September 16, 2019

De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict

General Assembly: Special Political Committee

Topic: De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict

Sectarianism arises from an intense connection to a political, cultural, or religious identity, and often a combination. At a high level, sectarian conflict can occur if a group believes that its shared identity is under threat, or if a group believes that the success or proliferation of its shared identity is dependent on converting others to the same set of beliefs. Shades of sectarianism are present in most interstate (between and among different states) and intrastate (within a single state) conflicts, but the role of the United Nations in intrastate sectarian conflicts is not as clear as with international conflict. While the UN has specifically deplored acts of violence against persons on the basis of their religion or beliefs, the issue is complicated by the fact that sectarian violence is often perpetrated by groups outside the control of a state’s government. While the UN may have influence over the actions of its member states, that influence is limited over non-state actors.

The UN Charter provides that the UN shall not “intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state,” but whether an intrastate conflict falls within that state’s “domestic jurisdiction” is an open question. Conflicts that may appear “internal” can have international ramifications. For example, refugees of intrastate conflicts frequently cross borders into neighboring states and states may install military outposts along international borders to prevent foreign intervention. States that seek to assert their domestic jurisdiction and exclude UN involvement often do so at the expense of their own populations, and at risk to the broader intentional community. On the other hand, UN intervention could undermine the authority of the domestic government in future conflicts.

It will be the role of this committee to set guidelines that govern when the UN should (and should not) intervene in intrastate sectarian conflicts. In setting those guidelines, the committee should consider the following questions: How does the UN balance states’ interests in national sovereignty with the UN mission to protect future generations from the devastation of conflict? Should the UN consider the sectarian nature of a conflict in determining whether to intervene in a particular intrastate conflict? How much weight should the UN give to the opinion of the domestic government on whether UN intervention is necessary or desired?

Useful Links:

UN Overview of Peace and Security Operations

Paul C. Szasz, Role of United Nations in Internal Conflicts, 13 Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 345 (1983)

Background on the International Day Commemorating the Victims of Acts of Violence Based on Religion or Belief

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Submitted Position Papers

Gregory Poole 11/24/2023 21:31:43

Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Akshat Jain

De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Akshat Jain
Forest Hills Northern High School

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) recognizes the imperative need to
address the challenge of sectarian conflicts around the world. Sectarian conflicts pose
significant threats to regional stability and global peace. North Korea is committed to engaging
in diplomatic efforts to contribute to de-escalating and resolving such conflicts.
North Korea acknowledges that sectarian conflicts often stem from historical, cultural, religious,
or political differences. These conflicts can lead to devastating consequences, including loss of
lives, displacement of populations, and hindrance to socio-economic development. North Korea
emphasizes the importance of addressing the root causes of sectarian conflicts to achieve
lasting and sustainable solutions.
North Korea advocates for diplomatic solutions as the primary means to de-escalate sectarian
conflicts. The government encourages dialogue and negotiations between conflicting parties to
foster mutual understanding, build trust, and reach peaceful resolutions. North Korea is ready to
participate in diplomatic initiatives within the framework of international organizations and
through bilateral channels to facilitate dialogue and mediation efforts.
North Korea underscores the principle of respect for national sovereignty and non-interference
in the internal affairs of states. While supporting international efforts to mediate sectarian
conflicts, North Korea believes that external interventions should respect the autonomy of
nations and avoid exacerbating tensions. The government urges the international community to
work collaboratively, respecting the diversity of cultures and traditions, to promote understanding
and tolerance.
North Korea recognizes the importance of addressing the humanitarian aspects of sectarian
conflicts. The government supports the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected
populations, including refugees and internally displaced persons, and emphasizes the need for
unhindered access to humanitarian organizations. Additionally, North Korea encourages the
international community to contribute to post-conflict reconstruction efforts to rebuild
communities and promote sustainable development.
North Korea believes in the power of education and cultural exchange to foster long-term
stability and prevent sectarian conflicts. The government supports initiatives that promote
intercultural dialogue, religious tolerance, and understanding among diverse communities.
Educational programs and cultural exchanges can contribute to breaking down stereotypes and
building bridges between different religious and ethnic groups.
In conclusion, North Korea is committed to actively engaging in diplomatic efforts to de-escalate
sectarian conflicts. By promoting dialogue, respecting sovereignty, providing humanitarian

assistance, and supporting education and cultural exchange, North Korea aims to create a more
peaceful and harmonious world. The government encourages the international community to
work collaboratively to address the root causes of sectarian conflicts and build a foundation for
sustainable peace and development.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 23:58:24

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: United Kingdom
Delegate Name: Alec Droog

Sectarian conflicts occur when a group feels that another is attacking their identity. Sectarian conflicts not only result in loss of life and displacement but also cause instability among all nations. The UN has used diplomacy to resolve sectarian conflicts in the past. In 1991 the UN successfully ended the Gulf War in Iraq by sending in people who were there to make a truce. The United Nations should be actively sending peace negotiators to places where there are sectarian conflicts.

The United Kingdom is in favor of international actions to prevent and resolve sectarian conflicts. During the late 1900s, the UK was going through a sectarian conflict between the Protestants and Roman Catholics. The UK made the Good Friday treaty which ended the conflict. The UK is one of the founding members of the UN Security Council where we support peace among all nations. We have always fought for peace internationally when it comes to sectarian conflicts.

We encourage the UN to increase its efforts in maintaining peace in places with sectarian conflicts. The UK recommends a major increase in funds used for negotiating an end to sectarian conflicts. The UK is willing to use its resources in order to help with the end of sectarian conflicts.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 23:57:17

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Palestinian Authority
Delegate Name: Ishaan Muchumarri

The issue of Sectarian Conflict is one of great gravity and is plagued by significant amounts of struggle. Sectarianism, by definition, refers to any conflict between political, cultural, or religious conflict between two groups and usually involves violence, discrimination, exclusion, and hatred. Though this has been prevalent throughout all of history, like the struggle between Shi’a and Sunni Muslims which has existed from the early days of Islam’s existence to the current day, it has proven to be a serious issue in the modern world. For example, an ongoing conflict between Protestant Unionists and Catholic Nationalists in Northern Ireland over whether to remain a part of the United Kingdom or join the Republic of Ireland saw large amounts of violence and police brutality throughout the later 20th century as a result of power being held by mostly Protestant Unionists. This violence ultimately spread into various places beyond Northern Ireland, such as the rest of Ireland, England, and various other locations in Continental Europe. Though this was somewhat resolved in 1998 with a new treaty, over 3,000 lives were lost and tensions remain high between the two groups. This is just one example, and conflicts like this are taking place in every part of the world. In every case, escalation on either side only results in a harsher response from the other side, which in turn prompts further escalation in an endless spiral that yields only death and destruction. For this reason, it is crucial that tensions within Sectarian conflicts be pacified, as it is the only way to ensure a sense of long-term peace and resolution between the two populations.

The Palestinian Authority’s entire existence has been strained due to sectarianism. The State of Israel has subjected the Palestinian people under its occupation to several conditions that have been labeled as apartheid by many NGOs, including Human Rights Watch in April 2021 and Amnesty International in February 2022. In 2003, Israel instituted the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law, which targeted peoples from specifically Middle Eastern countries and the occupied Palestinian territories and limited their ability to acquire citizenship in Israel. Furthermore, the State of Israel has, for years, been pursuing a policy of Hafrada, which argues for the separation of Israeli and Palestinian populations, which has been considered the equivalent of apartheid. This has resulted in multiple actions by the Israeli government that have separated the Palestinian population and limited their ability to move throughout not just the entire territory that Israel controls, but specifically targets areas in the occupied Palestinian territories to protect Israeli settlers. This has come in the form of The Israeli West Bank barrier and the associated controls on the movement of Palestinians posed by West Bank Closures. Speaking of the Israeli settlers, over 800,000 Israeli settlers currently reside in occupied Palestinian territories, and the hostility they have exerted against local Palestinians has taken multiple forms, including but not limited to attacks against Palestinian Water supplies, attacks against Palestinian electrical infrastructure, commitments of arson against Palestinian houses and cars, murders of Palestinians, and much more. Lastly, the Israeli Military itself has committed numerous attacks against Palestinians in occupied territories. On top of also partaking in everything that the settlers have done above, they have also committed crimes against humanity against Palestinians. One example is Israel’s extensive use of white phosphorus munitions during its 22-day military operations in Gaza, from December 27, 2008, to January 18, 2009, named Operation Cast Lead. Though the use of white phosphorous is not entirely banned by international law due to its legal uses, it is banned in the Geneva Conventions from being used against civilian targets. As such, The Israeli government violated the Geneva Conventions when it fired at least three white phosphorus shells at a UN-run school (which was serving as a refuge for 1600 people) on January 17, 2009, and they continued to commit such crimes throughout their operation. Another such example is during the 2018–2019 Gaza border protests when the Israeli military fired at Palestinians and killed 214 civilians, including 46 children. Ultimately, the current one-state situation in the region has caused significant amounts of suffering amongst the Palestinian population, and change is needed desperately.

