member of almost every international disarmament organization and is committed to pushing for an end to nuclear weapons. Canada’s viewpoint upon nuclear reactors, as a lone standing factor, is that they are relatively safe. The production and overall process handles the chain reaction of destruction that we see when nuclear weapons are often used for testing. However, these safety mechanisms are not guaranteed to function or even work if faced with high damage from attack — specifically, nuclear weapons.

Canada believes there are multiple ways to go about new jurisdiction upon the ideals for nuclear energy, such as background checks on a country’s past dealings with conflict, or even current dealings. As well as countries that would have the potential for abusing the nuclear reactors within their own nation, or using others as a target for execution within another civilization. There are similar plans such as the case of brazil and Iran in the 1970s, both countries had been denied Enrichment plants by the United States because of unmet political conditions, and worry about the creation of nuclear weapons.

Canada would like to recognize the issue of countries with already established nuclear power, abusing the uses of such, and or the usurpations of countries with said nuclear power. Canada would like the help of delegates interested in similar topics to combine schemes of how to deal with this urging notion.

If these policies were to be fully put into place and signed upon by the United Nations, then nuclear reactors and nuclear energy as a whole would be abused a lot less frequently. Canada is fully aware that nuclear energy is the solution to a problem that plagues many low-income nations that need protection from the effects of climate change or to balance the energy issues within their economy, however, the distribution of nuclear reactors is something the United Nations should closely covet until there is a clear cover of information within a sovereign nation.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 15:00:38 68.61.107.236

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: David Liu

International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Reactors In Conflict Zones
The Republic Of Korea
David Liu, Forest Hills Northern High School

The issue of nuclear reactors in conflict zones is a critical global concern that demands our urgent attention. There are currently 53 nuclear power reactors under construction worldwide, many of which are in countries that are experiencing conflict or political instability. Even though the use of nuclear power has become an attractive option for many nations, the deployment of nuclear reactors in these places presents significant risks to all forms of life. The Republic of Korea recognizes the importance of addressing this issue, and we are committed to promoting sustainable and secure nuclear power while mitigating the risks associated with its deployment.

The aftermath of nuclear accidents in conflict zones can be catastrophic, with both long-term health and environmental consequences. For instance, the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan resulted in over 18,000 deaths, and the Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine caused a surge in thyroid cancer cases and severe environmental degradation. Furthermore, several nations have used nuclear reactors as a tool for military advantage, leading to the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the escalation of conflict.

The Republic of Korea is aware of these risks and has taken significant measures to ensure the safety and security of our nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima disaster in 2011, The Republic of Korea conducted a comprehensive safety review of all its nuclear power plants, and as a result, the country increased the number of safety inspections from once a year to every three months. This review also resulted in the establishment of a new regulatory body: the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, which has the authority to regulate and oversee the country’s nuclear power plants.

The Republic of Korea is one of the leading nations in nuclear power production, with 24 nuclear reactors that generate about 30% of the country’s electricity. However, we are also committed to promoting renewable energy as an alternative to nuclear power, and our renewable energy capacity increased from 10.7 GW in 2017 to 15.4 GW in 2020. The Republic of Korea has also established a comprehensive system for nuclear accident response, including the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety.

Furthermore, The Republic of Korea has been actively promoting nuclear safety on the international stage. In 2012, The Republic of Korea hosted the Nuclear Security Summit, which brought together leaders from around the world to address nuclear security challenges. The summit resulted in the adoption of the Seoul Communiqué, which outlined specific measures to enhance nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism.

The Republic of Korea is committed to promoting the safe use of nuclear power and mitigating the risks associated with its deployment in conflict zones. We call on all nations to work together to enhance nuclear safety and security, promote sustainable energy sources, and prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Thank you.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 15:03:34 162.225.191.26

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Guatemala
Delegate Name: Maya Neblett

Guatemala is ready to stand with the United Nations and talk about the issues at hand, and although Guatemala is not directly involved with these troubles as there has not been a major conflict since the Guatemalan Civil war in 1996, it deeply cares about the tragedies happening around the world due to these nuclear reactors in conflict zones from Kyshtym to Three Mile Island to Chornobyl. At this moment Guatemala does not use any nuclear energy because Guatemala is primarily fueled by hydropower and oil as well as biofuels (wood). While hydropower is Guatemala’s main energy source, oil is needed because it is a very important exporter to many other countries in the world, releasing CO2. This is balanced out by its immense forestry covering about 33.7% of the country. Therefore Guatemala leans towards the preference of not using nuclear energy because it does not have the money and time to build new nuclear power plants that are not needed in the country. But Guatemala understands various situations of each country. Guatemala is situated near the equator and the Pacific ocean and notices that not all countries can sustain themselves off of hydropower or forestry and does understand the need for nuclear energy in some places and how useful it is. Guatemala agrees that when in an instance of using nuclear energy and/or building nuclear power plants it is crucial to protect it in case of conflict or war to prevent the happenings of Chornobyl and other like-wise situations. It is exciting to be gathered with other delegates to come up with a comprehensive resolution that looks at the unique views and needs of countries to come to a much-needed conclusion. Guatemala is ready and excited to be invited to this important discussion.

Guatemala believes that to resolve these problematic issues there must be safety precautions in place as well to keep the people who live there informed. Possible solutions are looking at the risk factors before implementing any laws. For instance, Guatemala does not need to place anything on Nuclear energy because they do not have nuclear energy or reactors but a place such as the United States may need to implement things, in other words looking at what places need help and what places don’t as well as assessing where the power plants should be built and how the power plants to should be built safely. Also, another solution to this may be educating the public on this primarily unknown topic and teaching them how to respond and what’s going on, and how it can affect and change everything. Maybe some places have bunkers and/or tunnels, leading to a safer place with no radiation. This will at least protect the people in the area as well as keep food and water down there and keep them alive. The last possible solution may be to have the military from the country guarding the nuclear power plants so that the risk of a nuclear reactor being hit is lowered to 0%. Overall Guatemala knows that there are more amazing solutions to this problem and is ready to listen to other delegations’ opinions and solutions.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 14:55:10 174.240.120.83

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Bolivia
Delegate Name: Aidan Zipperer

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
The Role of Nuclear Energy in Reducing Fossil Fuel Reliance
Plurinational State of Bolivia
Aidan Zipperer
Forest Hills Northern High School
As the delegate representing Bolivia, it is my position that nuclear reactors should not be built or operated in conflict zones. Bolivia strongly believes that the risks associated with operating nuclear reactors in such areas far outweigh any potential benefits, and that such actions could have devastating consequences for both the local population and the wider global community.
Nuclear reactors can pose immense risk. The fuel used by these reactors, if not handled correctly, can cause major health risks, such as Acute Radiation Sickness. These risks are largely mitigated by the stringent safety measures imposed by the IAEA on nuclear reactors. War, however, threatens those safeguards, and thus the population living in proximity to the plant.
Conflict zones are inherently unstable and unpredictable environments, often characterized by ongoing violence and insecurity. Building and operating nuclear reactors in such areas not only puts the safety of workers at risk, but also endangers the lives of local residents who are already vulnerable to violence and displacement. In the event of an accident or attack, the consequences could be catastrophic, leading to widespread radiation exposure and long-term environmental damage.
Furthermore, operating nuclear reactors in conflict zones could exacerbate tensions between conflicting parties, potentially leading to further violence and instability. The presence of nuclear reactors in these areas could be seen as a provocative act by some, and could be used as a justification for further conflict or attacks. Additionally, any accidental combat operations against surrounding areas or even the plant itself could lead to even more serious disagreements.
Nuclear reactors can affect combat in another way too, in the form of nuclear weapons Bolivia is strongly opposed to the production and use of nuclear weapons. The damage that they cause can be achieved with a similar cost in conventional weapons, whilst not causing radioactive fallout to be spread across the targeted area, affecting civilians nearby.
It is important to note that nuclear energy is not the only source of energy available, and that there are a number of alternative energy sources that can be used to meet the energy needs of conflict zones. Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power offer safe and sustainable alternatives that do not pose the same risks as nuclear energy.
Bolivia believes that nuclear plants in conflict zones should be limited wherever possible. This includes careful locating of reactor build sites, and also an effort from combatting parties to avoid fighting in the proximity of active plants. Should these protocols fail, shutdown of nuclear reactors that have become the focuses of combat should be a priority for this agency.
In light of these concerns, Bolivia strongly urges the international community to prohibit the building and operation of nuclear reactors in conflict zones. We call on all member states to prioritize the safety and well-being of local populations, and to work towards sustainable and safe energy solutions that do not pose a risk to the environment or exacerbate existing conflicts. Only through such actions can we ensure a safe and sustainable future for all.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 14:42:35 68.49.170.31

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Renia Kahn

Committee: International Atomic energy agency (IAEA)
Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Denmark
Delegate: Renia Kahn
School: Greenhills School Ann Arbor