The Palestinian Authority strongly advises that the United Nations reaffirm Article I of the Charter of the United Nations, which argues for the right of self-determination amongst all people of the globe. Furthermore, new restrictions must be placed on all nations that involve multiple different groups of people living within their borders that mandate all these groups have the ability to take office in these states or that guarantee the rights of the peoples in question to leave and form their own state if they feel the current state is not serving them to the fullest of their abilities.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 23:01:42

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Belarus
Delegate Name: Prisha Thakker

Submitted To: Special Political Committee
From: The Republic of Belarus
Subject: De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict

The Republic of Belarus finds itself at the heart of the critical discourse surrounding the de-escalation of sectarian conflict within the United Nations Security Council. As a nation committed to the principles of peace, sovereignty, and international cooperation, Belarus recognizes the urgent need for collaborative efforts to address the multifaceted challenges posed by sectarian conflicts around the world. With its rich cultural diversity and historical experiences, Belarus understands the profound impact of sectarian tensions on social cohesion, regional stability, and global peace. Belarus approaches this discussion with a steadfast commitment to fostering diplomatic solutions that prioritize dialogue, inclusivity, and the protection of human rights.
The Republic of Belarus, situated at the crossroads of geopolitical complexities, approaches the discourse on guidelines for UN intervention in intrastate sectarian conflicts with a nuanced perspective deeply rooted in our commitment to national sovereignty and stability. Under President Alexander Lukashenko’s leadership, Belarus has consistently advocated for the principles of non-interference in the internal affairs of states. As a nation that has historically prioritized its sovereignty, we understand the delicate task before this committee in navigating the tensions between respecting the autonomy of states and the United Nations’ imperative to protect future generations from the devastation wrought by internal conflicts.
In balancing states’ interests in national sovereignty with the UN mission to preserve global peace, Belarus emphasizes the need for a cautious and measured approach. The experiences of Belarus, having overcome the challenges associated with its own post-Soviet transition, inform our delegation’s perspective. We contend that any guidelines devised by this committee should reflect the diversity of states, considering their unique histories, cultures, and political systems. Belarus asserts that a one-size-fits-all approach is not conducive to fostering international cooperation and understanding. Therefore, we urge the committee to craft guidelines that acknowledge the significance of respecting the diverse paths nations take in their development while simultaneously addressing the imperative of the UN to prevent and mitigate conflicts that may threaten the collective security of the international community.
While acknowledging the necessity for guidelines governing UN intervention in intrastate sectarian conflicts, Belarus urges the committee to deliberate on the nuanced question of whether the sectarian nature of a conflict should factor into the UN’s decision-making process. Belarus understands the gravity of sectarian tensions within a nation and acknowledges the potential for escalation. However, we contend that a careful assessment must be made to avoid inadvertently undermining the principles of national sovereignty. Belarus suggests that the UN should approach this question with sensitivity, recognizing that a broad understanding of the root causes of a conflict is imperative. It is our belief that the UN’s intervention, if deemed necessary, should be characterized by impartiality and a comprehensive understanding of the intricate socio-political dynamics at play.
Belarus points to the United Nations Charter, specifically underscoring the principles enshrined in Article 2, which emphasizes the sovereign equality of all member states and prohibits the use of force or interference in the internal affairs of sovereign nations. Belarus contends that any intervention framework must align with these foundational principles, ensuring a delicate balance between international intervention and the imperative to protect human rights and prevent conflicts. Belarus underscores the importance of ensuring that any UN intervention respects the sovereignty of the nation in question while effectively addressing the underlying causes of sectarian conflicts.
Regarding the weight given to the opinion of the domestic government on UN intervention, Belarus emphasizes the significance of acknowledging each nation’s right to determine its internal affairs. The opinions and desires of the domestic government should be duly considered in any UN decision-making process. Belarus, however, recognizes the potential challenges in cases where governments may not fully represent the diverse voices within a nation. Striking a balance between respecting the legitimate authority of the government and safeguarding the rights and aspirations of all segments of the population is crucial in ensuring the effectiveness and legitimacy of any UN intervention.
Belarus stands ready to actively engage in the committee’s efforts to set guidelines for UN intervention in intrastate sectarian conflicts. Our delegation emphasizes the need for a tailored approach that considers the unique circumstances of each nation, respecting their sovereignty while addressing the complex challenges posed by internal conflicts. Belarus advocates for a framework that strikes a delicate balance between preventing human suffering and upholding the principles of non-interference in domestic affairs. As we collectively navigate these discussions, Belarus remains committed to contributing constructively to establishing guidelines that reflect the diverse perspectives within the international community.

Works Cited
UN Policy Portal, Accessed 22 November 2023.
“Belarus – United States Department of State.” State Department, Accessed 22 November 2023.
“Peace and Security | United Nations.” the United Nations, Accessed 22 November 2023.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 22:44:29

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: United States of America
Delegate Name: Roziya Rustamova

Sectarianism often refers to a form of discrimination, hostility, and can lead to conflicts between people of different religion, ethnic and cultural groups. Sectarian conflicts can occur in various ways, such as social, political, and even violent confrontations, rooting from historical, and religious differences. The United Nations plays a major role in de-escalation sectarian conflicts by employing a range of diplomatic, humanitarian and peacekeeping measures. But the United States believes that the decision to intervene should be planned out according to the severity of conflict, and the humanitarian crisis. The United States has always supported UN interventions in sectarian conflict, but also emphasizes the importance of planning a well thought out strategy, and prioritizing diplomacy.

Around the world, the USA is known for its religious diversity and religious freedom, but in the past there have been instances of sectarian conflict throughout its history. But despite the conflicts, compared to many regions, sectarian conflict in the US is known to be less intense, and is protected by religious freedom laws. This is due to all the effort made by the USA to better understand all the different religions and ethnic groups within the country. The USA works to improve and further de-escalate sectarianism by emphasizing on inclusivity, and by protecting individual rights. It celebrates diversity, and promotes respect among different religious and ethnic groups. The U.S. government also implements policies that protect religious freedom, and where all different groups can coexist peacefully within the country.

To de-escalate sectarian conflicts, the United States believes the UN should intervene when there’s evidence of human rights abuses, genocides, and harm against humanity. It also believes that respect for national sovereignty is vital and that innervations can result in more tensions, and escalation of the conflict. The U.S. supports UN intervention, and is willing to lend diplomatic support, financial aid, and humanitarian assistance. The United States believes that it is capable of contributing to global efforts and looks forward to working with other nations to come up with a more solid and lasting solution.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/22/2023 21:23:22

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Ethiopia
Delegate Name: Will McConnell

As a nation with two significant religions–Orthodox Christianity and Islam–sectarian conflicts are bound to occur. In day-to-day life, if you take two extreme opposites and put them in the same house, there will be issues. Now, widen your viewpoint and examine the countries holding many people of opposite extremes; it makes for bloodshed.

Ethiopia has been a country run without religious backing since 1974, but our people continue fighting for the prevalence of their respective religions. Our constitution underscores our support of religious freedom and the importance of non-discriminatory action towards one another. We are devastated by every headline we see within our borders of our people killing and attacking each other over a difference we have written is a choice one may only make for oneself. Stepping in and calming down these situations is paramount to our survival as a people.

Overall, Ethiopia lives in harmony with relative religious tolerance–the problem lies in the heart of the people. As a government, it is impossible to control each and every individual. We must, as many other countries with religious freedom can agree on, bring to the surface the importance of not only non-discriminatory action in areas such as business and education but also in areas such as personal lives. Ethiopia prides itself on being so tolerant for a country that, just in the last fifty years, broke away from a religiously backed government. We only hope the people grow to understand religious tolerance allows zero room for careless disputes nor violence.

An approach Ethiopia would like to take in recognition of the increased religious tension in the last three decades is to openly acknowledge that this tension most likely stems from the near-equal power balance between the Christians and the Muslims. For centuries, the religious groups lived in harmony because of the established dominance of Orthodox Christianity; with the loss of that dominance, everyone wanted to prove their religion was superior. Now, there is no one telling the Ethiopian people there is a specific religion in control, and it is left in the hands of extremists. The sooner we as a people can recognize this as a plausible issue, the sooner Ethiopia can work to further set in stone that no one religion should hold any more meaning than another. We hope to provide a more in-depth curriculum for school-age children in the history and cultural values of our two major religions and many of the more minor ones. Teaching this acceptance and history from a young age will lead to a generation of tolerance we hope will continue and grow from there.

Ethiopia believes that our sister nations in similar situations can learn from our ideas and break the mould of religious intolerance. A religiously tolerant nation should teach tolerance, not leave the people to their own devices, trying to establish dominance over the other.
We are excited to hear what other nations think of this idea and hope to see a successful move towards a more tolerant species.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 16:11:06

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Italy
Delegate Name: Aalyaan Khan

Rivalries between cultural and religious groups have been a conflict around the world forever. The joining of or supporting these groups directly should help the people, planet, prosperity, place, and partnership. Religious freedom is very important to the people and government of italy. In recent conflicts, Italy has decided to stay away and not intervene. Italy’s leaders enforce with the people to not interfere with the conflict but to set a goal to a solution.

Italy has been a religiously tolerant and open country since the 1800’s. Creating a safe space for all religions was a first step Italy took to a free religious and cultural world. Italy has passed laws that permit citizens of Italy to practice religion by oneself, or with others. Religious communities have the right to establish institutions and promote, or celebrate rites in public. Italy has monitored racial discrimination with focus to completely eradicate discrimination. Studies showing that Muslim women were prone to online targeting is the most prominent in Italy. Italy has adopted the EU anti-racism action plan to spread awareness and to start tracking discrimination more than before. It is essential to make to plans, laws, and regulations to eliminate all discrimination

Italy proposes that the United Nations promote the eradication of all sectarian conflicts. Italy and many other countries will help spread the cause and promote the good effects that will come with no discrimination. The tracking law will help us incentivise past offenders to not keep going with their actions but to educate themselves and to teach others.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 16:00:30

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: India
Delegate Name: Shriya Nallan Chakravarthi

Sectarian conflicts fracture societal harmony, endanger future generations, and fuel extremism. India has had numerous sectarian conflicts, both interstate and intrastate, since its independence, and has a lot of experience in dealing with these conflicts. The United Nations Security Council and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) play crucial roles in deciding when to intervene. Currently the UN only intervenes in interstate conflicts if both nations agree to an intervention or the UN Security Council agrees. However, this framework must be revised.

India faces many intrastate sectarian conflicts today. On May 2023, Manipur, a small state in India, has killed more than 140 people, many are innocent civilians. The conflict stemmed from year long tensions between the Hindu Meitei community and Christian Kuki-Zomi tribes over extended tribal status. In response to the unrest, India issued curfews, suspending internet devices, and deployed 40,000 soldiers to combat the issue. India has used similar tactics in its other sectarian conflicts, such as the communal violence in Gurugram, Haryana, India. The violence originated from longstanding resentment between the Hindu and Muslim groups in the areas. Violent mobs targeted many Mosques and Muslim owned businesses. At least six people have died, and more than 110 people have been arrested. The Indian government used the aforementioned tactics to first control the situation, and then maintain peace. UN OCHA has donated for emergency shelters, food security, education, and others. As for interstate conflicts, India and Pakistan has had its own sectarian conflict, which is more political than the intrastate ones. This interstate conflict has existed since India’s independence in 1947. The UN established an observer group named the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to aid in the conflict. The UN Security Council has passed resolutions for a cease-fire, withdrawal of some military forces, and an internationally supervised plebiscite for the people of Kashmir to decide which nation they will be a part of. Only the cease-fire resolution has been implemented. Ever since, the UN urges and fails for both sides to peacefully negotiate with parity. This conflict demonstrates the flaws in the current framework. Pakistan and India both do not agree to negotiate with parity and UN Security Council resolutions are not implemented effectively. Without UN negotiations or implementation, more innocent lives will be lost and future generations will not be harmed by the devastation of conflict.

The Republic of India urges the UN to revise the framework for UN intervention for interstate and intrastate conflicts. As much as national sovereignty must be respected to ensure faith in that nation’s government, the UN must intervene at some point to ensure more lives are saved. The Security Council should be able to intervene in interstate conflicts faster and effectively implement its policies. Moreover, the UN should monitor intrastate sectarian conflicts and intervene when the conflict has reached a level of seriousness through the Human Rights Committee or when the state calls upon the UN for help. With this revised framework, more sectarian conflicts can be resolved faster, more effectively, and protects the future generations.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 15:54:06

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Sudan
Delegate Name: Shephard Bower

Sectarianism is defined as a narrow‐minded obedience to a particular sect (political, ethnic, or religious). Sectarianism often leads to conflicts between people of different sects. Sectarianism is present in most interstate and intrastate conflicts, but the United Nation’s (UN’s) role in these conflicts is very unclear. This issue is made difficult because sectarian violence is often committed by groups that are outside of the state government’s control. The UN may have control over the actions of member states, but it can not control the groups that are not controlled by the states. However, when states attempt to assert domestic jurisdiction without the aid of the UN, many citizen casualties occur. What complicates the issue even more is conflicts that seem internal may have international conflicts. UN involvement could undermine the authority of these states in the future..

Sudan has had many sectarian conflicts, even before it was officially recognized as a country. Sudan is currently in a sectarian conflict between the Rapid Support Forces and the Sudanese Armed Forces. Sudan has made steps to help stop sectarian conflicts, including signing the comprehensive peace agreement in 2005 to end the second Sudanese civil war. If they are not managed, sectarian conflicts can move outside domestic borders and hurt regional stability and development. Sudan believes that it is necessary to determine the main cause of sectarian conflicts in order to aid in de-escalating them. The republic of Sudan believes that cooperation between many countries in the United Nations is needed to help minimize these tensions and prevent further damage.

To de-escalate sectarian conflicts, Sudan proposes an involved solution. First, as an affected nation, Sudan calls for international cooperation and communication between UN member nations in order to locate and take action against sectarian conflicts. Second, Sudan believes that the UN should promote economic development in states affected by sectarian conflicts. The UN should enact specific economic policies and send monetary aid to states caught in sectarian conflicts in order to keep their economies from collapsing. Third, Sudan calls for the UN to send humanitarian and military aid to regions of countries affected by sectarian conflicts in order to establish peace. Finally, Sudan affirms that the UN should find a way to balance states’ interests with the protection of people from sectarian. Sudan is open to all solutions that call for the UN to address sectarian conflicts, send aid to the regions affected by them and help combat them. Sudan looks forward to working with its fellow delegates in order to find a solution to this conflict.

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FHEDelegates 11/22/2023 14:13:01

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Kazakhstan
Delegate Name: Calvin Cater

A sectarian conflict is a destructive cycle that can cause long-lasting damage to communities. Examples include religious, economic, and political disputes. Kazasktans location geopgrahically has casued it to become a place of migration, and such developed a diverse collection of communities. Kazakhstan has experienced largely ethnic conflicts back when it was a part of the Soviet Union. Due to its diversity, Kazaskhstan is at risk toward conflicts arising.
Kazakhstan’s stance on sectarian conflicts is based on both historical context and regional background. Extremist groups have prompted Kazakhstan to prioritize the maintenance of peace and stability within its own borders. Additionally, the country has witnessed the consequences of sectarian conflicts, such as the displacement of communities and the threat to national security. These incidents have shaped Kazakhstan’s commitment to finding peaceful resolutions and preventing the escalation of sectarian tensions. As a country in Central Asia’s heart, this proximity exposes Kazakhstan to the potential spillover effects of these conflicts, making it crucial for the country to carefully navigate its stance in order to maintain peace and stability. To ensure its security and maintain harmonious relations, Kazakhstan recognizes the importance of actively engaging in diplomatic relations and establishing partnerships with neighboring countries and global powers
Kazakhstan can adopt several strategies and approaches to address sectarian conflicts. Firstly, fostering dialogue and promoting peacebuilding efforts is crucial. By encouraging open and constructive discussions, Kazakhstan can create a platform for different religious and ethnic groups to voice their concerns, reduce tensions, and build mutual understanding. Additionally, Kazakhstan should actively participate in regional and international initiatives aimed at resolving sectarian conflicts. This involvement allows Kazakhstan to contribute its unique perspective and experiences, as well as collaborate with other nations to find comprehensive and lasting solutions.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 13:04:54

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Jordan
Delegate Name: Meira Gable

The rise of sectarian conflicts throughout the globe are creating difficult political situations, with ties to historical and religious events. Particularly in the Middle East with the proliferation of conflicts in the past 15 years known as the Arab Spring. In large part these conflicts are sectarian, being based on religious differences. The rise of ultraconservative terrorist groups have fueled the already growing feelings of unrest and discontent with central governments. When these tensions burst forth into conflict, it presents a situation that poses risks to all sectors of society. The imminent threat of government collapse in regions like the Middle East, has the potential to affect global economics and resource access as well as sow division in international politics. Moving forward, addressing how to deescalate sectarian conflicts is crucial to promoting security in the Middle East and across the world.