The safety of nuclear reactors is of the utmost importance to Denmark. Because Denmark does not currently use nuclear power there are no Danish nuclear installations. The country has decommissioned two of its three nuclear research reactors and is in the process of decommissioning the third one. The decommissioning of this reactor and the management of nuclear waste is being carefully monitored by the Danish Emergency Management Agency, the Danish Health Authority, Radiation Protection, and others, to assure it is safely dealt with. The IAEA is currently helping Denmark manage radioactive waste under project ARTEMIS.
In terms of the safety of reactors in zones of conflict, Denmark has a plan in place in case of emergencies in surrounding reactors of other countries. Although Denmark has no nuclear installations, there are eight nuclear reactors within 300km of Denmark’s borders, and if these reactors encountered an emergency, Denmark needs to be prepared. The emergency preparedness plan is outlined in detail in response to article 16 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, signed by Denmark in 1994. Article 16 states that “Contracting Parties which do not have a nuclear installation on their territory, insofar as they are likely to be affected in the event of a radiological emergency at a nuclear installation in the vicinity, shall take the appropriate steps for the preparation and testing of emergency plans for their territory that cover the activities to be carried out in the event of such an emergency.” If the nuclear reactors surrounding Denmark were to become an area of conflict or face a terrorist attack, Denmark is prepared to take the necessary steps to ensure safety, as elaborated in the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Concerning the situation in Ukraine, Denmark, as a member of NATO, has sent monetary aid to Ukraine. Denmark also understands the hazardous nature of nuclear reactors and would be open to helping Ukraine avoid a nuclear disaster by ensuring the safety of its nuclear reactors.

Works Cited
Denmark, Danish Emergency Management Agency, Convention on Nuclear Safety: 8th National Report by Denmark. August 2019, https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/21/07/national_report_of_denmark_for_the_8th_review_meeting.pdf
Nuclear Energy in Denmark : Danish Nuclear Electricity – World Nuclear Association. https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-a-f/denmark.aspx. Accessed 17 Feb. 2023.
Denmark and Nuclear Security | DIIS. https://www.diis.dk/en/research/denmark-and-nuclear-security. Accessed 17 Feb. 2023.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 11:53:41 73.161.90.128

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Syrian Arab Republic
Delegate Name: Vitoria Cunha

Vitoria Cunha
Syrian Arab Republic
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Greenhills School

The delegation of the Syrian Arab Republic recognizes the danger that can come from nuclear reactors in conflict zones if they aren’t monitored. The SAR is ready to work to prevent instances like Three-Mile Island. Syria at the moment does not have any nuclear reactors but understands that they can be beneficial in instances such as preventing climate change. SAR understands damage to nuclear power plants and/or reactors can cause extreme economic or environmental effects on the countries that hold the power plants and to neighboring countries, and that risk rises in conflict zones. Right now, there are 33 countries worldwide that use nuclear reactors which is why the SAR thinks that this is such an important issue to talk about. Right now the SAR is currently in the civil war itself and although not having nuclear reactors it understands even the simple dangers that come from the war itself, even without nuclear reactors at hand.

The SAR at one point did use nuclear reactors though. In 2003, Syria signed a $2 billion (USD) nuclear deal with Russia, including a nuclear power plant. In 2007 Isreal destroyed that nuclear power plant resulting in the loss of money and property damage. For this reason, Syria understands the catastrophic happenings of not protecting Nuclear Reactors and is ready to come together with the Delegates of the United Nations to go more in-depth and find a comprehensive solution to this important issue.

To solve this issue the delegation is ready to hear other delegates’ responses as well as providing it’s own ideas and resolution. Some ideas the delegation of SAR has cultivated so far is creating a space in the country’s military that can uphold and protect these nuclear reactors so that the reactors don’t become dangerous to the public.

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FHN Delegates 02/16/2023 21:53:53 98.243.156.20

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Australia
Delegate Name: RJ/Robert Langen

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Reactors In Conflict Zones
Australia
Robert/RJ Langen
Forest Hills Northern High School

Australia realizes the benefits of using nuclear power to mitigate climate change because nuclear power is a low-carbon source of electricity. However, Australia also acknowledges the potential risks associated with using and building nuclear power plants, especially in conflict zones where circumstances beyond the government’s control can exacerbate existing tensions and increase the likelihood of nuclear accidents and environmental damage.

We affirm our support for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its role in verifying the peaceful use of nuclear energy and preventing nuclear proliferation. Austalia also supports the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The NPT seeks to prevent further construction and distribution of nuclear weapons and encourages countries that currently have nuclear weapons to dismantle them safely.

Australia believes that nuclear reactors should not be constructed or located in conflict zones and in zones that are deemed high risk to devolve into conflict. We believe that such construction would lead to instability and potential security risks. Furthermore, nuclear reactors in conflict zones could be compromised by sabotage, terrorism, or military attacks which would make it impossible to guarantee the safety of surrounding populations and the environment.

Australia recognizes that there are countries in zones that are unstable that may want to construct nuclear power plants for economic, strategic, or scientific reasons. We urge these countries to weigh the risks that come with building nuclear reactors in conflict zones. We encourage the countries to follow the IAEA safety guidelines and best practices. We would also recommend that countries residing in conflict-prone zones first talk to the IAEA and international community about the safest way to go about constructing and maintaining nuclear power plants.

Australia is a strong supporter of the peaceful, nonviolent, and dependable use of nuclear energy and the use of nuclear energy to continue the advancement of new innovative nuclear technologies that will help bolster the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of electricity consumption worldwide. However, we are also mindful that the potential risks of nuclear power plants that operate in conflict zones may far outweigh the benefits. Therefore, we strongly advise countries facing such conflicts to exercise extreme caution when considering such projects.