Sectarian conflict has played an important role in the current societal climate of Jordan. Since the Syrian civil war, Jordan has had a rapid influx of Syrian refugees. As of 2015, only about 70% of the population was Jordanian, with nearly 15% being Syrian and 6% being Palestinian. Conflict in the Middle Eastern region based on sectarian grounds has also had a profound effect on the Jordanian economy and infrastructure. With already limited resources, the relentless stream of refugees is straining resources even more. Especially in this regard, finding sustainable and long term solutions for sectarian conflicts and the radical feelings of sectarianism that caused them in the first place is essential to combating this crisis. Jordan has already made attempts at finding solutions to current crises, supporting a step-by-step plan to help put an end to the Syrian civil war. In addition to this, Jordan has partnered with the U.S. in the fight against Daesh. Jordan has also been taking steps to reduce religious stigmatization and increase religious tolerance.

Dealing with the aftermath and consequences of this type of crisis is just as important as preventing them from beginning in the first place. Establishing systems to help handle refugees and internally displaced persons must be at the front of the decision making of this committee. Tied in with this is the creation of more comprehensive solutions to end sectarian conflicts, an example of which would be the two-state solution proposed for the nearly century long tension between Israel and Palestine. Similarly, many Arab nations have backed plans for Syrian peace as mentioned previously, at the center of which is the dismantling of militia groups such as Hezbollah and reducing the power these groups hold. Finally, when it comes down to it, mitigating the number of sectarian conflicts comes down to mitigating radical sectarian sentiments. This is not an easy task, but one that must be attempted in order to establish a full solution to this crisis.

The Jordanian delegation is looking forward to working with the delegates of this committee to find a productive and successful solution in order to deescalate current sectarian conflicts and prevent them from beginning in the first place.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 13:01:35

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Turkey
Delegate Name: Brooklyn Rahmaan Bexler

Turkey acknowledges the pressing global issue of sectarian conflicts that threaten peace and stability in various regions. As a nation that bridges Europe and Asia, Turkey recognizes the importance of promoting harmony and cooperation among diverse communities to ensure a secure and prosperous world.

Understanding the historical context of sectarian conflicts is crucial for devising effective solutions. Turkey has a rich history of cultural and religious diversity, and its experiences can contribute valuable insights to the global discourse on de-escalating sectarian tensions. Turkey emphasizes the need to learn from historical successes and challenges in managing diverse populations.

Turkey advocates for a comprehensive and inclusive approach to address sectarian conflicts. We believe in fostering dialogue, mutual understanding, and respect for cultural and religious diversity. Turkey has implemented policies that promote social cohesion and inclusivity, recognizing the importance of embracing diversity as a source of strength rather than division.

Turkey has actively supported UN initiatives aimed at resolving conflicts and promoting dialogue. Our commitment to multilateralism is evident in our contributions to UN peacekeeping missions and diplomatic efforts to address sectarian tensions in various regions. Turkey believes in the power of international cooperation to create lasting solutions.

Turkey advocates for diplomatic solutions that prioritize dialogue among conflicting parties. We propose the establishment of neutral mediation platforms facilitated by international organizations to encourage open communication and negotiations. Dialogue should include representatives from all relevant communities to ensure inclusivity and fairness.

Turkey emphasizes the role of education in fostering tolerance and understanding. We propose initiatives that promote cultural exchange programs, educational partnerships, and awareness campaigns to challenge stereotypes and prejudices. By investing in education, we can lay the foundation for a more tolerant and cohesive global society.

Turkey believes that addressing the root causes of sectarian conflicts requires attention to economic disparities. We propose targeted economic development projects in affected regions to create opportunities for all communities. Economic empowerment can contribute to stability and reduce the likelihood of sectarian tensions.

Turkey acknowledges that de-escalating sectarian conflicts is a complex challenge. We are committed to addressing concerns related to the proposed solutions and welcome constructive feedback. Turkey emphasizes the importance of adapting strategies to the specific context of each conflict, ensuring flexibility and effectiveness.

Turkey reaffirms its commitment to promoting peace, stability, and harmony on the global stage. By implementing diplomatic, educational, and economic solutions, we can create a more inclusive world where diverse communities coexist peacefully. Turkey stands ready to collaborate with the international community to de-escalate sectarian conflicts and build a brighter future for all.

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Celia Kaechele 11/22/2023 12:55:02

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Japan
Delegate Name: Goni Wong

Sectarian Conflict refers to a violent dispute between two or more different groups, this conflict is usually based around issues such as religion and political disunity. These disputes usually appear where there is an upheaval in the political climate, social climate, cultural climate, and economic landscape of the affected region. In the Middle East, the Kurds fight for independence along political lines against regional governments. In the Caucasus the Chechnyans, in a classic David versus Goliath struggle, battled for increased autonomy for a Chechen state due to religious differences. In Asia, Hindu and Muslim extremists fight each other over religious differences in Pakistan and India. In Africa, western Saharans fight for independence against the Moroccan government. In Europe, Irish nationals fueled by ultra nationalism come into conflict with British nationals on the issue of Ulster secession. In North America there are proxy wars fueled by political disputes happening throughout central America. The entire globe feels the harmful impact of these sectarian conflicts. No matter what continent or region a nation is located, the consequences of these political and religious disputes are widespread. Therefore, you cannot understate the importance of de-escalating these conflicts world wide. The UN has been a key driving force in trying to de-escalate conflicts that are of sectarian roots. Strategies the UN uses to prevent or de-escalate these sectarian conflicts are guided by its Charter, which emphasizes the concepts of sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. These strategies include but are not limited to conflict prevention and mediation, peacekeeping operations, human rights monitoring and protection, humanitarian assistance, international criminal justice, peace building and development, sanctions and use of force, and peacebuilding and reconciliation. Japan has not had major violent sectarian confrontations since the religious disputes between traditionalists and buddhists. However Japan understands the importance of addressing this issue and has been a foremost nation in providing real world solutions for de escalation. Japan’s contributions often take the form of financial assistance, development aid, and diplomatic support rather than direct military intervention. These efforts align with Japan’s commitment to international cooperation, conflict prevention, and the promotion of peace and stability. Historically Japan has focused on the economic and diplomatic side of efforts in de-escalate sectarian conflicts. However Japan has contributed to humanitarian efforts and peacebuilding in conflict areas in the form of development assistance, peacekeeping operations and support of humanitarian efforts. Japan has been a large contributor to deployment of UN peacekeeping missions to conflict zones. Japan would like to see solutions in the future that address not only de-escalating the conflicts themselves, but also dealing with the civilian consequences that arise from these consequences. The increase of humanitarian efforts and peacebuilding is crucial to achieve all Sustainable Development Goals in conflict torn areas.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/22/2023 10:31:13

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Ukraine
Delegate Name: Benjamin Pease

Committee: Special Political Committee
Topic: De-esclation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Ukraine
Name: Benjamin Pease
School: Forest Hills Northern High School

Sectarian conflict has been present throughout history and is a growing issue in many parts of the world. There are two types of sectarian conflict: interstate and intrastate. However, sectarian conflict can be about many different issues, including religion, culture, and politics. Ukraine itself has a long history of sectarian conflict in its fight for independence, as well as currently in the Russo-Ukraine War. Sectarian conflict can have large domestic and international implications and profoundly impacts civilian life, leaving lasting effects on future generations. Therefore, it is important that the UN address sectarian conflict.
Dealing with sectarian conflict is one of the United Nations’ main jobs. Through preventative diplomacy and, in some cases, more severe action, the UN tries to diminish human suffering and promote peace. Although the United Nations’ role in the international sectarian conflict is well-defined, the UN’s rule in intrastate conflict is vague. Thus, the main focus of contention is the role of the UN in domestic disputes. The Charter addresses domestic disputes in Article two, paragraph seven, which states that nothing can authorize the UN to intervene in domestic matters except if authorized by the country itself or the Security Council. Past actions of the UN in domestic conflict have generally tried to focus on granting humanitarian assistance, such as the involvement of UNICEF in the Syrian civil war beginning in 2011.
Ukraine has a long history of domestic sectarian conflict because of its disputes with Russia, and it has continued to advocate for international support in the sectarian conflict with Russia in Eastern Ukraine, consistently calling for a peaceful resolution to the conflict and seeking assistance from the UN to mediate and provide humanitarian aid. In past resolutions, Ukraine has consistently voted to promote human rights and equality and has supported efforts by the UN to maintain peace in domestic sectarian conflict regardless of the sectarian nature of a conflict.
Understanding the need for more precise guidelines regarding intrastate sectarian conflict, Ukraine proposes more specific guidelines detailing when the UN can intervene in domestic conflicts and to what degree this intervention entails. These new guidelines should allow the domestic government to have some role in confirming if help is needed; however, the main goal of intervention should be maintaining peace and humanitarian resistance. The international ramifications of the conflict must also be shown before the UN is allowed to intervene. Lastly, if physical intervention by the UN is necessary, it should be based on a clear mandate focusing on protecting civilians, facilitating dialogue, and supporting the implementation of peace agreements. The international community must continue to act on sectarian conflict especially domestic conflict to prevent the lasting effects on future generations.