In conclusion, Austalia believes that nuclear reactors in conflict zones pose a significant risk to global security. Australia strongly advises countries in conflict zones to find alternative ways of obtaining energy. Although we support the use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes, we urge countries in conflict zones to take extreme precautions and fully consider all the risks involved before making a decision on whether to construct nuclear reactors.

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SASADelegates 02/17/2023 11:24:36 97.95.20.2

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: United States
Delegate Name: Ricardo Pastor

The United States of America (USA) recognizes the importance of ensuring the safety and security of nuclear reactors in conflict zones and the potential risks and consequences of nuclear accidents, sabotage, or attacks on these facilities. The USA supports the efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide assistance and guidance to states that operate nuclear reactors in areas affected by armed conflict, terrorism, or instability.
However, one of the most acute cases of nuclear reactors in conflict zones is the situation in Ukraine, where four active nuclear power plants, including Europe’s largest one – Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) – are located near the frontlines of the ongoing war with Russia-backed separatists. ZNPP has a total capacity of about 6,000 megawatts, enough for about four million homes. Any disruption or damage to ZNPP could have severe environmental, economic, and humanitarian impacts on Ukraine and its neighbors.
Therefore, the USA condemns Russia’s aggression and interference in Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity and calls for an immediate end to hostilities and a peaceful resolution. The USA also urges Russia to respect Ukraine’s right to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and to refrain from any actions that could jeopardize the safety and security of Ukraine’nuclear facilities. The USA supports the UN General Assembly resolution that demands Russia withdraw its military forces from Ukraine’s territory and respects international law and agreements.
To address the issue of nuclear reactors in conflict zones, the USA proposes the following solutions for the UN: strengthening the role and capacity of the IAEA in monitoring, inspecting, and assisting nuclear facilities in conflict zones and ensuring their safety and security; encouraging states that operate nuclear reactors in conflict zones to follow international standards and best practices for nuclear safety and security, as set by the CNS and the CPPNM; enhancing regional cooperation and dialogue among states that are affected by or near nuclear reactors in conflict zones, and facilitating information exchange, joint planning, mutual assistance, confidence-building measures, and risk reduction; promoting the peaceful settlement of disputes and prevention of violence through diplomatic efforts, mediation, sanctions, peacekeeping operations, and humanitarian aid; supporting initiatives that aim to reduce dependence on nuclear energy in conflict-prone regions, and promote alternative sources of clean and renewable energy.
The USA believes these solutions can help prevent or mitigate potential nuclear disasters in conflict zones and enhance global peace and security.

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FHN Delegates 02/17/2023 09:18:53 68.56.158.141

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Switzerland
Delegate Name: Akshat Jain

Committee: United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Switzerland
Name: Akshat Jain
School: Forest Hills Northern High School

Using nuclear reactors in conflict zones can have serious implications for global security and safety. In addition to the risk of nuclear accidents, nuclear reactors can become targets for military strikes, which, in turn, could lead to catastrophic consequences. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential risks and benefits associated with the use of nuclear reactors in conflict zones. Switzerland believes that the use of nuclear reactors in conflict zones should be avoided as much as possible. In cases where it is deemed necessary to use nuclear reactors in conflict zones, strict safeguards must be in place to prevent nuclear accidents and the misuse of nuclear technology.

Nuclear reactors should not be used in areas with ongoing conflicts: Switzerland strongly believes that the use of nuclear reactors in areas of conflict is a significant risk to both security and safety. Such use increases the likelihood of nuclear accidents, which can lead to long-term environmental damage and human casualties. In addition to not using nuclear reactors in areas with ongoing conflicts, Switzerland believes that if the use of nuclear reactors in conflict zones is necessary, nuclear reactors must be heavily safeguarded. This includes strict measures to prevent unauthorized access as well as measures to ensure the safe disposal of nuclear waste. Switzerland also supports the use of nuclear reactors for peaceful purposes only such as energy production and medical applications. Finally, Switzerland believes that international cooperation and monitoring are crucial to ensuring nuclear energy’s safe and friendly use.

Switzerland recognizes the importance of nuclear energy, but also acknowledges the potential risks associated with the use of nuclear reactors in conflict zones. Therefore, Switzerland believes that the use of nuclear reactors in conflict zones should be avoided as much as possible. In cases where their use is deemed necessary, strict safeguards must be in place to prevent nuclear accidents and the misuse of nuclear technology. International cooperation and monitoring are also essential to ensure nuclear energy’s safe and peaceful use.