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KalamazooCentralDelegates 11/22/2023 10:58:45

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Delegate Name: Ava Balint

Special Political
Republic of Korea
Ava Balint
Topic B: De-escalation of Sectarian Conflicts

Sectarianism is the strong connection with a party, especially a religious identity, race, or political party. In this strong attachment sectarian conflicts occur due to the party of interest feeling threatened. Sectarian conflicts occur in both interstate (multiple countries) and intrastate (in a single country). As far as intrastate conflicts the UN knows their role in de-escalating them, but not as much for intrastate conflicts. Currently there is a large sectarian conflict in the Middle East surrounding Muslims in Pakistan.
As South Korea has emerged as an important player in Asia’s economy and international affairs, South Korea’s standings are also reflected in its interactions with the Middle East. The Middle East has never been as important to Korea as it is today, South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se described how his country’s relationship with the region had changed from one “of choice” to a relationship “of necessity”. In 2013, Korea became the first country in Asia to adopt a refugee law after they joined the Refugee Convention in December 1992. This was due to past sectarian conflicts. South Korea experienced the global refugee conflict in 2018 with around 500 Yemeni citizens using a visa-free entry system. On June 1, 2018, the government removed Yemen from its list of visa-free. South Korea did this due to the issue between “real refugees” vs “fake refugees”, and concerns over social integration of Yemen refugees.
Today, South Korea is a multicultural society, with some opposition from the Korean Society in accepting refugees from Yemen. As South Korea actively took the lead in Asia in accepting refugees, South Korea emphasizes countries also follow and do the same. With more and more refugees every year, the number of asylum seekers sharply increases, peaking at 16,173 in 2018 due to the refugee crisis. South Korea believes that accepting refugees into a new, safer, welcoming country, will be a first step towards de-escalating sectarian conflicts. With more countries opening their arms to refugees will also help ease the struggles that refugee-accepting countries are facing, for example South Korea’s economy struggles to employ the increasing number of refugees.

1. Alasrar, F. A., & Jalal, I. (2023, November 16). South Korea’s “yemeni refugee problem.” Middle East Institute.
2. South Korea. Migrants & Refugees Section. (2021, October 21).,peaking%20at%2016%2C173%20in%202018.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 23:48:32

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Finland
Delegate Name: Charlotte Dykstra

Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: De-escalation of sectarian conflict
Country: The Republic of Finland
Delegate: Charlotte Dykstra, FH Northern HS

Intrastate sectarian conflict has been a deep-rooted issue in the global political and social landscape for an innumerable amount of time. Sectarianism can occur when a group forms an intense attachment or association with a particular set of beliefs, especially religion. TIn the global landscape of instrate sectarian conflict, the international community faces the difficult task of formulating guidelines for UN intervention. The impacts of conflicts caused by sectarianism stress the need for establishing a policy that helps to govern when the UN should intervene in such conflict.

The Republic of Finland approaches the issue of intrastate sectarian conflict with a tradition of advocacy for peace and international cooperation. Up to this point, Finland has not been directly involved in sectarian conflict to the degree as seen in other regions, but the delegation recognizes the gravity of intrastate sectarian conflicts and their potential and ability to destabilize regions, cause immense human suffering, and hinder socio-economic development. Finland’s commitment to diplomacy and conflict prevention aligns with the broader goals of the UN.

The UN has been at the forefront of efforts to address sectarian conflicts. The UN has formulated various resolutions, declarations, and proposals that are aimed at providing a comprehensive guide to UN intervention such as the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), the Brahimi Report, and the United Nation Charter. Finland recognizes the significance of these UN positions and emphasizes the need to build upon existing guidelines while considering the unique challenges posed by sectarian conflict.

Emphasizing diplomatic and non-coercive measures, Finland advocates for guidelines that take into consideration both respecting states’ interest in national sovereignty and fulfilling the UN responsibility to protect future generations from the devastation that can arise from such conflicts. The Finnish delegation also recognizes the varying dynamics between sectarian conflicts and proposes guidelines that address root causes, promote inclusive dialogue, and protect vulnerable populations. While recognizing the importance of the domestic government’s opinion in regions of sectarian conflict, Finland proposes a careful assessment of its legitimacy. The Republic of Finland supports guidelines that take into account the UN’s responsibility to protect, especially in cases involving human rights abuses and lack of inclusivity. Rooted in its commitment for peace and international cooperation, Finland is committed to working collaboratively with fellow committee members in order to develop guidelines that promote the de-escalation of sectarian conflict.

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EastGrandRapidsDelegates 11/21/2023 20:40:31

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Russian Federation
Delegate Name: Ella Duffner

Sectarian conflicts refer to conflicts that arise due to political, cultural, and religious identities believing to be under threat, an issue that is seen all over the world, occurring on many different scales. With the de-escalation of sectarian conflicts in mind, it must remain clear that the UN “shall not intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state”. This statement applies to intrastate conflicts, of which the Russian Federation believes it is of great importance that the jurisdiction of domestic governments not be thwarted.

Sectarian conflicts are seen within the Russian Federation through its Ukrainian relations. On February 20th, 2014, Russia annexed the peninsula of Crimea, a largely Russian-populated area, justified as a rescue operation. Then, on the 24th of February 2022, Russia launched a special military operation into Ukraine with the goal of demilitarization, justified under UN Article 51, Chapter VII: “Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security”. This would be classified as a sectarian conflict due to the intense political, cultural, and religious nature of it.

The Moscow theatre hostage crisis of 2002, also known as the Nord-Ost Seige, is another example of a sectarian conflict within Russia. This was an intrastate conflict, occurring when 40 or so heavily armed Chechens, of Chechnya which is a Republic of Russia, invaded a theatre and took hostage of the 850 audience members. Gas was utilized in the end, which killed the hostage-takers as well as some hostages. The whole ordeal resulted in up to 170 dead. This was a politically motivated sectarian conflict, as in 1991 Chechnya declared independence and was invaded in 1994 by Russia. Years of conflict led to Chechens targeting citizens in this attack. Sectarian conflicts such as these can lead to a large loss of life, something not wanted in any country. Yet, while the UN can step in involving interstate conflicts, it must respect the government involved in intrastate conflicts.

The Russian Federation is looking to work cooperatively with the UN, proposing that domestic governments continue to be allowed to handle intrastate sectarian conflicts independently, in accordance with the current standing of the UN. The UN involving itself in these conflicts which are within the domestic jurisdiction of a government undermines that government. The Russian Federation looks forward to conferring with the rest of the UN on de-escalating the issue of interstate and intrastate sectarian conflicts as well as protecting the jurisdiction of domestic governments.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 22:44:28

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Ghana
Delegate Name: Kate Petersburg

Committee: General Assembly
Topic: De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Ghana
Delegate: Kate Petersburg
School: Williamston High School

Sectarian Conflict has always been a major issue throughout the ages and we continue to see it today. It stems from a political, cultural, and/or religious identity and often causes tension between those of opposite views. In 2012 it was found that a third of all studied countries and territories had an abnormally high level of hostilities related to religion, in fact this number has been very high recently. Women have also been harassed because of their religious ways of dressing in almost a third of countries. This just goes to show the high level of religious fighting within societies but in some countries sectarian conflict is more anchored towards political beliefs.

Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, discrimination based on religion or belief is unacceptable and The General Assembly passed a resolution titled “International Day Commemorating the Victims of Acts of Violence Based on Religion or Belief”. This act condemns those who have participated in acts of terrorism targeting individuals such as religious minorities. In Ghana the population of 33.1 million is estimated to be approximately 71% Christian, 20% Muslim, 3% indigenous beliefs, and 6% having no religion. Currently Muslim-Christian and intra-Muslim tensions are very prominent mainly over the interpreting of the Quran and hadith.

Within Ghana, there are currently no actions put in place, but would be willing to join depending on the execution of these projects. Ghana’s citizens have free religion but still have strong beliefs in their chosen religion. Some plans Ghana would like to put in place would include monitoring the media and religious statements in order to prevent societies from fighting amongst each other.

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RoyalOakDelegate 11/21/2023 21:09:16

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Venezuela
Delegate Name: Haley Berry

Submitted To: SPECPOL

In any given society, sectarianism is an inevitable occurrence as people seek to align with a certain identity or set of beliefs. On the surface, there isn’t any fault to be found in wanting a sense of belonging. Problems arise, however, when these beliefs and identities are used to justify unfair treatment of opposing parties. As a formerly colonized nation, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has become all too familiar with the extreme imposition of a set system of beliefs onto a people. It is thanks to national hero Simón Bolívar that the Venezuelan people enjoy freedoms from the hierarchy, slavery, and segregation of the colonial period. Such valiant efforts have shaped the overall Venezuelan identity with principles of fairness and equality.

Noting this, the nation of Venezuela prides itself on upholding democracy and freedom of speech and expression that every citizen enjoys. In many Latin American nations, sectarian conflict arises in the form of religious disputes, namely between Catholic and non-Catholic organizations, and in some cases disagreements between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. No such enmity is found here in Venezuela, as our society is characterized by a large degree of religious tolerance, and the virtual absence of interreligious conflict. The constitution of Venezuela ensures freedom of religion and worship as long as it does not oppose morality, good customs, and public order. Parents are even given the right to choose their children’s religious education, based on their convictions. Established religious groups are very welcoming to new religious groups, and indigenous religions are broadly respected.

Venezuela feels that its current policies and practices should serve as an example to nations afflicted with sectarian conflicts, whether religious or ideological in origin. The Venezuelan government seeks to always resolve social conflicts through peaceful means, and this value can express itself in a variety of methods, from adequate representation of social and religious groups to legislation providing protections for certain identities. The National Interreligious Council was established in 2020, composed of various Evangelical Christian groups and indigenous religions with the purpose of providing a space for collaboration and discussion on the religious rights of Venezuelan citizens. Policies such as the Law against Hate for Peaceful Coexistence and Tolerance are in place to penalize anyone who promotes or commits hate crimes on radio, television, or social networks. Venezuela feels that when groups and identities feel adequately recognized and un-threatened by the actions of opposition, the potential of sectarian conflicts is drastically reduced.

The nation of Venezuela does, however, believe regulation of groups and identities is needed when such beliefs interfere with government activities and the overall well-being of citizens. The Catholic Episcopal Conference of Venezuela (CEV) in particular has posed such a threat. In addition to antagonizing LGBTQ+ rights, the CEV has been found to promote beliefs that go against the ideology of the revered Bolivarian Revolution, speaking out against social policies established as part of Chavismo principles. To portray social welfare programs in a negative light are considered acts of terrorism by the Venezuelan government and must be dealt with accordingly.

To address this issue, the Venezuelan government has set a standard that religious groups must enroll with the National Office Against Organized Crime and Terrorism Financing (ONCDOFT) registry, which requires groups to make public the donor organizations that contribute to their activities but also the beneficiaries of said activities. Groups that are not recognized receive no subsidies from the Venezuelan government and are not permitted to operate, holding groups accountable to their actions regarding criticism of government policies. The Vice Presidency of Religious Affairs of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) was also recently established for the purpose of increasing government oversight over interreligious relations. Venezuela feels that other nations desiring more regulation on various sects within their societies should implement such guidelines, so that social divisions derived from religious groups are effectively eliminated.

Ultimately, controlling and preventing sectarian conflicts, especially religious conflicts, should be considered on the basis of increased government regulation of factional activities, while also providing space for such identities to exist so long as they don’t pose a threat to existing governmental systems and democracy as a whole. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela desires to expand the application of human rights to ensure that all citizens, regardless of social position, ethnicity, nationality, or creed, feel protected and respected in our multifaceted society, and it is expected that fellow nations strive to achieve the same ideals.


“The Reception of the Right to Religious Freedom in Latin America – Talk About: Law and Religion.” Talk About: Law and Religion, 2 October 2022, Accessed 20 November 2023.

Smilde, David. “The Catholic Church and the Venezuela Crisis, 20 Years On.” Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs, 15 June 2018, Accessed 20 November 2023.

“Venezuela.”, Accessed 20 November 2023.

“Venezuela – United States Department of State.” State Department, 2 June 2022, Accessed 20 November 2023.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 12:43:58

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Cuba
Delegate Name: Breck Suvedi

Delegate: Breck Suvedi
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: De-escalation of the sectarian conflict
Country: Republic of Cuba
School: Northern High School

The sectarian conflict is an upcoming and impending issue that has come up all across the globe recently. A sectarian conflict can arise from incompatible political, religious, and identity beliefs between two different parties. Many of these conflicts have been arising from the Middle East but in some cases have also come from China. Countries can not sit by the sidelines and watch these violent conflicts unfold. On behalf of the Republic of Cuba, I am calling on other countries to address this impending issue. We have to note that these conflicts might stem from bigger roots and to solve these conflicts we have to pull those roots out of the ground.

Cuba believes that we should all take action on these sectarian conflicts. In the Middle East, conflicts have been around since the early modern era. This is because the early modern era is when Islam split up into two distinct groups. One group is the Sunni Muslim and the other group is the Shia Muslim. They have conflicting beliefs. This has led to many wars over the past few centuries. Now, the Muslim community is split up in two with Iraq and Iran being the only two countries that majorly support Shia Islam while the other countries and regions around it all majorly support the Sunni Muslim religion. This has led to very unstable political rule in these Shia Muslim communities. In these countries that are majorly supporting Sunni Muslims, there are still groups of Shia Islam. This led to many groups to arise and build militias further putting more fuel on this fire.

The first step that the Republic of Cuba will take is to work coherently with the UN to abolish these rebellions and ensure that these countries with unstable governments can develop into countries that are unified and can work together to achieve common goals. We need to do this by bringing in military troops from around the globe to help these countries become more stable. Once we achieve this we can then work on the next step of rebuilding their economy. Rebuilding their economy will greatly help them to get one step closer to a more modern country.

The Republic of Cuba recognizes that there is no simple conclusion or policy that will properly solve the growing ambitions of the world surrounding the sectarian conflict. Despite these growing conflicts Cuba believes that putting an end to these omnipotent conflicts will lead to a better world. Countries with an interest in de-escalating these sectarian conflicts must take similar initiatives to plan and make sure these conflicts get resolved. The Republic of Cuba calls on the nations of Argentina, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Gabon, Finland, North Korea, and Albania to ensure their priorities are in the best interest of the world as a whole. Furthermore, Cuba looks forward to working with these nations and all other parties to create a cohesive solution to tackle this pervasive issue.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 18:29:56

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: United arab Emirates
Delegate Name: Sanjna Bijoy

In recent years, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has made great strides in promoting social cohesion and coexistence among diverse populations. Reducing sectarian conflict in the UAE is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires a comprehensive understanding of historical, social and political dynamics.
To understand the current state of sectarian conflict in the UAE, it is important to examine the country’s history. The UAE is home to immigrants from a variety of cultural, religious and ethnic backgrounds. Indigenous people, mainly Emiratis, adhere to the Sunni branch, while the immigrant community includes Shia Muslims, Christians, Hindus and other important religious groups Historical contacts and coexistence of these communities have helped the rich fabric of UAE life has been shaped .
Sectarian conflict in the UAE is mainly a problem between Sunni and Shia Muslim communities. Most Emiratis follow the Sunni sect of Islam, but there are significant Shiite minorities, especially in the northern emirates. The historical and geopolitical factors shaping the wider Sunni-Shia divide in the Middle East also influence sectarianism within the UAE Regional power struggles between Sunni-majority states and Shia-majority Iran are warn internal and geopolitical tensions within the UAE have escalated, affecting their relationship – between relatives Sectarian conflicts occur and persist in the UAE due to many factors. These include historical grievances, geopolitical influences, socioeconomic inequalities, and external ideological influences. Historical grievances stemming from widespread Sunni and Shia divisions, geopolitical tensions in the region and the influence of transnational religious political ideologies sometimes exacerbate sectarian tensions within the UAE. Enhancement of emotions.
The UAE government has taken various measures to curb sectarian clashes and promote social harmony. One of the main strategies adopted by the government is the promotion of national identity and unity. Through education, the media and public discourse, the government emphasizes a common nation of all inhabitants, irrespective of their religion or culture. UAE leaders have consistently advocated for tolerance, coexistence and mutual respect as important values ​​in the country’s social fabric.
In addition, the government has created institutions and programs to facilitate interfaith dialogue and understanding. The establishment of the Supreme Brotherhood Committee in partnership with the Vatican is an example of the UAE’s commitment to fostering dialogue and cooperation between religious communities The country’s leadership has also helped build churches and other places of worship for communities non-Muslims.
The legal system in the UAE also reflects the government’s commitment to preventing sectarian conflict and promoting social harmony. The state constitution guarantees religious freedom and prohibits discrimination based on religion or belief. In addition, the UAE has enacted laws and regulations to combat hate speech, violence and incitement to discrimination, and create a legal system that protects the rights and dignity of all residents, regardless of religious affiliation.
While significant progress has been made in reducing sectarian conflict in the UAE, challenges remain, so there is always time for further development Geopolitical developments in the wider Middle East, socio-economic differences and the impact of external ideological discourse continues to challenge social cohesion in the UAE .
On the political front, ongoing diplomatic efforts to reduce local conflicts and foster dialogue between different nationalities and religious groups can have a positive impact on inter-community relations in the UAE Education can as well has played an important role, because curriculum reform, and educational programs that promote tolerance , diversity, and critical thinking can shape the attitudes and ideas of future generations.
Reducing sectarian conflict in the UAE is a complex and ongoing process, requiring constant efforts at governmental, social and individual levels Understanding historical issues, addressing underlying grievances, promoting dialogue and understanding, and promoting inclusive policies and can proceed in a way that the national commitment to tolerance, coexistence, and mutual respect is foundational, building a nation where regional differences are overcome by national identity and collective vision.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 15:29:28