Switzerland advocates for the use of nuclear reactors for peaceful purposes only. In terms of the use of nuclear reactors in conflict zones, Switzerland believes there needs to be a safeguard in place to ensure the protection of these reactors. Switzerland also recognizes that these reactors must avoid being close to conflict zones at all costs, as even slight alters in the makeup of the nuclear reactor can lead to catastrophic effects. Switzerland looks forward to creating more regulations for nuclear reactors to help strengthen their safety of in conflict zones.

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FHN Delegates 02/16/2023 23:49:41 174.162.98.130

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: United Arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Lidija Habekovic

The UAE understands the risks that come with building nuclear reactors, especially in zones of conflict. Nuclear reactors are not designed to withstand natural disasters and military attacks, and the effects of nuclear fallout can be catastrophic. Some effects include public health problems like acute radiation syndrome, and environmental problems because of the radiation from the fallout.
The UAE supports nuclear power as a source of energy, however it acknowledges the risks that come with using nuclear power. The risk of nuclear disasters, especially in conflict zones, is heightened. Nuclear power plants are not designed to withstand the shock of an earthquake, or the blast of a missile, for example.The effects of nuclear fallout can be catastrophic. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), as mentioned earlier, can cause internal bleeding, seizures, loss of white blood cells, and eventually death. Environmental effects of nuclear fallout include water pollution, flora and fauna death, and increased rates of mutation among animal and bacteria populations.
In relation to the current situation in Ukraine, the UAE’s ambassador to the UN, Mohamed Issa Abushahab, “expressed deep alarm” over the recent events surrounding the Zaporizhzhia power plant. “When it comes to nuclear matters, our collective security is truly intertwined,” he said. He also recalled special protections for nuclear power facilities, including Article 56 of Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, which states that “works or installations containing dangerous forces” such as “nuclear generating stations, should not be made the object of attack”. He stated that both parties should make this a focus of “constructive and necessary” engagement. He also stressed the importance of communication between both parties to come to a peaceful and sustainable solution.
The UAE supports nuclear power as a source of energy. However, they also acknowledge the risks that come with using nuclear power. The UAE encourages other countries to also implement the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, to ensure optimal safety from nuclear events. The UAE values communication, and urges nations to communicate, to prevent a potentially universally catastrophic nuclear disaster. The UAE has signed a deal with South Korea to expand collaboration in the peaceful nuclear energy sector.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/17/2023 00:15:09 76.214.139.225

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Shangyang Xia

Shangyang Xia
Russian Federation
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Greenhills School

As a delegate of the Russian Federation, I would like to propose the creation of a comprehensive international treaty, aimed at ensuring the safety and security of all nuclear facilities worldwide. This treaty would provide a framework for cooperation between states and the IAEA in the protection of these critical installations. The treaty would require signatory states to adhere to certain safety and security standards and to allow for international inspections of their facilities to ensure compliance. In addition, the treaty would provide a mechanism for international support in the event of an emergency at a nuclear facility. This would include the provision of backup power, support staff, and emergency response teams. The treaty would also establish a system for the secure transport of radioactive materials and for the management of spent fuel.

The Russian Federation is committed to the safe and secure use of nuclear technology and believes that this treaty would serve as a critical step towards ensuring that all states use nuclear energy in a responsible manner. We believe that such a treaty is necessary to prevent accidents and to mitigate the risks associated with nuclear facilities. Furthermore, we believe that the treaty would provide a strong foundation for international cooperation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. We understand the importance of nuclear energy as a source of electricity and as a tool for scientific research and development. We believe that the safe and secure use of nuclear energy is of utmost importance and that this treaty would help to ensure that all nations use this energy source in a responsible manner.

In conclusion, as a delegate of the Russian Federation, I urge the international community to support the creation of a comprehensive international treaty aimed at ensuring the safety and security of all nuclear facilities worldwide. This treaty would provide a framework for cooperation between states and the IAEA and would help to prevent accidents and to mitigate the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy. The Russian Federation is committed to the safe and secure use of nuclear technology and believes that this treaty would serve as a critical step towards achieving this goal.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/16/2023 22:01:40 68.51.213.218

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Mexico
Delegate Name: Isabella Rivas Ladino

The Delegation Of Mexico firmly believes in and supports the use of nuclear energy and nuclear power plants to provide sustainable and clean energy in the future and in the present, and for a sustainable and hope-filled future for the Wolrd and our country, limiting the dangerous uses of nuclear weapons in violent and war-related issues. Mexico believes that that is the right of all states and all countries to use peaceful nuclear energy sources to use safer, technological, economic, and social benefits from atomic energies. As a delegation primarily lenient on fossil fuels, and gas-powered energy sources, specifically from the United States, but since 2015 has set the Energy Transition Law, to set 35% of electricity to be powered from energy sources, nuclear energy sources, in 2024. Recognizing the potential risks and dangers that nuclear-powered energy plants can cause, the delegation of Mexico has recognized and worked to further better the conditions.