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Belgium
Delegate Name: Ava Cousineau

Delegate: Ava Cousineau
School: Williamston High School
Country: The Kingdom of Belgium
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict

Throughout history, there has been sectarian conflict due to political, social, and religious issues. In the 1920s, Nagorno-Karabakh was established by the Soviet Union, located at the time in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. After declaring their intention to join the Republic of Armenia in 1988, the tension within the republics remained nonviolent. Since then, strained relationships have increased causing a war to outbreak between the two states. This war greatly impacted the citizens of Nagorno-Karabakh, leading to approximately 30,000 casualties, and an even greater amount of refugees. Russia arranging the Bishkek Protocol allowed for the nation to be independent. Although this issued a ceasefire recognized between Armenia and Azerbaijan, conflict and violence still persisted. This resulted in the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in 2020, and leads to the current conflict that faces the nations today.

Since the most recent attacks in Nagorno-Karabakh, the Belgian Foreign Minister, Hadja Lahbib, has visited the region to meet with both Armenian and Azerbaijaini representatives in an attempt to assist in de-escalation. While there, Lahbib expressed Belgium’s support for a peaceful end to this conflict with a diplomatic approach, hoping for a solution taking into account the best interest of the people. However, the President of Azerbaijan, President Ilham Aliyev, canceled the meeting as an act of protest. This being due to the Foreign Ministers statements over the conflict, showing the lack of support for a peaceful end to the conflict. Encouraging a peaceful solution, the European Union provides support for the end to the violence with dialogue and compromise, resulting in peaceful coexistence.

In an attempt to assist the disputing nations, and others, further, the Foreign Minister met with the United Arab Emirates Minister of Foreign Affairs Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to discuss deescalation of nations in conflict in the region. To help the citizens remain safe with the violence and rising tension, the two nations discussed the necessary operations to provide the people with the resources they require as well as humanitarian and medical aid needed. The diplomats also discussed the importance of assistance and coordination needed from other nations in the region to help restore and maintain the safety and security of the civilians in the areas of conflict.

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Kaycee Duffey 11/21/2023 14:29:35

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Gabon
Delegate Name: Samantha Kantor

Special Political Committee
De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Samantha Kantor, Forest Hills Northern High School

Sectarianism is a form of political, cultural, or religious conflict between two groups. It can lead to prejudice, discrimination, exclusion, or hatred depending on the political status quo and if one group holds more power within the government. The term sectarianism is defined as excessive attachment to a particular sect or party, especially in religion. It can arise from divisions based on denominations of a religion, ethnic identity, class, or region for citizens of a state and factions of a political movement. It can lead to violence, hatred, and intolerance between different groups of people. Sectarianism has been responsible for many tragedies throughout history, and it’s also responsible for so many tragedies occurring right now around the world.
The tragedy and violence of sectarianism can be seen through the devastating Rwanda Genocide. The Rwandan genocide occurred between 7 April and 15 July 1994 during the Rwandan Civil War. During this period, members of the Tutsi minority ethnic group, as well as some moderate Hutu and Twa, were killed by armed Hutu militias. The most widely accepted scholarly estimates are around 500,000 to 800,000 Tutsi deaths. The scale and brutality of the genocide caused shock worldwide, but no country intervened to forcefully stop the killings. Sexual violence was rife, with an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 women raped during the genocide. In the aftermath of the genocide, the Rwandan government enacted laws to encourage unity and restrict speech that could promote hatred, including laws on “genocide ideology” and “sectarianism”. These laws have been criticized for being vague and sweeping, and have been used to silence legitimate dissent.
Sectarianism is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted approach to address. Here are some steps that Gabon would like to take to combat sectarianism:

1. Education: Education is key to promoting tolerance and understanding. Schools and universities can play a vital role in teaching students about different cultures, religions, and beliefs. This can help to break down stereotypes and promote empathy and understanding.
2. Dialogue: Encouraging dialogue between different groups is essential to promoting understanding and reducing tensions. This can be achieved through community events, interfaith dialogues, and other initiatives that bring people together.
3. Legislation: Laws can be enacted to prevent hate speech and incitement to violence. However, it is important to ensure that these laws are not overly broad and do not infringe on freedom of speech.
4.Media: The media can play a powerful role in shaping public opinion. It is important to promote responsible journalism that avoids sensationalism and stereotypes.
5.Leadership: Political and religious leaders have a responsibility to promote tolerance and understanding. They can use their platforms to denounce sectarianism and promote unity.
Gabon acknowledges that there is no simple solution to the issue at hand, but there are some steps that we believe other nations should be taking. We believe that by educating people about tolerance and acceptance we can catch the problem at the source, so all nations should make a point to make sure their citizens are taught everything they need to know to be tolerable and accepting.

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Trevor Riley 11/21/2023 13:27:15

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Mozambique
Delegate Name: Faith Pawloski

As long as people have a difference in belief, religion, or political values, sectarian conflict will exist. Currently in Mozambique, an Islamic group know as ISIS-M continues to terrorize people in Cabo-Delgado. Because they are terrorizing both Christians and Muslims, it would be incorrect to describe it as a strictly sectarian conflict. However, the terrorists were only able to gain a foot-hold in Mozambique due to the unrest with the current government. With the police forces that should be protecting the people oppressing them instead, the outcome of violence should be expected when people feel their identity and freedoms are threatened.

The Cabo-Delgado conflict has caused a church to be burned to the ground, abductions, killings, and rape. Because of these, the U.S. has decided to intervene in this intrastate conflict and enact a “10 Year Strategy to Prevent Conflict.” All countries prefer to keep their sovereignty and it speaks to how dire the situation is in Mozambique that they are willing to accept help from the United States of America. This is due impart to the scandal when the government borrowed 2bn dollars which shook the trust of the local populace.

The delegation of Mozambique proposes that the UN first let the state in question attempt to resolve the conflict with their own forces and regulations; while not tied to sectarian conflict, the outbreak of cholera in Haiti is contributed to a UN force that went there after the earthquake im 2010. Because of the outbreak, 8,000 people died. However, UN intervention can also beneficial and essential. The UN should intervene after the domestic government has proved that it can not resolve the conflict and the identity any group or people’s natural rights are threatened.

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 08:09:17

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: China
Delegate Name: Lee Gerring

Delegate: Lee Gerring
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: People’s Republic of China
School: Williamston High School

Sectarian conflict is an arising and pressing issue among all countries. Sectarianism can arise from a connection to a political, cultural, or religious identity, and often a combination. At some points, sectarian conflict can occur if a group believes that its shared identity is under threat, or if a group believes that the success of its shared identity is dependent on converting others to the same set of beliefs. However, with an issue like sectarian conflict, it’s difficult to navigate as most groups perpetrating these acts are acting separately from the state’s government. This makes the influence of the United Nations become very limited. Another factor making it harder to regulate is the fact that the UN is against intervening with matters that are domestically related, however, some of these conflicts that might be happening domestically can still have international ramifications creating more and more issues all over the world.
The People’s Republic of China has a not-very-secret history with an issue like this. Ever since Mao Zedong had control in 1949, the country’s leadership has long sought to control religious groups. Currently, only five religious communities are considered lawful, these include Buddhists, Daoists, Muslims, Catholics, and Protestants, provided they are officially registered with the government. On the surface, the reasoning from China is simple: you must first be loyal to the state before any other deity. In the mid-eighteenth century, China had been intent on dominating and controlling Xinjiang, and the Qianlong emperor was committed to removing the Zunghar, nomadic people of Mongol origin. Another containment and civilizing mission was undertaken toward the end of the nineteenth century, an attempt to turn this Muslim region into a place of ancestor worship of sorts A more recent example of state violence against religion is the internment camps in Xinjiang where more than a million Uyghur, Kazakh, and Hui Muslims have been detained since 2017. Xinjiang is a police state with iris scans, GPS tracking systems in all vehicles, DNA collections from medical check-ups, and constant arrests being made all due to religion.
Now it’s known that the People’s Republic of China can not really justify their actions, they don’t have to. The Chinese Communist Party officials will point to China’s constitution, where in Article 36 they offer protection of freedom of religious belief under the idea that the state shall protect “normal” religious activities. When the state deems religious activities as “not normal, ” that allows for intervention. It is also important to note that there are no current actions being put in place within China to resist this sectarian conflict, and as of now there is no plan to create one. The Chinese Communist Party is an officially atheist form of government. Like the emperors before him, President Xi Jinping as head of the Communist Party sees citizenry as the utmost loyalty to the country and nationalism as a form of state worship. So as a result any guidelines put in place are seen as a threat to China’s more independent nature when it comes to domestic issues.

Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs. “Religion, Nationalism, and State Violence in China.” Berkley Center For Religion, Peace and World Affairs, 22 Mar. 2022,

“The State of Religion in China.” Council on Foreign Relations, Council on Foreign Relations, 25 Sept. 2020,
Delegate: Lee Gerring
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: People’s Republic of China
School: Williamston High School

Sectarian conflict is an arising and pressing issue among all countries. Sectarianism can arise from a connection to a political, cultural, or religious identity, and often a combination. At some points, sectarian conflict can occur if a group believes that its shared identity is under threat, or if a group believes that the success of its shared identity is dependent on converting others to the same set of beliefs. However, with an issue like sectarian conflict, it’s difficult to navigate as most groups perpetrating these acts are acting separately from the state’s government. This makes the influence of the United Nations become very limited. Another factor making it harder to regulate is the fact that the UN is against intervening with matters that are domestically related, however, some of these conflicts that might be happening domestically can still have international ramifications creating more and more issues all over the world.
The People’s Republic of China has a not-very-secret history with an issue like this. Ever since Mao Zedong had control in 1949, the country’s leadership has long sought to control religious groups. Currently, only five religious communities are considered lawful, these include Buddhists, Daoists, Muslims, Catholics, and Protestants, provided they are officially registered with the government. On the surface, the reasoning from China is simple: you must first be loyal to the state before any other deity. In the mid-eighteenth century, China had been intent on dominating and controlling Xinjiang, and the Qianlong emperor was committed to removing the Zunghar, nomadic people of Mongol origin. Another containment and civilizing mission was undertaken toward the end of the nineteenth century, an attempt to turn this Muslim region into a place of ancestor worship of sorts A more recent example of state violence against religion is the internment camps in Xinjiang where more than a million Uyghur, Kazakh, and Hui Muslims have been detained since 2017. Xinjiang is a police state with iris scans, GPS tracking systems in all vehicles, DNA collections from medical check-ups, and constant arrests being made all due to religion.
Now it’s known that the People’s Republic of China can not really justify their actions, they don’t have to. The Chinese Communist Party officials will point to China’s constitution, where in Article 36 they offer protection of freedom of religious belief under the idea that the state shall protect “normal” religious activities. When the state deems religious activities as “not normal, ” that allows for intervention. It is also important to note that there are no current actions being put in place within China to resist this sectarian conflict, and as of now there is no plan to create one. The Chinese Communist Party is an officially atheist form of government. Like the emperors before him, President Xi Jinping as head of the Communist Party sees citizenry as the utmost loyalty to the country and nationalism as a form of state worship. So as a result any guidelines put in place are seen as a threat to China’s more independent nature when it comes to domestic issues.

Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs. “Religion, Nationalism, and State Violence in China.” Berkley Center For Religion, Peace and World Affairs, 22 Mar. 2022,

“The State of Religion in China.” Council on Foreign Relations, Council on Foreign Relations, 25 Sept. 2020,

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WilliamstonDelegates 11/21/2023 07:47:10

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Denmark
Delegate Name: Jackson Harlan

Country: Denmark
Committee: SPECPOL
Topic: De-escalation of sectarian conflicts
Delegate: Jackson Harlan
School: Williamston High school

Sectarian conflicts are often seen as impossible to solve, with deep roots, and massive polarization between groups. This is especially true in the Middle East, where the problems seem more entrenched than ever before. From past trends it is most likely that the Middle East will continue to have a rise in sectarian conflicts, making it even more vital to create regulations addressing them. The real question is how far should these regulations go. Countries can not continue to sit by with intrastate conflicts with no progress towards peace or an end. It is also very vital to note oftentimes sectarian conflict leads to much bigger international conflict, causing tensions to rise in all parts of the world. Many of these problems have deep roots and it is clear more intervention from the United Nations is needed.

Action has been taken against sectarian conflicts, but they always lay within the power of the states. For example a resolution adopted in 2019 has little actual UN intervention and decides that the actual power lies with the states themselves. Many UN peacekeeping missions were sent out by the security council to try and end the conflicts as quickly as possible. The problem is the UN only has so much jurisdiction in the states themselves. The General Assembly has passed multiple resolutions reacting to sectarian conflict, such as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution passed in 1950. This really highlights how long this problem has really impacted the world. While there has been impact from these resolutions, sectarian conflicts continue to be just as prevalent as ever. Denmark is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) which makes them very active in fighting for human rights and against sectarian conflicts. Denmark is in full support, and works to fund programs regarding the problem. The problem is the polarization between groups is intense and complicated, and the infrastructure of the government in the area is too weak to maintain laws strict enough to enforce the laws put into place.
Denmark recognizes the current systems in place to de-escalate sectarian conflicts, while also noting the need for additional interference. Denmark is slightly familiar with sectarian conflict and has had issues trying to resolve it over the past few years. Denmark is known for its human rights progress and is a country who generally has a lot of religious freedom. Although the regulations in place are helpful, it is not enough. Denmark is very willing to send troops and/or hold peacekeeping summits to intervene. There must be more intervention from the UN in intrastate conflicts. Denmark recognizes this issue has layers and it is hard to know when intervention is needed. Therefore recommending implementing a new program with the purpose of peacekeeping within intrastate conflicts. Denmark understands countries may not be open to this idea meaning there must be consent from the country the conflict is taking place within. The program would also have to take a look at the structure of the government with the conflicts and evaluate if it is stable enough to prevent future conflicts and work to prevent international conflict. These conflicts will not end easily and it is necessary to take steps into intrastate conflicts and aid these countries.

“Danish Government Set to Criminalise Improper Treatment of Objects of Significant Religious Importance to Religious Communities.” News from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
“Denmark and Human Rights.” Denmark.Dk, Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
International Day Commemorating the Victims of Acts of Violence Based …, Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
“Peace and Security.” United Nations, United Nations, Accessed 15 Nov. 2023.
“What Causes Sectarian Conflict, and Can It Be Undone?” ABC Religion & Ethics, ABC Religion & Ethics, 17 Oct. 2019,

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Celia Kaechele 11/20/2023 13:32:52

Topic: 2023-De-escalation of Sectarian Conflict
Country: Rwanda
Delegate Name: Josh Machnacki

Sectarian conflict refers to hostilities between distinct religious or ethnic groups stemming from deep-seated differences. Such conflicts, rooted in historical, political, and social factors, can lead to violence and instability. These conflicts also contribute to significant humanitarian crises, displacements, loss of life, and prolonged social and political instability. It is for this reason the UN should quickly act to prevent and aid in resolving them as they arise.

Though an ethnic rather than sectarian conflict, the Rwandan Genocide of 1994 was a brutal and systematic mass slaughter that took place over a span of approximately 100 days. The conflict had its roots in longstanding ethnic tensions between the Hutu majority and the Tutsi minority. Triggered by the assassination of Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu, on April 6, 1994, extremist elements within the Hutu ethnic group initiated a genocidal campaign. Hutu militias targeted Tutsis and moderate Hutus, resulting in the massacre of an estimated 800,000 people. The international community & UN failed to intervene promptly and prevent the genocide. The aftermath of the tragedy left Rwanda deeply scarred. In March 1999 the UN Secretary-General commissioned an independent inquiry into the failed response of the UN to the genocide. The inquiry concluded that the main failure in the international community’s response was the lack of resources and political will, as well as errors of judgment as to the nature of the events in Rwanda.

Rwanda recommends measures are implemented by the UN to help swiftly prevent not just sectarian conflicts but all violent conflicts. Though the UN Charter states that the UN shall not “intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state,” Rwanda believes that the UN can and should intervene to stop violent conflict if it is clear the government(s) of affected areas need assistance in doing so. This aligns with the UN’s commitment to protect future generations from conflict. Additionally, if the government of a state is seeking to prevent UN involvment in a conflict at the expense of its own population it would be the duty of the United Nations to take action.

In conclusion, the Rwandan delegation emphasizes the urgent need for the United Nations to play an active role in preventing and resolving violent conflicts, whether they be ethnic, sectarian, or otherwise. As with the Rwandan Genocide, it is evident that timely international intervention can be crucial in averting humanitarian crises and loss of life. While respecting the principle of non-interference in the domestic affairs of states, Rwanda asserts that the UN should intervene in conflicts that pose a threat to populations. Furthermore, if a government is unwilling or unable to protect its own citizens, it is the duty of the United Nations to take decisive action to prevent further human suffering. The international community must learn from past mistakes and reinforce its commitment to the timely and effective prevention of violent conflicts for the sake of global peace and security.

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