The Delegation Of Mexico has previously imposed two power plants supplying about 3% of the country’s electricity in the past few years. The first nuclear power plant opened in 1989, with past urges to move to nuclear energy instead of harmful fossil fuels. Mexico has also recognized the harmful and dangerous effects that the radioactive materials could potentially cause and has already imposed policies and worked towards the safer use of nuclear energy, including establishing a plan to prevent leaks into villages and towns, notifying and using the new IEC safety policies, procedures for safer recoveries and preventions by the CNSNS, and establishing additional security around the power plants to prevent any type of intervention. The two current nuclear power plants in Mexico include Laguna Verde 1 and Laguna Verde 2. Additionally, Mexico has formed the National Commotion On Safety and Safeguards, The National Center Of Nuclear Research, all taken over by the Ministry of Safety, all organizations dedicated to training officials and operators for the plant. Additionally, Mexico’s Energy Ministry created two companies to manage radioactive waste, in 2018, joining the IAEA Convention on Safety of Spent Fuel Management and Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Mexico believes that to ensure a peaceful, carbon-free future, all nations need to urge for clean energy sources, including wind, solar, and electric energy but also encourages and urges but also supplying proper training, education, and awareness over the potential dangers from power plants.

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SASADelegates 02/16/2023 21:51:53 158.51.68.193

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Argentina
Delegate Name: Jett Miller

Jett Miller
Argentina
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

Nuclear reactors have been increasingly used worldwide as a source of energy and scientific research. These nuclear reactor sites are prone to disasters such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. Nuclear reactors that are located in regions of high conflict have a higher likelihood of causing a disaster that could affect the environment as well as human life. The recent conflict between Russia and Ukraine has brought up concerns about nuclear reactor sites. Russia and Ukraine both hold nuclear sites that can easily cause disaster if they are to be damaged throughout the conflict. Efforts are trying to be made to protect the nuclear sites to prevent harming the population as a whole as well as preventing environmental damage that would arise from such damage to the nuclear sites.
Argentina is home to many ambitious nuclear sites but does not have a nuclear weapon program. Although Argentina did work on a nuclear warfare system in the 1980s, the Argentinian ballistic missile program was dismantled in the early 1990s and has remained shut down since. Argentina has joined a multitude of initiatives in order to push efforts toward creating a nuclear-weapon-free world. These initiatives strive to monitor nuclear weapon containment as well as make new solutions for challenges found while disarming missiles.
Continuing to join initiatives for anti-nuclear weapons would ensure that the Argentinian nuclear system remains disbanded and that the only nuclear networks would be nuclear power plants. Argentina would like to continue pushing for the removal of nuclear weapons internationally so that the world can live without fear of nuclear warfare destroying their lives. Argentina also would look to improve the protection of nuclear reactor sites in order to make them less susceptible to damage that would be the root cause of a potential disaster affecting not only Argentina, but many other nations of the world.

Works Cited
GreenhillsDelegates, et al. “Home.” GLICA.org, GLICA.org, 1 Jan. 2023, https://glica.org/glica-conferences/simun-2023-conference/simun-2023-committees/nuclear-reactors-in-conflict-zones/.
“Argentina Overview.” The Nuclear Threat Initiative, 19 Oct. 2021, http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/argentina-overview/.
“Argentina Reaffirms Its Commitment to Nuclear Disarmament.” Argentina Reaffirms Its Commitment to Nuclear Disarmament | Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores, Comercio Internacional y Culto, https://www.cancilleria.gob.ar/en/news/newsletter/argentina-reaffirms-its-commitment-nuclear-disarmament.
“Nuclear Weapons Program.” Nuclear Weapons Program – Argentina, https://nuke.fas.org/guide/argentina/nuke/.
“Argentina.” The Nuclear Threat Initiative, 22 Nov. 2022, https://www.nti.org/countries/argentina/.

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GreenhillsDelegates 02/16/2023 20:59:16 108.252.232.235

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: India
Delegate Name: Neha Narayanan

Nuclear reactors are used to generate electricity in nuclear power plants. The basic safety functions in nuclear reactors are to control reactivity, cool fuel, and contain radioactive substances. Radioactive materials from nuclear reactors can contaminate humans. Additionally, radiation can cause long-term problems such as cancer. Nuclear energy plays a key role in India’s future of safety and sustainable development. India currently has 22 nuclear reactors with 11 in construction. All of these have been placed under IAEA safeguards in 2014. This measure was taken to prove to other countries and nations that India’s usage of nuclear power was for peaceful reasons. India is committed to showing the effectiveness and safety of all nuclear power plants.

The safety of nuclear plants and nuclear reactors in India is a very crucial topic and is important to understand. Nuclear power plants in India are safe and regulated with proper radiological protection of workers, operating and maintenance procedures which are approved, undoubtedly good waste management, disaster management plants, along with many other protective rules in place. The World Nuclear Association states that in India, “Radioactive wastes from the nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants are treated and stored at each site.” India has taken inspiration from Fukushima safety measures to design control centers responsible for nuclear safety.

In relation to the current situation in Ukraine, India has sought to diffuse the Zaporizhzhia Nuke Plant crisis. The Economic Times state that India has “requested to press the Russians on the issue regarding the safety of Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant when the countries increased their fighting near the nuclear facility.” Additionally, “the external affairs minister said that he doesn’t see countries that would disregard India’s position and people would view it from their point of immediate interest, their historical experiences, and their insecurities.”
India believes that nuclear safety is a priority, and is interested in seeing efforts taken by other nations to implement this. The country urges others to follow the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which focuses on 12 different areas to guarantee safe nuclear plants. Additionally, moving nuclear power plants away from war zones and areas of conflict is in the interest of the republic of India. India has signed nuclear cooperation agreements with countries such as the US, Russia, France, Canada, and the UK.

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GRCityDelegates 02/15/2023 17:55:47 98.250.233.128

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Krishna Mano

United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
United Kingdom
Krishna Mano
City High Middle School

The risk of a nuclear reactor disaster during times of on-going conflicts and increased tensions between leaders in the field of nuclear energy remains to be a pressing, if not pivotal, issue in the status quo. As reported by the United Nations, nuclear reactors are becoming an increasingly common source of energy with “32 countries worldwide operating 443 nuclear reactors for electricity generation and 55 new nuclear plants under construction”. Furthermore, a report from the International Trade Administration finds that, currently, “the United Kingdom has 15 operational nuclear reactors operating, which comprise just less than 20% of the United Kingdom’s electricity.” It is imperative for our operating agency to address increasing nuclear tensions and, more importantly, come to a consensus on how we can decrease these hostilities and enmities that lead to devastating conflicts with irreversible impacts, especially on nuclear reactors. As a G5 nation, the United Kingdom has joined and led many alliances like the UN and NATO to ensure that our neighboring countries have reliable protection against nuclear weapons.

Over the years, the United Kingdom has taken many steps to support the safety and security of nuclear reactors or other energy sources with radioactive components and, therefore, set a good example for emerging nuclear-energy based states to emphasize the need for these safety systems to be set in place. On a national level, our country has set proper rules and guidelines to certify that these safety systems which we preach about to our neighboring countries are ones that we practice and have put in place. Apart from checking the optimal positioning of our nuclear reactors to avoid any meltdowns from natural disasters or conflict, we have also set up a recurring system to replace our old nuclear reactors with new ones to ensure that a faulty system paired with shelling or artillery fire during a conflict is not the cause of a nuclear incident that could take the lives of many of our citizens. When looking at our accomplishments to further the protection of nuclear reactors from an international perspective, we began with taking an instrumental role in drafting and ratifying the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, aiming “to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons while promoting cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of prioritizing the safety and security of nuclear reactor sites, especially during times of conflict,” in 1968 and strongly affirming our support for other treaties with similar goals since then. A recent example is the Agreement between the United Kingdom and the IAEA for the Application of Nuclear Safeguards which was signed by both parties in 2018. This agreement includes multiple clauses that reaffirms the Non-Proliferation Treaty and, specifically, sets the nuclear reactor safety-based guidelines found in the original Treaty in the context and setting of our country in the modern day and age.

Over the past year, nuclear energy avoided 22.7 million metric tons of CO2 emissions in the UK which is the equivalent of taking around a third of all cars in the UK off the road. We have ensured that these systems that help us improve the energy efficiency of our country remain in a safe process, one that can be trusted to continue in a secure manner even during periods of conflict. However, we are increasingly worried by the absence of such safety standards and their enforcement in neighboring countries that are currently facing a weapon-based crisis with another country: Ukraine and their response to Russia’s invasion in February 2022. Ukraine, known for having the largest nuclear power plant (and one of the most famous nuclear disasters at Chernobyl), finds itself in an especially dangerous situation, one that can be replicated by the IAEA in future conflicts. In association with other major countries, the United Kingdom and IAEA promptly responded with a joint proposal to temporarily shut down Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant, which accounts for nearly half of the total electricity generated by their nuclear power plants and one-fifth of the country’s annual electricity production, due to its close proximity to Russian-claimed territory. In a report by the Wilson Center detailing the possible outcomes of an ineffective response to the Russian takeover of the ZNPP, they emphasize the high probability of “broken emergency preparedness, response, and communication mechanisms. In the case of an accident, it will be impossible to take all the necessary steps to prevent the spread of radiation and damage to inhabitants in the region. The disaster will affect Ukraine and neighboring states, depending on the direction of the wind at the moment of the accident.”

When we are all divided by conflicts occurring throughout the world from East Europe to the Middle East, it is essential for us to not just acknowledge, but also take prompt action to re-evaluate the current safety standards in place around the world for nuclear reactors in areas of conflict. The United Kingdom strongly urges the IAEA to further support this re-evaluation, but asks that all delegates consider the essentiality of nuclear energy in transitioning towards renewable energy sources and the irrationality of completely removing nuclear energy from any country’s energy usage. When seeking global peace and working closely with allies and fellow agency members, the UK hopes that transparency and safeguards will be prioritized as the most crucial step is to reassess and amend guidelines and standards for nuclear reactor systems in conflict zones.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/15/2023 16:33:31 75.204.218.72

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: France
Delegate Name: Logan Ellis

A very important thing to consider is the protection of nuclear power plants in armed conflict. Nuclear reactors can be very dangerous if the proper precautions are not taken. These dangers can be drastically increased if in armed conflict zones. This is a very important issue to solve, especially when nuclear energy is becoming more and more common. We need to take action so we don’t repeat unfortunate events, like the catastrophe at Chernobyl.
Nuclear reactors can be a danger to people and the environment in conflict zones both directly and indirectly. For example, a reactor can be hit by a shell from nearby fighting (a direct cause), or an operator of the reactor could make a mistake from increased stress of the fighting nearby (an indirect cause). Once a nuclear reactor is damaged the consequences would be quite fatal. Gamma rays can pass through the human body and will result in major cell damage to anyone nearby. Not only will the gamma rays harm humans, they will also harm the environment. This shows how big of a threat damaging nuclear reactors really are.
France is one of the biggest countries when it comes to utilizing nuclear energy. France has 56 operable nuclear reactors, making protection for them a priority. France and many other countries in Europe approved of the 2009 IAEA General Conference entitled “Prohibition of armed attack or threat of attack against nuclear installations, during operation and under construction” which showed the importance of safety and security of nuclear material and facilities with peaceful purposes. This shows that France supports keeping nuclear power plants safe and secure. France also agreed with the IAEA Director General’s “Seven Indispensable Pillars of Nuclear Safety and Security. In the meeting where France agreed with these things, they stated, “We, the ministers of Foreign Affairs of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Ukraine and senior officials from the Republic of Korea, Switzerland, the United States of America, the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy wish to express our grave concern regarding the threats posed to the safety and security of nuclear facilities devoted to peaceful purposes…”.
France believes that to help keep nuclear power plants safe in conflict zones, we should first, propose a treaty to keep battlegrounds away from nuclear power plants. France believes this because if a nuclear reactor, for example, explodes because of fighting nearby, then it will affect everyone for many kilometers and stay uninhabitable for years. France thinks they should also put physical protection around nuclear power plants in case nations don’t sign off on said treaty. For example, concrete walls to protect from ground forces. Also, there should be radars to detect aircraft. There should also be anti-aircraft defenses for each nuclear power plant. Finally, in case of armed conflict, there should be access to armed forces for the defense of the nuclear power plant.

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WilliamstonDelegates 02/15/2023 15:46:16 136.228.39.189

Topic: Nuclear Reactors in Conflict Zones
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Lizzy Zaremski

Japan has experienced major destruction due to nuclear power. An example of this is the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan caused a nuclear accident beginning on 11 March 2011. Up until 2011, Japan was generating some 30% of its electricity from its reactors and this was expected to increase to at least 40% by 2017. The plan is now for at least 20% by 2030, from its depleted fleet. Also, a lot of far east Asia countries have a large nuclear power capacity. Japan’s decision to permanently shut down five reactors that had not generated electricity since 2011. All of Japan’s nuclear plants were closed, or their operations were suspended for safety inspections. The last of Japan’s fifty-four reactors went offline for maintenance on 5 May 2012, leaving Japan completely without nuclear-produced electrical power for the first time since 1970. 4.8% of Japan’s power comes from nuclear power. Nuclear power in Japan can also cause deaths due to complications in factories. Japan has never used nuclear power in wars or conflict zones, but other countries (ex: the USA) have used atomic bombs and nuclear power against Japan. Which caused major destruction and killed thousands in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Japan adopted a plan to extend the lifespan of nuclear reactors, replace the old and even build new ones. Japan uses nuclear and atomic energy often, but not as much since the Fukushima accident. 1998 was the highest nuclear production year for Japan. Japan has 33 nuclear power reactors classed as operable. However, in 2013 the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) established new regulatory requirements, and just 10 reactors have since received clearance from the regulator to restart. Japan is promoting greater use of nuclear energy to ensure stable power supply amid global fuel shortages and to reduce carbon emission. Even though Japan has experienced extreme atrocities from nuclear power, they won’t abandon it. Japan needs nuclear power because its grid is not connected to neighboring countries, nor is it able to boost output of domestic fossil fuels.

Japan plans to shift investment from nuclear to renewables, aiming to derive all of its future power from sources like solar and wind in its latest call to abandon nuclear power. Opposition to nuclear along with the use of coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel, has also come from within the government, but some nuclear power is coming back, so it won’t be completely abandoned.

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